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REV. S. M. ZWEMER, D.D., F.R.G.S. 



Published for THE NILE MISSION PRESS by the 


35 John Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 

New York: FLEMING H. REVKLL COMPANY, 158, Fifth Avbnue. 
India : CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY, Madbas and Calcltta. 



v. 4- 




Albania, the Key to the Moslem World 

'AH in Shi 'ah Tradition 

Al Manar, A Glance at 

Bahaism and Religions Assassination 
Bedouin, The Gospel and the 

Bengal, Islam in 

Bible Readings for Mission Hospitals 
Blessing of Discouragement, The . . 
Bulgaria, Conditions in 


..C.T.Erickson 115 
,.. W.A.Rice 27 
.. A. T. Upson 392 

... S. G. Wilson 

P. W. Harrison 

J. Takle 

... W. A. Rice 

The Bishop of Uganda 

... R.Thomson 

F. Ford, and C. Nairn 
Miss WatHng 

Conciliation, not Compromise G. F. Herrick 

Conditions in Bulgaria R.Thomson 

Constitutional Government in Turkey C. T. Riggs 

Converts, The Support of 

Miss G. Y. Holliday, G 

Dance for the Dead, The 

Dead Weight of Islam in Equatorial and Southern Africa 

W. J. W. Roome 
Dead Weight of Islam in the Western and Eastern Sudan 

W. J. W. Roome 

Desert Roses Miss Watling 

Dying Forces of Islam, The S. M. Zwemer 

Eastern Sudan, The Dead Weight of Islam in the Western and 

W. J. W. Roome 

Egypt, Islam and Magic in H. E. E. Hayes 

Egypt, The Woman Question in ... Miss A. Y. Thompson 

England, A Moslem Mission in H. U. Weitbrecht 

Equatorial and Southern Africa, The Dead Weight of Islam in 

W. J. W. Roome 

Glance at Al-Manar, A 

Gospel and the Bedouin, The 

Hamburg, The Kolonial Institut of... 
Hospitals, Bible Readings for Mission 














.. A.T.Upson 392 

P. W. Harrison 368 

W. H. Worrell 303 

.. W.A.Rice 375 

iv . INDEX 

Leading Articles — continued. 


Mam and Magic in Egypt H. E. E. Hayes 396 

Isl^m and National Responsibility : Russia 

Miss J. von Mayer 137 

Islam as a Missionary Religion W. St. Clair Tisdall 188 

Islam in Bengal 
Islam in Kashmir 

Kashmir, Islam in 

Key to the Moslem World, Albania, The 
Kolonial Institut of Hamburg. The... 

J. Takle 3 
...H. A. Walter 340 

...H. A. Walter 340 

C. T. Erickson 115 

...W.H.Worrell 303 

H. E. E. Hayes 396 
W. St. Clair Tisdall 295 

Magic in Egypt, Islam and ... 

Mare's Nest Again, The 

Missionary Occupation of the Southern Sudan, The 

D. N. Mac Diarmid 291 

Moslem IMission to England, A H. U. Weitbrecht 195 

Mysticism, The real Tendency of H. E. E. Hayes 157 

New Statistical Survey, A D. Westermann and S. M. Zwemer 145 

On Trout-Eishing C. T. Riggs 365 

Our only Gospel A.Watson 69 

Peking, The Present Status of Mohammedanism in C. L. Ogilvie 165 
Plea for the Use of Versions of Scripture and of other Literature 

in the Vulgar Arabic A.P.Smith 52 

Present Status of Mohammedanism in Peking, The 

C.L. Ogilvie 165 

Real Tendency of Mysticism, The H. E. E. Hayes 157 

Religious Assassination, Bahaism and S. G. Wilson 231 

Russia, Islam and National Responsibility 

Miss J. von Mayer 137 

Shi'iah Tradition, 'Ali in W. A. Rice 27 

Southern iVfrica, The Dead Weight of Islam in Equatorial and 

W\ J. W. Roome 273 
Southern Sudan, The Mssionary Occupation of the 

D. N. Mac Diarmid 291 
Sudan, The Missionary Occupation of the Southern 

D. N. Mac Diarmid 291 
Sudan, The Dead Weight of Islam in the Western and Eastern 

W. J. W. Roome 120 
Support of Converts, On the 

Miss G. Y. Holhday, G. F. Ford, and C. Nairn 246 

Tanta Mulid, The G. Swan 45 

Turkey, Conititutional Government in C. T. Riggs 20 



Leading Articles — continued. 


Vulgar Arabic, A Plea for the Use of the Scriptures and other 

Literature in the P.Smith 52 

Waqf "Jurist" 173 

Western and Eastern Sudan, The Dead Weight of Islam in the 

W. J. W. Roome 120 

Woman Question in Egypt, The . . . Miss A. Y. Thompson 266 


Bethel Conference, The Friedrich Wlirz 82 

Development of Mohammed's Personality, The R. F. McNeile 353 

Mohammedan Women of China, The Mrs. L. V. Soderstrom 79 

Popular Islam in Bengal and how to approach it ... J. Takle 379 

Results of the War in Bulgaria J. Awetaranian 407 

Woman in Islam M. Hartmann 258 


Afghanistan, A Christian Preacher in 

All-Egjrpt Conference, An 

Arabia, Captain Leachman's Journey through Central 
Arabic Newspapers and Journals, A Collection of... 
Area and Population of the Balkan States 
Armenia, A Searchlight on ... 
Armenia, Russian Occupation of 
Armenia, The only Hope of ... 

Armenia, Unhappy 

Asiatic Turkey, Reforms in ... 

Baalbek, Educational Conference at 
Bali and Sumbawa, The Call of 
Balkan States, Area and Population of the 
Bible for Burmese Moslems, The 

Bible Work in Sumatra 

Birds of a Feather 

Bishop of Lahore on Missions to Moslems, The 
Burmese Moslems, The Bible for 

Cairo Study Centre, The 

Calendar once more, The Koran and the 

Call of Bali and Sambawa, The 

Campaign for Moslem Childhood 

Can Islam help fallen Women ? 

Captain Leachman's Journey through Central Arabia 

Carlyle on Islam 















!N^otes on Current Topics — continued. 


Case against Japan, A ... ... ... ... ... ... 92 

Celebes, Mass Movement in Central ... ... ... ... ... 210 

Central Arabia, Captain Leachman's Journey through ... ... 414 

Changes in Morocco 309 

China, Missionary Progress among Moslems in ... ... ... 87 

Chi'istian Preacher in Afghanistan, A ... ... ... ... 314 

Christ's Tomb at Srinagar 417 

Collection of Arabic Newspapers and Journals, A. . . 421 

Commercial Matrimony ... ... ... ... ... ... 318 

Death of Christ, A Turkish Hymn on 413 

Dersim, the Cradle of the Kezelbash sect 421 

Earliest Contact of Great Britain with Islam, The 309 

Educated Moslem Women (Turkey) 203 

Educational Conference at Baalbek... ... ... ... ... 317 

Education of Moslem Women (India) , The 93 

Egyptian Nationalists, Good Advice to 315 

Emancipation of Womanhood (India), A Moslem Plea for the... 310 

England, Islam in 310 

Feminist Movement in Turkey, The 422 

French West Africa, An open Door in 420 

Good Advice to Egyptian Nationalists 315 

Great Britain with Islam, Earliest Contact of 309 


Hyderabad, Islam in ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 417 

Islam in England 310 

Islam in Hyderabad 417 

Islam in Japan 311 

Islam in Lagos 88 

Islam in Madagascar ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

Islam in Madras Presidency .. . ... ... ... ... ... 311 

Islam in the Philippines 206 

Islam and the S.P.C.A 308 

Is the Veil Islamic ? 210 

Italian Policy for TripoH 207 

Japan, A Case against 92 

Japan, Islam in 311 

Kaaba, The Washing of the 204 

Kashmir, The Moslem Artisans in 85 

Kezelbash sect. Dersim, the Cradle of the 421 

Koran once more, The Calendar and the 209 

Koran in Turkish, The 314 



Notes on Current Topics — continued. 

Lagos, Islam in 

Lucknow Conference Literature Committee, The 

Madagascar, Islam in . . . 

Madras Presidenc3^ Islam in 

Malaysia, The best selling Book in 

Mass Movement in Central Celebes ... 
Mass Movement in Southern Nigeria 
Mecca, Moslem University at 
Missionary Progress among Moslems in China 
Morocco, Changes in ... 

Morocco, The Population of 

Moslem Artisans of Kashmir, The 

Moslem Children and Mission Schools 

Moslem Childhood. Campaign for 

Moslem Missionaries ... 

Moslem Plea for the Emancipation of Womanhood, A 

Moslem Pubh cations in Russia 

Moslems agree that Islam is anti -Christian... 

Moslem University at Mecca, The 

Moslem Universities 

Mosque at Woking, England, The 

Nationahsts in Exile 

New Attitude towards Christianity in India, A 
New Hospital at Omdurman ... 

New Liberty in Tunisia 

New Step toward religious Liberty, A (Egypt) 
Nigeria, Railway Developments in . . . 
Nigeria, The Mass Movement in Southern . . . 

Omdurman, The new Hospital at 

Only Hope of Armenia, The 

Open-air Preaching to Moslems 
Open Door in French West Africa, An 

Persian Government aids Mission Hospital 
Persia, Russian Immigration to 

Persia, The Population of 

Philippines, Islam in . . . 

Population of Morocco, The 

Population of Persia, The 

Population of the Balkan States, Area and 

Psychology of Mohammed's Call to Prophetship 

Railwa}^ Developments in Nigeria ... 
Reforms in Asiatic Turkey ... 



Notes on Current Topics — continued. 

Russian Immigration to Persia 
Russia, Moslem Publications in 
Russian Occupation of Armenia 

Sarikat el Islam (Java) 
Searchlight on Armenia, A 
Senegal, The Wolofs of 
Srinagar, Christ's Tomb at 
Sumatra, Bible Work in 
Sumbawa, The Call of Bali and 

Tripoli, Italian Policy in 

Tunisia, New Liberty in 

Turkey, The feminist Movement in . . . 

Turkish Diplomas for American Doctors . . . 

Turkish Hymn on the Death of Christ, A ... 

Turkish, The Koran in 

Twice to Mecca and now preaching in South East 
Two Ideals and how to meet them, The 

Unhappy Armenia 

Veil Islamic ? Is the 

Wasldng the Kaaba ... 

Woking, England, The Mosque at ... 

Wolofs of Senegal, The 






















Actes du IVe Congres International d'Histoire des Religions 

E. J. Brill 
Adab ul Layaqa ... ... ... ... Mohammed Massood 

Annali dell' Islam ... ... ... Principe Leone Caetani 

Arabes en Berberie du XL au XIV. Siecle, Les 

Georges Mar9ais 
Au Pays Ghimirra ... Georges Montandon 

Balkans : a Laboratory of History, The 
Barbary Coast, The ... 
Beduinennamen aus Zentral-Arabien 
Berceau de I'lslam, Le 
Beyond the Pir Panjal 

...W. M. Sloane 

Albert Edwards 

J.J. Hess 

... H. Lammens 

E. F. Neve 




Calvaire de rislam, Le Mme. A. de Rochebrunne 218 

Cambridge Medieval History, The (Vol. 11.) 212 

Central African Parish, A E.C.Hudson 439 



Book Reviews — continued. 


Cents Pro jets de Partage de la Turquie ... T. G. Djuvara 431 
Condition de la femme dans la Tradition et I'Evolution de 

rislamisme, La M. Fahmy 322 

Ci-adle of Mankind, The W. A. Wigram and E. T. A. Wigram 434 

Crimson West, The K. V. Bey 433 

Danish Traveller in Arabia, A B. Raunkiaer 328 

Desert and Water Gardens of the Red Sea ... C. Crossland 437 
Documents Cartographiques de Geographic economique 

G. Michel et C. Knapp 425 

Early Development of Mohammedanism, The D. S. MargoUouth 323 

Egypt in Transition ... S . Lo w 440 

Einf iihrung in die hohere Geisteskultur des Islam 329 

El-'Aqud El-lu'lu'iyyah ... AUyyu'bn'ul-Hasan el-Khazrejiy^- 103 

Encyclopedia of Islam, The (Part XX. ) 428 

Essai sur TAdministration de la Perse ... G. Demorgny 325 
Examination of the Books of the New Testament, An 

M.T. Sidqi 215 

Faith of the Crescent, The . . . 
Forty -four Turkish Fairy Tales 
Fringe of the East, The 

J. Takle 329 

I. Kunos 327 

H. C. Lukach 219 

Ghulam Jabbar's Renunciation W. Goldsack 443 

Gospel according to the Jews and Pagans, The ... S.E.Stokes 214 
Government of the Ottoman Empire in the time of Suleiman the 

Magnificent, The L. H. Lybyer 217 

Governors and Judges of Egypt, The El Kindi 100 

Grammar of the Kurmanji or Kurdish Language E. B. Soane 434 

Habeeb the Beloved 

Histoire des Arabes ... 

Hukum en Nebi Mohammed 

Islam en Christentum 

Islam, France et Turquie 

Islam and Socialism 

Italy in North Africa 

Koran in Arabic and Javanese, The 
Koran Sharif (Arabic and Bengali) 

Life and Religion of Mohammed, The 
Lord Jesus in tlie Koran, The 

... W.S.Nelson 438 

C. Huart 101 

Count Tolstoi 105 

... J.C.Rutgers 104 

Y. Fehmi 105 

... S. M. Hosain 432 

... W.K.McClure 221 

H. A. Benjamins 428 

Fr. J. L. Menezes 432 

J. ShiUady 216 

Madagascar for Christ : Report of Deputation Visit in 1913... 220 
Man of^Egypt, The C.S.Cooper 221 


Book Reviews — contimied. 

Marriage Ceremonies in Morocco . . . 
Master Builder on the Nile, A 
Missions : their Rise and Development 
Mohammedanism in Malaya 
Mystics of Islam, The 


E. Westermarck 439 

Rena Hogg 441 

Mrs. Creighton 433 

"M. D." 221 

R. A. Nicholson 330 

A. Servier 99 

Nationalisme Musulman en Egypte, Le 

Near East : Dalmatia, Greece and Constantinople, The 

R. Hichens 219 
New Dictionary : English Arabic, The 
New Testament Documents, The . . . 

Orient and Occident 

Ottoman Empire, The 

Pennell of the Afghan Frontier 

Qur'anic Doctrine of Salvation, The 
Qur'anic Doctrine of Sin, The 

Reisebrief e aus Syi'ien 

Saints of Islam 


Sui Rapporti fra Diritto Romano e Diritto Musulmano 

E. A. EMas 103 
G. Milligan 214 

M.C.Mallik 218 
W. Miller 106 

A. Pennell 435 

W. R. W. Gardner 427 

W. R. W. Gardner 427 

... M. Hartmann 438 

... H. R. Sayani 102 

J.Takle 431 

E. Carusi 425 

Tarikh el-Fettach 

Turkey in Agony 

Turkic que Ton voit, La 

Turkish Memories 

Twenty-five years in Quo Iboe 

0. Houdas and M. Delafosse 430 

P. Lot! 220 

... L. de Launay 327 

S.Whitman 440 

R. L. McKeown 102 

Canon Sell 427 

Umayyad and the 'Abbasid KhaUfates, The 

Veiled Women 

Vorherbestimmungslehre im Islam und Christentum F. Ulrich 427 

M. Pickthall 220 

Wife out of Egypt, A 
Winning a Primitive People 
With the Turk in War Time 

N. Lorimer 105 

D. Eraser 326 

M. Pickthall 430 


Awetaranian, J. 
Bey, S.S. 
Dewairy, M. S. 
Erickson, C. T. 




CoNTBiBUTORS — Continued . 


Ford,G.F 251 

Gairdner, W. H. T 



Harrison, P. W 


Hartmann, M. . . . 


Hayes, H.E.E 




HolHday, Miss G. Y. ... 





... 106 

McClenahan, W. L. ... 


Mac Diarmid, D. N. ... 


McNeile, R. F 


Margoliouth, D. S. 


Mayer, Miss J. von 


Nairn, C. 


Ogilvie,C. L 


Rice, W. A 




Roome,W. J. W. 


Rouse, R. 


Simon, G 


Smith, P 

52, 100, 103 

Soderstrom, Mrs. L. V. 


Swan, G. 




Tisdall, W. St. Clair ... 


, 295, 323, 325, 429, 430, 434 

Thompson, Miss A. Y. 


Thomson, R 


Trowbridge, S. van R. 


Uganda, The Bishop of 


Upson, A. T 


Walter, H. A 


Watling, Miss ... 


Watson, A 


Weitbrecht, H. U. ... 


Westermann, D. 


Wilson, S.G 


Wingate, G 


Worrell, W.H. 


Wiirz, Fr 


Zwemer, S. M 

64, 113, 146, 2 

525, 337 (and many Reviews) 

The Moslem World 

Vol. IV JANUARY, 1914 No. 1 



The times are undergoing change, and to those working 
in the Moslem East, almost every month brings its 
witness to the fact. 

Not long ago a pla}^ was announced at the chief 
play-house of one of the great Moslem cities of the East, 
which was said to reflect in a remarkable fashion some 
of the thoughts that are agitating the Mohammedans 
who have been brought under modern influences. The 
subject was, to a large extent, the lot of Moslem women 
in marriage. One scene which provoked much applause 
represented a refined woman discussing with her lady 
friends, who had come to visit her, the delinquencies of 
her husband, his continual absence from home, the 
evenings w^asted in the saloons of the city, in gossip and 
worse. The chmax of the scene was reached when the 
wife said, " It comes to this, that if our husbands will not 
come home to us, we will go out to the coffee houses and 
bring them in ! " There was no irony in the applause 
that followed, and those who know the East best will 
best appreciate how far we have moved for that sentence 
and that applause to have become as much as possi- 

In another sceHe of the pla^y it comes out that an 
educated Moslem who proposes to the heroine, is already 
married. But is such a second marriage not legitimate 
by Moslem law ? Does not the holy Koran permit it ? 
With indignation and rising tones, she absolutely rejects 
him, and utterly refuses to share his love with another. 
(Great applause.) . . . Nay, to this points also the 
honourable text {aya sharifa) in the Book itself, for when 


it says, " Take in marriage of such as please you two, or 
three, or four," it says immediately thereafter, " But if 
ye fear that ye cannot act equitably between them, then one 
ONLY."* Thunders of applause followed : there was no 
need to draw the inference more explicitly. 

In other words, the Christian contention is openly 
asserted. It appeared to strike no one that pious Mos- 
lems, beginning from the Prophet and all his most famous 
companions, had attempted and failed to achieve this 
impossibility ; and that if the real command of the 
Koran is one only, then all those Moslems had broken that 

Tempora mutantur, and we nmst be ready to meet 
the changes. Sometimes w^e find desperate attempts to 
prevent and frustrate the exposure of Mohammed as 
moral ideal by a tu quoque to Cliristians as feeble as it is 
disgraceful and shockingly untrue. One of the men of 
the very class which applauded that speech (very likely 
he was himself one of the audience that night) has sought 
to take away the right of the Christ of the Gospels to be 
the moral ideal ; as if one said, " You have effectually 
taken away our prophet's claims ; but better no moral 
ideal than the Christians' ! " The most disgraceful in- 
sinuations and accusations, based upon some of the most 
delicate and beautiful incidents in the Gospels, are 
levelled against the Sinless One. 

Of course this only manifests the pollution of the 
mind that could conceive such things, or read such 
things into the clean text. But no ! it manifests also 
one thing a great deal more important, namely, that the 
position has been surrendered, and that all that is left 
for them is to strike gratuitously at the truth which could 
not be resisted. Omdurman had fallen ; but that did 
not prevent the mortally wounded Baggara from stabbing, 
with despairing viciousness, at the deliverers whose com- 
ing they had failed to stop. 

We must take even this as a sign of the changing times, 
and of victory for the principles of Christianity. 

W. H. T. Gairdner. 

* Sura,h iv. 4. 




With the beginning of the Slave Dynasty in the year 
1206 A.D., India became a Mohammedan Empire, and 
not a mere dependency as heretofore. Previously for 
two hundred years, adventurers, more ambitious tlian 
religious, had come campaigning from their mountain 
fastnesses during the pleasant months of the cold season, 
returning home at the end of spring. While absent from 
India, their favourites were appointed as viceroys to rule 
over the conquered areas. 

Mohammed Sahab-ud-din-Ghori, the last of these 
campaigners, at his death in 1206 A.D., held most of 
Hindustan in subjection. He had no child to succeed 
him, but he had favourite slaves of Turkish descent whom 
he had trained as his own sons. Three of these were 
acting as viceroys in the above-mentioned year : Eldoz 
ut Ghazni, Nasir-ud-din at Kubachi in Multan and Sind, 
and Kutb-ud-din Aibak in Hindustan. On the death of 
the Em.peror, his nephew ascended the throne and sent 
word to Kutb-ud-din that he should be King of India. 
The house of Ghor had practically brought the whole of 
Hindustan under its authority, but there were a few 
details to be settled such as the subjugating of Bengal. 
Mohammed Bakhtyar Khiiiji, a fellow slave, was the 
general whom Kutb-ud-din entrusted with this duty. 
He began by subduing the turbulent rulers of Bihar, 
who were the last of the Buddhist dynasty founded by 
Gopala in the ninth centur}^, and by slaughtering the 
monks of Okantapuri, and burning thousands of their 
valuable manuscripts. He then proceeded to plunder 
the wealthy of Bengal and conquer the three then known 
divisions called Rarh, Barend and Bangadesh. He 
secured the first two, entered Lakhnavati, where the 


Hindu Raja, Lachman Rai, was deposed, and where the 
first Moslem capital of Bengal was established under the 
new name of Gaur. 

From this centre, he began the Islamisation of Bengal 
and the building up of the Moslem power in the East of 
India. As might have been expected, his success wa& 
rapid and remarkable, for he had to deal not with fighting 
Rajputs but the timid Bengali people, and Hindu kings 
and others in authority yielded to him with compara- 
tivel}?- little opposition. The third division of Bengal, 
called Bangadish, now known as East Bengal, was 
subjugated by Mohammed Tughlak Shah, in 1330 A.D. 

The Mohammedan history of Bengal may be broadly 
divided into five periods : — 

A.D. 1203-1337. The conquest of Bakhtyar Khiliji, fol- 
lowed by the rule of several Nizam& 
appointed under the Ghori and Khiliji 
„ 1338-1538. Rulers set up independently of the 
throne of Delhi, some of whom were 
Hindus, but the majority Moslems. 
„ 1538-1576. Sher Shah and his Afghan successors^ 
ruled Hindustan, and placed Bengal 
under viceroys. 
1576-1725. Akbar wrested Bengal from the Af- 
ghans. It became a viceroyalty under 
Moghal Emperors. 
„ 1725-1765. Nawabs of Bengal, nominally under 
the Delhi Emperors. 
That the Mohammedans were strong in their position 
as rulers may be inferred from the fact that at the time 
of Akbar, that is in the sixteenth century, Bengal, for 
the purpose of Government, consisted of twenty-four 
sircars or divisions, one situated as far away as Sylhet. 
The combined landowners in these sircars, according to 
the Ai7i AJcbari, iiad to furnish, when called upon to do 
so, 23,330 cavalry, 801,158 infantry, 170 elephants, 4,260 
cannon and 4,400 boats. This force could be augmented 
by the army from Bihar, which numbered 11,215 cavalry 
and 412,350 infantry. A century later when Shaista 
Khan, the viceroy of Dacca, had to suppress a rising of 


the Mughs of Arracan, he was able to equip a fleet of 
700 war vessels and send an army of 143,000 men. 

What has the political strength of the Mohammedans 
of that period to do with Islam in Bengal to-day ? We 
think a great deal, but just how it helped to bring about 

the widespread and numerically strong community it is 
difficult to say. 

There are to-day more Mohammedans in Bengal than 
in any other province of India, and various hypotheses 
have been put forward to account for their origin and 
the cause for their preponderance. There is the foreign 


element. As all except five of the Mohammedan rulers 
of Bengal were of either Afghan, Moghal, Iranian or Arab 
origin, it will be evident that they must have had with 
them large companies of men — soldiers, government 
officers, favourites and adventurers — who, having left 
their women-folk at home, would marry the women of 
the places in which they happened to settle. The number 
of these from foreign parts was further augmented by 
those who were banished from Delhi and other courts. 
Sultan Mohammed Tughlak was so unscrupulous in 
oppressing Moslems who were not in his immediate circle, 
that they were glad to get away to Bengal to save their 
lives. Akbar banished many learned men and leaders 
of Islam in order to weaken their power. Further, 
emigration to Bengal was encouraged, and Syeds, eccle- 
siastics and men learned in the Koran, were given salaries 
and grants of freehold lands, as an inducement to settle. 
These tenures or Jagirs, given under royal Moslem grants, 
are still to be found in many districts in Bengal. 

With this data to go upon, certain people would have 
us believe that all the Mohammedans of Bengal, or at 
least the vast majority of them, are of foreign descent ; 
but the truth is that, while in every district there is a 
sprinkling of the Arab, Afghan and Moghal, the vast 
majority of the Moslems are from the primitive races of 
aborigines known as the Dasyan or Dravidian stock. If 
it were true that the Moslems of Bengal were all of foreign 
extraction, then we might expect all the districts in 
which the old capitals are situated to have a far larger 
proportion of Mohammedans than other districts some 
distance away, but this is not the case. They have fewer 
followers of the Prophet. Noakhali, skirting the Bay of 
Bengal, is many miles away from all the capitals, yet has 
a Moslem proportion of 76.8 per cent, of its population. 
A well-trained eye can distinguish the Moslem by his 

g. What a Government official says of one district may 
well be said of many another : " The high cheek bones, 
hooked noses and narrow faces, of many of the inhabitants 
of Chittagong town, proclaim their Arab origin . . . 
The muscular, bull-necked, strong-featured and thick- 


bearded dwellers of the chars (mud flats of the district) 
are very different creatures from the fleshless, hairless, 
inhabitants of the interior of the district." These are 
racial differences, showing that the foreign Moslem has 
left his mark in certain places, but it is only a marl?: ; 
for in a population of twenty-five and a half millions of 
Moslems in Bengal in 1901, there were not more than 
500,000 who called themselves Pathans, 20,000 Moghals, 
and only a few thousand Syeds. The strength of the 
foreign element cannot exceed one-sixth of the total 
number. We must look elsewhere for the cause of 
preponderance. It may be partially accounted for by 
the intermarriage of the Moslem conquerors with the 
conquered, but the vast majority consist of the de- 
scendants of converts who were driven into Islam by 
force of circumstances or by methods of persecution. 

In East Bengal, the proportion of Mohammedans is 
far greater than in any other part of the province, and 
it is now generally admitted that their forefathers were 
drawn from the miserable helots who had no name, fame 
or religion. In the steamy rice-fields and marshes of 
this part where the Indo-Aryan element had scarcely 
any sway, but where the Dravidian element with a strain 
of mongoloid blood was common, there the Moslems had 
a field for proselytising unequalled anywhere in Asia. 
The people were at that time animists. They knew some- 
thing of the Hindu caste system and the inhuman spirit 
which it fostered towards those not born of the favoured 
few, so it was reasonable that they should turn to the 
new faith which preached a universal brotherhood. 

Dr. Wise, in a paper in the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, says that " the enthusiastic soldiers, 
who in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries spread 
the faith of Islam amongst the timid races of Bengal, 
made forcible conversions by the sword, and, penetrating 
the dense forests of the eastern frontier, planted the 
crescent in the villages of Sylhet." Tradition still pre- 
serves the names of Adam Shadid, Shah Jalal Merjarrad 
and Karfatma Saheb, as three of the most successful of 
these enthusiasts. But there were not many widespread 
persecutions. " During the five and a half centuries of 


Mohammedan rule," Dr. Wise says, " we only hear of 
one wholesale persecution of the subject Hindus, and 
that was waged by Jallaluddin (a Hindu convert) from 
A.D. 1414 to 1430. The only conditions he offered were 
the Koran or death, and it is said that rather than sub mit 
to such terms many Hindus fled to Kamrup, and the 
jungles of Assam and Cachar ; but it is nevertheless 
probable that more Hindus were added to Islam during 
those seventeen years than in the next three hundred." 

But persecution of various kinds existed in different 
degrees nearly all the time. To give one instance. 
History relates that whenever any Hindu Raja or land- 
owner failed to comply with the Government demand for 
revenue, the authorities had a very effective way of 
dealing with him. He was brought to the capital and 
placed in '' Baikunta." This is the Hindu name for 
heaven, but in this case " Baikunta " was a well-like 
pit dug in the ground about the height of a man, in the 
bottom of which were placed ants, centipedes, snakes, 
dead animals and all manner of refuse. If the defaulter 
paid what was due, or in lieu thereof became a Moslem, 
all was well, but failing this he had to submit to the 
indignity of " Baikunta." 

That the majority of the people of the lower classes 
needed very little pressing, we can well imagine. All the 
favours were with the faithful, hence the advantage of 
joining the new faith. Barbosa, a European traveller, 
visited Bengal early in the nineteenth century and found 
Gentoo villagers in the interior, subject to the King of 
Bengal, who was described as a " Moor," whilst the 
seaports were inhabited by " Moors and Gentiles," and, 
he says, " Every day many Gentiles turn Moors to obtain 
the favour of the King and the governors." There is no 
doubt that if the English had not appeared, the con- 
version of the whole of Bengal to Islam would have been 
but a matter of time, but their advent brought a check ; 
and now while conversions are frequent among the out- 
caste Hindu peoples and certain others, Islam and its 
followers are viewed in anything but a favourable light 
by the vast majority of Hindus, who are daily becoming 
more Christianised in thought, speech and action. 



In dealing with the present statistical position of 
Islam in Bengal, we should first mention the changes 
made in the geographical boundaries of the Presidency 
during the last decade. In 1901 Bengal included Bihar 
and Orissa, and contained a population of 78,493,410 
persons. In 1905, Government finding it too unwieldy 
for administrative purposes, caused a partition of terri- 
tory, and East Bengal and Assam were formed into a 
separate province. As a result of a persistent agitation 
of a certain section of the Hindu community, this parti- 
tion was cancelled on the occasion of the visit of the 
King-Emperor to India in 1911 ; and on April 1st, 1912, 
Bihar, Chota Nagpur and Orissa were separated from 
Bengal and made into a separate province under a 
Lieutenant-Governor, while Assam reverted to its old 
form of independent Commissionership. This left the 
administrative divisions, known as the Commissioner- 
ships of Burdwan, Presidency, Rajshahi, Dacca and 
Chittagong, consisting of thirty districts and states 
belonging to West and East Bengal ; these linked 
together make up the Presidency, as at present consti- 
tuted, under a Governor in Council. 

Through this re-partition and transfer of territory, 
Bengal has now a population of only 46,305,642 persons, 
of which Mohammedans form 52.3 per cent., and out- 
number the Hindus (45.2 per cent.) by over three and a 
quarter millions. The actual figures for the Moham- 
medans are 24,237,228, of w^hich one-half belong to East 
Bengal, a little over a quarter to North Bengal, and 
slightly less than one-sixth to Central Bengal. 

The census of 1911 shows that Mohammedans are 
increasing more rapidly than the Hindus, but that 
increase comes far short of Christian progress. 

Comparative Statement of Increase in Population 






Christians . . 









The question arises, How is it that the increase among 
the Moslems is three times as great as among Hindus ? 
In the opinion of Government officials the more rapid 
growth is " due not to conversion but to greater fecundity. 
The contributory causes were found to be the greater 
frequency of widow re-marriage, less disparity in the ages 
of husband and wife, and more nutritious dietary and 
greater prosperity." The Census shows that there are 
two Hindu widows to every one among Moslems which 
proves that widow re-marriage among the latter i& 
common. Then of Moslem females aged ten to fifteen 
years, only 56 per cent, are married, whereas the pro- 
portion for Hindu females is as high as 67 per cent., 
which shows that early marriage is more common amongst 
Hindus, and, therefore, all the attendant evils must 
make a tremendous decrease in the growth of their 
community. Polygamy is of so small extent — only 
twenty-seven in each thousand having more than one 
wife — that its effect upon the increase is scarcely worthy 
of notice. 

The following figures a.nd accompanying map will 
give some idea of the distribution of the Mohammedans- 
of Bengal by districts : — 


West Bengal, 1,344 

Central Bengal, 4,809 


. 1,888 

24 — Parganas . 

. 3,613 


. 2,381 


. 2,696 


. 454 


. 5,953 


. 686 


. 5,197 


. 1,688 

Jessore . . 

. 6,186 


. 2,073 

North Bengal, 5 


East Benga^l, 6,755 


. 7,756 

Khulna . . 



. 4,884 




. 2,631 




. 356 

Faridpur . . 



. 6,578 




. 8,239 

Tipperali . . 


Pabna . . 

. 7,511 

Noakhali . . 


Maid a.. 

. 5,033 



Coocli Behar . 

. 3,079 



Hill Tracts / 


Hill Tipperah . 



Politically, the general condition of the Moham- 
medans of Bengal has improved during the last twenty 
years, though it is still deplorable. The Mohammedans 
were stagnant for many years after the British became 
the paramount power in India. They scorned alike the 
Government, its education, laws and all its Western 
methods. They had been the privileged people ; they 
had possessed the conqueror's right to the monopoly of 
Government and had enjoyed all the profits in the 
administration of the imperial taxes. They had made 
Persian the language of the court, and would not deign 
to converse in any other. But the new Government had 
changed all this, for English became the official language^ 
the mastery of which brought success to aspirants for 
office, and the taxes were now carefully deposited in the 
coffers of the Government treasury. The proud Moham- 
medans, descendants of a race of rulers, despised the 
new Government and its innovations, and the result was- 
disastrous for them. 

Sir W. W. Hunter, in The Indian Musahnans, draws 
a pathetic picture of the time. He says, " In every 
district the descendant of some line of princes sullenly 
and proudly eats his heart out among roofless palaces 
and weed-choked tanks . . . Others drag on a listless 
existence in patched-up verandahs or leaky out-houses, 
sinking deeper and deeper into a hopeless abyss of debt, 
till the neighbouring Hindu moneylender fixes a quarrel 
on them, and then in a moment a host of mortgages 
foreclose, and the ancient Moslem family is suddenly 
swallowed up and disappears for ever." 

This was written forty years ago but might apply 
still to certain families, though the majority of the better 
class Mohammedans have now a larger outlook. They 
have come to understand that Government will not help 
them unless they exert themselves, and that education 
of the sixth century Arabic mould will not suit the 
exigencies of the present time. As soon as a few enlight- 
ened men came to themselves, they became busy forming 
Leagues and Societies, and now branches of the Anjuman 
Islamia exist all over the Presidency, even in the most 
backward villages in the jungle. These societies, at 


present, are ostentatious in their professions of loyalty 
to the Government, but they are more loyal to the 
political interests of the community. They become 
active only when some boon is required of the authorities. 

Since the Hindu agitation, caused by the partition of 
Bengal, the Moslems have received man}^ favours from 
Government officials, and within the last generation have 
made considerable progress, but still suffer from the 
stagnant period through v/hich they passed. Their 
ability as students, clerks, politicians and men of affairs 
is considerably behind that of the Hindus. Perhaps this 
accounts for the fact that only 30 per cent, of the Moham- 
medans live in cities and towns as against 67 per cent, 
of the Hindus. It is evident that the Hindus take more 
readily to literary and commercial pursuits, while Mos- 
lems engage themselves in agriculture. 

The tendency of Moslems is to rely upon preferential 
treatment from the Government. Claiming kinship with 
some ill-starred family who were once in power, or who 
remained loyal at some critical time, applicants for office 
depend upon favouritism, and the branches of the 
Anjuman Islamia exist, too often, for no other purpose 
than to advocate the claims of such applicants for 
recognition and position. 

Socially, the community has had the misfortune to 
inherit the bad traits of both their Hindu and Moslem 
forbears. Caste prejudices have left their mark upon 
many. There are about thirty-five separate Moslem 
castes in Bengal. We use the term " caste " advisedly, 
for while in some cases the division is a clear differen- 
tiation of race, in others it means a kind of trade guild 
with a strong Hindu caste significance. In fact, in many 
instances, the functional groups have become so distinct 
that they will never intermarry, nor even dine together. 
Foreign descent still forms the highest claim to social 
distinction. As the twice-born Aryan is to the mass of 
the Hindus, so is the Mohammedan of alleged Arab, 
Persian, Afghan or Moghal origin to the rank and file of 
his co-religionists, although now, since many descendants 
of converts from Hinduism have by education and 
position sprung to the fore, they too are receiving more 



honour tlio.n formerly, and are even sought after for 
marriage with daughters of foreign extraction. With 
the increase of education the communities will still more 
intermingle, as have the Christian communities in the 
West. Islam in Bengal does not encourage its votaries 
in a literary life, but Government offers many induce- 
ments to a sound education at a comparatively small cost^ 
and there is a tendency in the direction of a more en- 
lightened course of study than formerly. Many minds 
have been disabused of the idea that the recital of the 
mere text of the Koran is a sufficient education for their 
boys, and as a result the number of schools where the 
Koran alone is taught is diminishing. For the whole of 
Bengal private schools for the teaching of the Koran 
alone have decreased from 5,729 with 68,043 pupils in 
1891 to 1,640 with 28,778 pupils in 1911. From this it 
is not our aim to prove that the study of the Koran and 
allied subjects is being neglected ; rather it has become 
a part of a more advanced curriculum in schools and 
madrasahs, the standard of which has been set by 

While the Hindus of Bengal contribute seven-tenths 
of the number of literates, the Mohammedans have barely 
three-tenths. The total number of Hindu literates is 
nearly two and a half millions and of Mohammedans one 
million, so that approximately there are two Hindus to 
every Moslem who know how to read and write. 


Number per Mille who are Literate 

No. per Mille Literate in English 


All Ages 

All Ages 







Moslem . . 
Christian . . 
European and 

other Christians 
Indian Christians 
Brahmo (Indian 

Buddhist . . 
Animist . . 



































Of the Mohammedans, the Syeds stand out as the 
•community with by far the largest number of literates, 
308 males and thirty-four females in each thousand 
being classed thus. 

The morality of the average Mohammedan is no 
higher than that of his Hindu neighbour. With regard 
to polygamy and divorce the idolatrous Hindu certainly 
stands on a much higher plane. The average Hindu 
wife's abhorrence of other wives deters her husband from 
polygamy, except in special cases where desire for off- 
■spring prevails, but the Moslem boasting of his religious 
;sanctions rather glories in his license to practise polygamy 
and divorce. And where the Hindu wife would protest 
even to suicide, the Moslem women acquiesce and con- 
sider it to be the will of Allah. Divorce, usually of a very 
irregular kind, is common amongst the lower classes, and 
concubinage amongst those who can afford it. 

Islam has very little influence for good on the non- 
Moslem communities. It is. a by-word in East Bengal 
that the average low class Mohammedan is an undesirable 
-creature, to be always avoided. He is never known to 
<}ontrol his temper in a discussion, and in a quarrel he is 
almost sure to use his bludgeon. Benga,li proverbs are 
common, giving tersely many a truth concerning the 
objectionable character of the average Moslem and his 
harmful domestic and other customs. 

The Bengali Mohammedan has practically nothing 
in common with his Hindu neighbours. That the reonce 
existed a blood-relationship he will often deny. He scorns 
to join with them in some form of nationalism ; his 
citizenship is in the heaven of Islam. He shares the soil 
with the Hindus, but his sympathies are with the Arab 
and Turk. He is so bigoted that he tries to dispense 
with Bengali, his mother-tongue, and many a man v/e 
have met who, though born and bred in a Bengal village, 
lias protested his ignorance of the language. The 
majority speak a ^patois which has Bengali as a basis with 
the interlarding of Arabic and Urdu words, and this is 
called Musulmani-Bengali. 

Although modern Hindu thought does not influence 
them, yet the ancient Hindu practices still cling to many. 


and prove their Hindu origin. They employ the Hindu 
astrologer to fix a luck}^^ da}^ for a marriage, or will pray 
to the village god to grant sons to their wives. Some 
even take goats to the shrine of the Hindu goddess Kali 
and hand them over to the Brahmin priest for sacrifice. 
Not to make such sacrifices is thought to endanger their 
own or a relative's life or health. In the matter of puri- 
fication and feasting on certain nights of the Hindu year, 
when idolatrous practices are engaged in, the illiterate 
Moslems follow the Hindus, and when questioned they 
say that their forefathers did these things for centuries. 

At one time this predilection for Hindu customs was 
considerably greater than at present. Bengal passed 
through a great revival which received inspiration from 
Wahabeeism. Concurrently, two reformers arose against 
Hindu customs. One was Hadji Shariat-Ullah, the son 
of a Moslem weaver of Faridpur, near Calcutta, who 
returned from a pilgrimage to Mecca about 1820, and 
began his crusade prohibiting the performance of all 
Hindu rites and participation in all Hindu religious 
ceremonies. He also forbade the preparation of Tazias 
for the Muharram festival, and the praying to pirs and 
prophets. He was very successful as a reformer, but his 
son and successor, Dudhu Myan, was even more so, 
acquiring a paramount influence among Moslems in 
certain districts. The other reformer with Waliabee 
tendencies was Maulana Karamat Ali, of Jaunpore, in 
the Patna district. His teaching was much the same as 
that of the other, with this principal exception : he held 
that the pirs possessed a limited power of intercession 
with God and encouraged the making of offerings at their 
tombs. We often meet Mohammedans who claim to be 
followers of these reformers. 

There were other leaders of the Wahabee persuasion 
who helped in the work of reform, and also in the spread 
of sedition, and therefore brought the Avhoie movement 
under the ban of Government. The term '' Wahabee " 
came to be associated with conspiracy and jihad, and 
strong measures had to be taken to suppress the dangerous 
element in the sect, and the leaders wisely adopted new 
names for their party of reform. To-day their followers 


assume one or other of two names, namely (1) Ahl-i-Hadis^ 
or the people of the traditions, so-called because they 
claim the right to an independent interpretation of the 
Hadith, (2) Ghair-Mukallid, meaning dissenters. They 
are also called Bafiyadin, because they raise both hands 
in prayer before genuflection and prostration, and fold 
them at the breast and not at the waist like the Sunnis. 

We feel that not only have these reformers been 
influential in purging Islam of heathenism, but the 
preaching of Christianity m^ust also have contributed 
considerably to the same end. 

R/ELiGiousLY, the people may be divided into four 
classes, (a) The minority, read in Western thought, who 
live on the border-line of orthodoxy and heterodoxy. 
(b) The orthodox, steeped in the Koran and traditional 
ideas, (c) The illiterate masses, who in addition to 
accepting the orthodox position, feed on distorted and 
unauthenticated traditions and superstitions often of 
Hindu origin, {d) The heterodox, who follow the teach- 
ing of the Pirs and Faqiis, and a corrupt form of Sufiism. 

The Mohamimedan who has made a fair study of 
English has usually advanced too far to accept any 
longer the faith of the common folk. His progressiveness 
is largely that of the Aligarh school of thought. His 
influence is not of much account, especially at home where 
his women-folk are invariably ignorant, and belong to 
the ultra-orthodox. When he does attend Friday 
prayers, or any other religious function, it is largely for 
the sake of appearance and not because of his belief in 
it. He has a social position to maintain. His neighbours 
know that he does not pray the prescribed daily pra.yers, 
nor keep the annual fast, but they look to him to take his 
place at high festivals. At meetings on social reform and 
education he will speak on the pernicious practice of 
divorce, concubinage and slavery, as if Islam had never 
known such things ; and he will even dare to demonstrate 
to the uneducated the absurdity of their superstition 
that the Koran will not burn by throwing some pages of 
the sacred volume in the fire ; but there is often lacking 
in this type that ring of true courage and sincerity which 
we might expect to find. After all, their tactics are 


mostly destructive and nothing more. These neo- 
Moslems are largely rationalistic. They are never tired 
of parading Syed Amir All's " Spirit of Islam " in their 
discussions on religious subjects. They would obliterate 
all mystery and miracle from religion and base all their 
ideas on human reason. 

The orthodox party are Sunnis of the Hanifite sect, 
who come under the direct influence of those Maulvies 
and Munshis, who spend their time in teaching the correct 
pronunciation and recital of the Koran and attending to 
the religious requirements of the community. These 
Maulvies are usually of a proud bigoted type, and, outside 
the narrow sphere of Moslem theology, are ignorance 
personified. They do their utmost to check westernising 

The religious ideas of the masses are based upon the 
wildest possible stories derived from traditional books. 
They are written in the worst form of Urdu — Bengali 
doggerel, and printed in books they call Puthies, These 
may be seen for sale in nearly every village market and 
can be obtained at an astonishingly cheap price. They 
cover such subjects as " The Faith of Islam," " Rules of 
Islam " and " Instruction in Religion." Guides to prayer 
and ablution, and how to repeat passages from the Koran, 
are numerous, as are books dealing with Iblis, Death, 
Resurrection of the dead, and the last Judgment. 

Pirs and faqirs are greatly revered throughout Bengal. 
Their religion is a crude form of Sufiism. Like the Sufis, 
they speak much of love and union with God under the 
figure of the lover and the beloved, and they sing and 
perform other ceremonies under the influence of some 
narcotic. They also practise the ascetic exercises of the 
Yoga system of the Hindus. The number of their ad- 
herents is increasing. 

The unseen is as real to the ordinary Mohammedan 
in Bengal as it is to the Mohammedan in other lands. 
The spirit-world is always more or less present to him, 
and it is filled with spirits, both helpful and harmful. 
Dead Pirs, or rather their spirits, have perhaps more 
power than living ones ; it would appear so from the way 
both Moslems and Hindus assemble at their tombs and 


call on them for assistance. Then the Wall or Awliya 
are always in the thought and speech of the people. It 
is all little less than polytheism, but at the same time it 
witnesses to man's felt need for mediation. The people 
also believe that there is a world of harmful spirits who 
by their destructive influence bring disease, trouble and 
death, on individuals, homes and villages. They are the 
bane of humanity. To check their influence and drive 
them out of individuals and from villages, professional 
exorcists are engaged who, by using texts from the Koran 
and other weird incantations, are supposed to remove 
all danger. Even Hindus engage these Moslem KanJcars, 
when cholera or smallpox breaks out in their midst, to 
remove the spirit of pestilence from them. 

Christian evangelism amongst these people has been 
carried on for many years, but not by any very specialised 
effort. The average missionary has been content to 
work along general lines of missionary propaganda for 
reaching the Hindu, Moslem or Animist who happened to 
come within range of his approach. The Mohammedan 
has, too often, been quite neglected, for he was found 
either too ignorant or truculent to deal with. Sometimes 
he has been misunderstood, at other times despised. 

It must be recognised, however, that for many years 
now there has been no lack of simple, direct and suitable 
literature for these people. In the translation and wide 
distribution of the whole Bible and portions thereof, in 
Bengali, and of the four Gospels in Musalmani-Bengali, 
a very real missionar}^ work has been done, the evangel- 
istic influence of which cannot be estimated. This has 
been seconded by the preparation and free distribution of 
hundreds of thousands of tracts in Musalmani-Bengali, 
dealing with a great variety of subjects interesting to the 
followers of the Prophet. Then, too, an interlinear 
edition of the Koran, in Arabic and Bengali, with a 
Bengali commentary written from a Christian standpoint, 
is being issued by the Christian Literature Society of 
India at a small cost, which enables those ignorant of 
Arabic to understand just what the book teaches. 

It is gratifying to be able to tell of quite a large 
number gathered into the Bengal Christian Church from 


Islam. In nearly every district there are to be found 
Moslem converts, and in most mission stations there 
are evangelists, catechists, teachers, colporteurs or other 
workers who have discarded Mohammed and consecrated 
their lives to the service of our Saviour. In one district, 
Nadia^ there is a Christian community, at least five thousand 
of ivhom are either converts or descendants of converts from 
the Mohammedan faith. 

These will be the first-fruits of a mighty ingathering 
if the different missions rise to a grand opportunity. We 
are looking forward to the time when they will set apart, 
in every Moslem area, well-equipped workers to grapple 
thoroughly with the problem of Islam in Bengal, and to 
lay down their lives, if need be, in the work of winning 
its many millions to Christ. John Takle. 



In looking back over the five historic years since the 
reinstating of Constitutional Government in the Ottoman 
Empire, the question rises in the minds of many : Has 
the new regime been a success, or a failure ? Has it 
made good ? Has the coup d'etat of July 23rd, 1908, 
proved worth the struggle of the following April ? The 
answer will only be reached after a review of the history 
of many disorders, involving the overthrow of ten 
Cabinets in five years ; of uprisings of Arabs, Druses, 
Albanians and Kourds ; of two foreign wars ; of many 
political murders ; and of several cholera epidemics. 

Glance at the state of the people under the Hamidian 
regime. There is no denying the fact that the hand of 
the " Red Sultan " was a strong one, and that when used 
in behalf of the proverbial " peace and tranquillity in 
the provinces," it could keep order where it chose. People 
did not then speak lightly of the Government ; and any 
revolt against its power was pretty sure to bring dire 
vengeance. Everything that occurred in the farthest 
province was heard instanter at the capital, and ven- 
geance on evil-doers (against the Government) was swift 
and sure. 

We cannot claim that as powerful an authority has 
been wielded by any cabinet, or group, or individual under 
the constitutional regime. Things have been more at 
a loose end than they used to be. There has not been the 
same respect for authority, nor has the government 
carried out its purposes as it should have done. More- 
over, the early promise of " liberty, equality, justice and 
brotherhood," has been sadly wanting in fulfilment : 


large numbers of innocent people have languished in 
prison as heretofore ; the press has been under severe 
martial restrictions, and many papers have fallen under 
the censorial axe. The policy of the Committee of Union 
and Progress has been Turkification rather than Otto- 
manisation. Arabs have not been treated as equal with 
Turks ; Albanians have received worse usage than Arabs ; 
and the Greeks and Bulgarians were finally rescued from 
Unionist misrule by Greece and Bulgaria ; while the 
Armenians still suffer under unequal treatment as be- 
tween them and their Kourdish neighbours. In the late 
Parliament, the milHon and a half Armenians had only 
ten Deputies ; the four or five million Greeks had but 
twenty-six ; the four million or more Arabs only about 
thirty, while the Turks with their eleven million popu- 
lation had one hundred and seventy-five. And this was 
called equality. There has never yet been an Armenian 
Vali over a single province, and only one or two Greeks. 
Moslems have every advantage over non-Moslems, both 
in the courts and as regards taxation. As for justice, one 
has but to recall the murders of Sami Bey, Zeki Bey, 
General Nazim Pasha, Lieutenant Niazi Bey, and 
Mahmoud Shevket Pasha, and to remember that no one 
was punished for any one of these crimes except the last, 
and that only because Shevket Pasha was a Unionist. 
The Government hanged twelve men for this one murder, 
one of them being an Imperial son-in-law. When an 
Armenian village in the eastern provinces is attacked and 
the sheep carried off, if the owner of the sheep tries to 
rescue them from their Kourdish captors, the government 
investigators arrest the Armenians and let the Kourds 
go free. This is Committee justice. As for brotherhood, 
the " brothers," who in Salonica and Monastir plotted 
for the overthrow of tyranny, have during the past 
twelve months been cutting each others' throats in and 
near those same cities, which are the bones of contention 
to-day for the dogs of war. Since the dethronement of 
Hamid, the Ottoman Empire has lost Bosnia, Herzego- 
vina and Bulgaria, all then vassal provinces ; and also 
Tripoli, Benghazi, Crete, Albania, Macedonia, most if 
not all of the ^Egean Archipelago, and a large part of 


Thrace. Worse still, she has lost on the battlefield the 
life-blood of hundreds of thousands of her young men, to 
say nothing of the thousands more who have fled the 
country to avoid a like fate. Can that regime be called 
a success, under which the Empire has been reduced to 
about half its former size, and has suffered so terribly in 
human lives ? 

Yet this is but one side of the picture. Abdul Hamid 
has been kept under very strict surveillance by the 
Government for the past four years and a half ; and 
there is not a thinking patriot to-day who would favour 
his return to power. With all their faults, the Constitu- 
tionalists have the mass of the people behind them as 
Hamid and the Yildiz camarilla never had. True, the 
liberty of to-day is not what it should be ; but what a 
contrast to what used to be ! If the prisons to-day 
contain righteous men, they at least do not bulge with 
the crowd of them. If papers are suppressed in these 
days, they at least can and do say thousands of things 
that they never dared to say ten years ago. They talk of 
decentralisation, of the rights of the Armenians, of the 
need of governmental reforms, of the just causes of foreign 
distrust, and kindred topics, any one of which in Hamidian 
days would have sent the editor into exile, if not into the 
Bosphorus. Dailies, weeklies, monthlies, comic papers, 
literary periodicals, etc., have sprung up like mushrooms. 
There are presses in every town of any size in the country. 
Many of our American colleges have their own papers, 
printed and circulated unhindered, whereas they used 
to be prevented from even seeing foreign periodicals. 
There is freedom of assembly ; why, it used to be 
imprudent for three men to be seen talking together at 
a street corner in Constantinople, for fear of being 
arrested for conspiracy. Prayer meetings in private 
houses were prohibited ; no meetings of an}^ Christian 
sort were allowed where the Government had not 
already recognised the existence of an organised 
Christian congregation. And as for a political gathering, 
the very name was scarcely known. Now, all these are 
common occurrences. 

There is still much to be desired in the equality line ; 


yet Moslems have learned that crimes cannot be as freely 
committed against Christians as they were previously. 
And a beginning has been made in recognising equality 
in the Government service. Justice, too, is more of a 
fact than it used to be. There are officials who cannot be 
bribed ; faithfulness has been known to find its legitimate 
reward. Men have more hope of being justly treated 
than they ever had before. 

Of material improvements there are many, and they 
are far-reaching. One whose effects are increasingly 
apparent is the adoption of the European system of time, 
whereby twelve o'clock is mid-day. Naturally this has 
been followed by a general toning up of the work of all 
departments ; trains and steamers run more regularly 
than was ever possible when the variable hour of sunset 
regulated everything ; clerks have to be more prompt 
at the Government offices, and even in the mosques the 
a la Franga clocks hang by the side of the d la Turka. 
The imperial navy has been reorganised. No one can 
fullv realise what this means, unless he saw the Hamidian 
navy. For twenty years, from 1878 to 1897, the fleet lay 
safely at anchor on the inside of two bridges in the Golden 
Horn, while the engines rusted away and tons of barnacles 
rested quietly on the hulls. The crazy joint of an old 
stovepipe, stuck out of the porthole of a man-of-war, 
with an old tin can tied under it to catch the sooty 
drippings, was the fit symbol of the whole management. 
But under the energetic lead of Rear- Admiral Gamble, 
Rear-Admiral Lympus and their corps of aides, the 
Ottoman fleet has taken voyages even in the Mediter- 
ranean ; and the name of the " Hamidieh " struck such 
dismay to the hearts of the Greeks in the late war that 
they had to mine the entrance to Piraeus harbour to 
protect their capital. Forty or so old hulks have been 
sold for scrap iron, and in their stead the new " Reshad- 
ieh " will soon grace the fleet, — the most powerful battle- 
ship afloat. Large and commodious steamers have been 
purchased for use as transports, among them the old 
White Star Liner " Germanic." Perhaps one had better 
not speak too much of the reorganised army, after the 
late disastrous campaign ; but it remains true that the 


soldiers are now better clothed, better housed, and in 
general better paid than they used to be. 

There has also been more railroad building than in 
any corresponding period of Ottoman history. Much 
has been done on the Baghdad railway ; new roads have 
been constructed from Tripoli to Homs in Syria, from 
Bandurma to Soma in Asia Minor, and from Baba Eski 
to Kirk Kilise in Thrace ; and all this in spite of war 
and rebellion and cholera. The irrigation works near 
Konia have opened thousands of acres to cultivation ; 
the new nickel coinage is a vast improvement over any 
previous one ; the Government has begun to send 
students in considerable numbers to European and 
American Universities for special study ; and thousands 
of useless clerks have been eliminated from the Govern- 
ment ofhces and their salaries saved.. Ambulances, 
motor-cars and real fire engines are becoming common 
sights in Constantinople, and there are electric trollej^s 
in Salonica and Damascus. The famous and infamous 
street dogs of Constantinople have been removed, albeit 
by a none too merciful process ; the new Galata Bridge 
is a joy to behold ; and. Oh, wonder of wonders ! 
Shakespeare's Hamlet, long forbidden entrance into the 
country because it spoke of killing a king, has been 
translated into Turkish by a Turk, and given in the 
capital by an Ottoman company. 

Too much should not be made of the material side of 
the development, important and far-reaching as that is. 
But there has been an even more striking ps3^chological 
development. Contrast the spirit and feelings of the 
people then and now. Where is that cringing fear, that 
abject grovelling in official presence that characterised 
absolutist times ? Men hardly dared call their souls 
their own, then ; for any high official could make away 
with them on the slightest pretext, or on none, and there 
would general^ be no investigation. Where is the 
servile fawning of the press, and the fulsome praise of the 
Sultan on every accession day ? Where are the endless 
and irritating hindrances to travel, both foreign and 
domestic, the utter blocking of all efforts at improvement, 
the impediments to commerce ? Where is the army of 


spies, more numerous at one time than the regular army, 
that grew fat off the most nefarious of trades ? Why, 
even foreign clergymen were most carefully watched by 
Hamid's minions, as were practically all foreigners. At 
the establishment of the Constitution, the chief of the 
bureau of spies, the notorious Fehim Pasha, was lynched 
by the people who had suffered so terribly at his hands. 
Men may be hopeless now also about improvement in the 
governmental system ; but they are not so paralyzed in 
their efforts to find a way out. Reforms in the official 
world have actually taken place ; and more are openly 
suggested. An Englishman is in charge of the customs 
administration ; a Frenchman has done much to intro- 
duce order into the financial bureau ; an Englishman is 
reorganising the navy ; and the advice of foreigners is 
not infrequently asked. The Opposition in Parliament 
may be weak, but it is a real Opposition, and freely 
criticises Government measures. The Department of 
Public Instruction may be poor, but it is more active 
than it ever was under Hamid. And, moreover, Moslem 
children and youths are now allowed freely to go to foreign 
and even missionary schools. 

And despite all testimony to the contrary, even in 
Avar times the prospects for trade are bright to a sur- 
prising degree. Consular reports published this year 
show that the year 1912 was in many respects a record 
year in exports and imports ; and everything points to 
an immediate and very large increase in business activity 
just as soon as war conditions cease. Another note- 
worthy fact is that standards of living all through the 
country are higher than ever before, and people have be- 
gun to put into practice more civilised and more hygienic 
ways of life. There is less actual misery, and more 
organised local charity and philanthropy ; and the 
general intelligence of all classes has risen far more in the 
past five years than probably in the previous twenty-five. 
While this progress may not be attributable to the 
activities of the new regime, the absence, — nay, the 
impossibility, — of such progress in the past was directly 
attributable to the stifling and deadening influence of 



Poor and incomplete as is its record, constitutional 
government has been at least a partial success, and not 
a total failure. In the opinion of the writer, it has been 
more of a success than of a failure, and the future is not 
all gloom. Only a fool or a knave would desire the 
return of Hamidianism. Let all get together and strive 
together to make the new system still more of a success, 
and to lift the country morally and spiritually to a higher 
plane. Charles Trowbridge Riggs. 




The Shi'ahs, as is well-known, have the very greatest 
reverence for 'All, — a reverence, which, if not greater, is^ 
yet more in evidence, than that which they show towards 
Mohammed himself. 'All's father, Abu Talib, and 
Mohammed's father, 'Abdullah, were brothers, so that 
Mohammed and 'Ali were first cousins. 'Ali married 
Fatimah, the daughter of Mohammed, from whom come 
the only lineal descendents of Mohammed. According 
to Shi' ah tradition, Mohammed designed 'Ali as his. 
successor, made him the repository of his wisdom and 
knowledge, and enjoined upon his followers the observ- 
ance of the rights of 'Ali and his House in the strongest 
possible terms. The chief point of dispute between the 
orthodox Sunni Mohammedans and the Persian Shi'ahs 
concerns this very point. The former maintain that Abu 
Bakr, 'Umar and 'Usman were usurpers, who kept 'Ali 
out of his just rights. The Shi'ahs, therefore, refuse to 
recognise them and curse their memory, and regard 'Ali 

* " The Life and Religion of Mohammed as contained in the 
Shi'ah Traditions of the Hyat-ul-Kuloob." Translated from the Per- 
sian by Rev. James L. Merrick, for eleven years missionary to the 
Persians ; Member of the American Oriental Society. Boston : Phillips, 
Sampson and Company. 1850. 

Mohammed Baqir Majlisi, the Persian author of this work, was born 
about the year 1627 A.D. He resided chiefly at Isfahan, then the 
Persian capital, and was in high favour at court, as may be inferred 
from his title, Majlisi, or member of the Royal Council. " His 
memory," writes Mr. Merrick, " is greatly respected, and his writings 
are regarded as the highest standards by the Persians. His tomb at 
Isfahan is still a sanctuary to all who flee to it for refuge." Majlisi 
left behind him a very large number of works, mostly dealing with the 
history, dogmas and practices of the Shi'ahs and their twelve Imams, 
or rehgious guides. The Hyat-ul-Kuloob (Life of Hearts) is one of the 
most famous of Majlisi 's works, and gives the life of Mohammed and 
incidentally the main doctrines of his religion from the Shi'ah 


as the first rightful successor of Mohammed. 'Ali's short 
reign of five years was full of warfare and troubles, caused 
by the opposition of the rival party of the Umayids, and 
ended with his assassination in the mosque at Kufah. 
'Ali's eldest son, Hasan, only reigned six months, and 
then abdicated in favour of Mu'aviyah, son of Abu Sufyan, 
and head of the rival House. Hasan's younger brother, 
Husain, was invited by a numerous faction among the 
inhabitants of Kufah to revolt against Yazid, the son of 
Mu'aviyah, who had succeeded his father, and started 
from Mecca with this object in view. But he w^as 
intercepted by a captain of Yazid's and slain at Karbala, 
with his household of seventy-two persons. Thus the 
temporal headship of Islam passed from the House of 
^Ali, and its place was taken by a succession of religious 
leaders twelve in number, known by the name of the 
Twelve Imams. 'Ali and his two sons, Hasan and 
Husain, are reckoned as the first, second and third in 
order of sacred hierarchy ; while the twelfth is the 
concealed Iman Mahdi, who it is believed will appear 
again at the end of the world. These Imams are regarded 
as inspired guides, the sources of divine wisdom and 
knowledge. The memory of 'Ali, whose best-known 
title is Amiru'l-muminin (Prince, or Commander of the 
Faithful), and his younger son Husain, commonly known 
as Saiyidu'sh-Shuhada (Prince of the Martyrs), has taken 
a very strong hold on the imagination of the Persians. 
Their devotion is maintained by the annual recitation of 
Passion Plays, depicting the death of Husain and his 
family and followers. The devotion of the Persians to 
'Ali is also evinced by the invocation of his name w^hen 
anything difficult or arduous has to be done, or when a 
man or an animal stumbles, etc. It is also often written 
as a lucky motto over shops or the doors of houses, and 
is a common cry of the dervishes or religious beggars. It 
is to be seen from afar blazoned in large white letters on 
one of the mountains overlooking Kerman. 

The exalted position held by 'Ali in the eyes of the 
Shi'ahs comes out very clearly in the Hyat-ul-Kulooh 
and in Mr. Merrick's book, which is in part a free trans- 
lation, and in part an abridgment, of the original Persian, 


with an Appendix containing many copious notes. The- 
perusal of either of these will give a very good idea of the 
religious ideas of the majority of the Persians, especially 
those which centre round 'AH. The subject is, therefore,. 
of considerable interest. And as the book is very scarce,, 
a brief account of the chief things which it has to say 
about 'Ali may perhaps prove not unwelcome. 

There are perhaps few places in tradition where a 
freer rein is given to the play of fancy than where it 
undertakes to throw light on the state of 'Ali before his 
birth. Mohammed said, " Myself and 'Ali were created 
one light, and we ascribed glory to God on the right side 
of the empyrean two thousand years before God formed 
Adam." Mohammed also declared that he himself (with 
'Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husain) was created before the^ 
creation of any other thing. God uttered a word from 
which He formed light. He then pronounced another 
word from which He formed spirit. He next tempered 
the light with the spirit, and then formed the sacred Five,^ 
who ascribed praise to God when there was no other 
existence to give Him glory. When God willed to create 
the universe, He expanded the " light " of Mohammed^ 
which was created from God's light and represents the 
soul of Mohammed, and from it formed the empyrean. 
Similarly after this the lights of 'Ali, Fatimah, Hasan 
and Husain were expanded, from which were formed 
in succession the angels, the heavens and earth, the sun 
and moon, and lastly from the light of Husain, Paradise 
and the Huris. Another account says, on the authority 
of Imam Mohammed Baqir, that the Most High formed 
Mohammed of clay, which clay was a gem under the 
empyrean. From the excess of the clay were formed 
in succession 'Ah, the college of Imams and the hearts of 
all the Shi'ahs. The compiler of the Hyat-uUKulooh 
remarks that the traditions about the creation of the 
lights or spirits of these exalted personages are numerous^ 
and discordant ! 

After the creation of Adam, the Most High caused the 
light of 'Ali to appear on Adam's middle finger, and the 
lights of the rest of the sacred family on his other four 
fingers. " The beaming radiance of these lights was like. 


the sun, so that the heavens and earth, and empyrean 
and throne, and the curtains of the tabernacle of greatness 
a,nd glory were by it illuminated." The light of Moham- 
med and 'Ali was placed in Adam's loins and transmitted 
from generation to generation through pure progenitors, 
until it came to their grandfather, 'Abdu'l-Muttalib, Avhen 
it was divided into two parts, Mohammed's light being 
placed in the loins of his father 'Abdu'Uah, and 'All's in 
those of Abu Talib. The Mohammedan light continued 
with Adam until the conception of Shith (Seth), when it 
was transferred to Hawwa (Eve). At the birth of Shith 
it shone upon his forehead, and in the same way it was 
passed on from one to another of the progenitors of 
Mohammed, until it arrived at the forehead of Mohammed 
himself. Before the conception of 'Abdu'Uah, and also 
•of Fatimah, the traditions relate that the father was 
made to partake of the water and food of Paradise by 
angelic or other agency : this being preliminary to the 
transference of the Mohammedan light. 

The coming of 'Ali was foretold by the astrologers 
and magicians of that epoch, and it is also alleged that his 
name occurs in the Sacred Books. In the age preceding 
'Ali there lived a very famous soothsayer, surnamed 
Satih. His body was destitute of bones, except the skull. 
He used to be rolled up like a garment, and taken wher- 
ever he wished to go, and then unrolled and laid on a mat, 
He surveyed the heavens almost incessantly, and took 
very little sleep. He was transported in a basket to the 
presence of Kings who wished to consult him. In his 
night vigils, he beheld fearful portents in the heavens, 
foretelling the advent of Mohammed and 'Ali, and 
conspired with Zarqa, queen of Yemen and the most 
famous magician of that country, who had also seen the 
heavenly portents, to quench the prophetical light before 
it should burst forth on the world. Arrived at Mecca, 
Satih conceals his real intentions from the chiefs of the 
Quraish, and foretells to the sons of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib 
the appearance of the illustrious chieftain and valiant 
champion 'Ali, whose name, he declares, in the Taurat 
(Pentateuch) is Siriya, in the Injil (Gospel), Iliya (Elijha), 
.and among his own people, 'Ali. This reckless identi- 


fication of Ali with Jliya, may be compared with the 
assertion that Mohammed is foretold under various names 
in the Scriptures. Ham, a demon, and alleged to be 
the great-grandson of Tblis (Satan), is also made to aver 
that 'Ali's name is in the Sacred Books. He was, it is 
said, the only true believer among the demons. One day 
he came to Mohammed in the guise of a gigantic man of 
terrible appearance and asked for religious instruction. 
Mohammed handed him over to 'Ali, at which Ham 
demurred. But on learning who he was. Ham was quite 
satisfied and remarked that he had seen his name in the 
Sacred Books, where he is called Iliya. 

High opinion is also entertained of 'Ali in heaven. 
Adam beholds the name of 'Ali with those of the other 
Imams inscribed upon the empyrean. During Moham- 
med's night journey to heaven (mi'raj), he beheld the 
similitude of 'Ali and the rest of the Imams on the right 
side of the empyrean, all performing prayers in a sea of 
light. 'All's similitude in heaven is created of divine 
light. At his martyrdom it appeared as if wounded, 
wherefore the angels who visit 'All's celestial likeness 
morning and evening, curse the assassin. 'All's image 
has been placed by God near the Sidratu'l-muntaha. 
This is the loto-tree of Paradise, the circumference of 
which is a hundred years' journey of terrestrial time : it 
has its roots in 'All's celestial palace, and one of its leaves 
would cover all the people in the world. God did this 
in order to satisfy the burning desire of the angels to 
behold 'Ali. They humble themselves and bow before 
the image. Whatever Mohammed, whose similitude is 
also in heaven, and 'Ali command, the angels perform ; 
and whatever they ask of God He grants. During 
Mohammed's night journey to heaven the angels inquired 
so particularly about 'Ali, that Mohammed began to 
conclude that 'Ali was better known in heaven than 
himself. The angel of death will not take the souls of 
Mohammed and 'Ah, but God Himself will do so. Mo- 
hammed beheld a personage in heaven whom he supposed 
to be 'Ali, and began to address him, whereupon Gabriel 
explained that it was an angel created in 'All's likeness, 
and when those angels who are privileged to approach 


near the Deity wish to behold 'AH, they visit that angeL 
The angels enjoy their exaltation by loving Mohammed 
and 'Ali. Those angels who helped the Mohammedans- 
at the battle of Badr, all had the form of 'Ali. The pre- 
vious prophets whom Mohammed saw in heaven, and 
questioned as to their exalted rank, replied, " We were 
raised up on account of your prophetical office, and the 
imamate of 'Ali, son of Abu Talib, and of the imams of 
your posterity." Mohammed and 'AH are the only 
prophets to whom God has given two of His own name& 
(Mahmud and 'Ala — i.e,. Praised and Most High). God 
spoke to Mohammed in heaven in the language or style 
of 'AH. The twelve Imams are declared by God to be 
His " proofs, vicegerents and friends." Mohammed said 
on one occasion, " God has sworn by His own holy 
nature, that whoever humbles himself before 'AH to the 
degree of a hair's breadth, thereby exalts his rank in 
Paradise a hundred thousand years' journey." When 
'AH once expressed his very great affection for a certain 
chapter of the Koran (Surah 112), Mohammed exclaimed, 
" Verily, were it not that I fear a sect of my followers will 
say of you, what the Nasara (Christians) affirm of 'Isa 
(sc. the divinit}^ of Jesus), I would this day declare some 
things in your praise, so that you would pass no company 
that would not gather the dust on which you tread, for 
the blessing it confers." This show of caution, however, 
has not prevented the natural consequences of the 
extravagance of the traditions concerning 'AH. The 
Persian sect of the 'Ali-Ilahis maintain that the Deity 
was incarnate in 'AH. In Luristan, among the Kurds, 
in the district of Kermanshah, and among the tribe of 
Hazarah, scattered about Kabul and Qandahar, are 
found members of this sect, or of the kindred sect of the 
Nusairis. Nusair, as the Shi'ahs say, addressed 'AH as 
divine, and was smitten to death by him for the blas- 
phemy. Upon 'All's prayer, at the earnest request of 
the relatives, Nusair was restored to life, when he imme- 
diately exclaimed, " O 'AH, I believed you to be divine 
before, but now by your restoring me to Hfe I know you 
to be Deity." 

It is asserted moreover that whenever 'AH fought in 


the cause of God, Jibrail (Gabriel) attended him on his 
right, Mikail (Michael) on his left, and Israfil in rear, 
while the " angel of death " ('Izrail) marched before him. 
The great idol Hubal in the Ka'bah prostrates itself on 
its face before Mohammed and testifies to the imamate 
of 'Ali. On different occasions rocks, trees and a lizard 
salute 'Ali by his name and titles, testify to his imamate 
and proclaim his glory and excellencies, or declare the 
felicity of his friends and the fate that awaits his enemies. 
More marvellous still, there was a thorn-tree of the 
desert, which had grown to an enormous size and ex- 
hibited other astonishing properties after Mohammed 
had poured at its foot the water with which he had 
performed his ablutions and gargled his mouth. At 
Mohammed's death this tree cast its fruit, but subse- 
quently yielded fruit, although smaller and less delicious. 
After a period of thirty years its fruit fell again, little of 
its verdure was left, and its beauty departed, and soon 
the intelligence arrived of the martyrdom of the " Com- 
mander of the Faithful." On the day of Husain's 
martyrdom it became perfectly dry, fresh blood sprang 
up under it and bloody water distilled from its leaves. 
At the death of 'Ali, angels were sent down to assist at 
the funeral preparations and the interment, as was the 
case also at the decease of each succeeding Imam, as well 
as of Mohammed himself. 

'Ali is, of course, reputed to have performed many 
miracles, most of them in conjunction with Mohammed. 
Certain infidels were raised to life at 'All's prayer, and 
bore testimony to him. In answer to a challenge from 
some of the unbelieving Quraish, 'Ali at Gabriel's com- 
mand cursed ten of them, who immediately became 
afflicted with gangrene, leprosy, blindness, palsy and 
convulsions, but were healed on repeating a prayer asking 
for cure for the sake of Mohammed and 'Ali and their 
pure family. The stores of wheat, barley, dates and 
raisins, belonging to an unfilial young man, were changed 
to putrid masses, and his mone}^ to stone, by Mohammed 
and 'Ali. At the prayer of 'Ali in the name of Mohammed 
and his family, a camel spoke and disclosed her master's 
crime. At 'All's prayer a stone was transmuted to gold 


to pay a debt owed by a distinguished Mohammedan to 
a Jew. 

'AH's deeds of prowess are also solemnly recorded. 
At the defeat of the Mohammedans at Uhud (Ohod), 
'Ali's valour was conspicuous. When his sword was 
broken, Mohammed gave him his own weapon " Zu-1- 
faqar," with which 'Ali slew all who attacked Mohammed. 
'Ali received ninety, or, as some traditions say, forty 
wounds all in front. At Khandaq, 'Ali kills the infidel 
champion, 'Amir, by stratagem. Having distracted his 
attention, he cut off both his legs at a single blow. During 
the expedition against the Bani Mustalaq 'Ali drove a 
clan of jins, " like Zinkis " (Zanzibaris or negroes), from 
a certain wadi where they had taken up their abode. At 
the conquest of Khaibar, besides other deeds of strength 
and bravery, 'Ali slays the Jewisli champion, Marhab, 
his second blow cleaving the stone ring on the helmet of 
Marhab, the helmet itself and his head, crying as he did 
so, " AUahu akbar." At 'Ali's prowess the angels in 
heaven shouted in astonishment, and Gabriel was com- 
manded by God '' to sustain the excess " of that Hashim- 
like blow, lest it should cleave the earth in twain. " The 
blow," said Gabriel, " fell vastly heavier on my wing 
than the weight of the seven cities (which Gabriel, when 
ordered to destroy the people of Lot, took up from the 
earth and carried up on a single feather of one of his 
wings), notwithstanding the fact that Michael and 
Israfil both caught 'Ali's arm in the air to check its 

'Ali was sent on different missions by Mohammed. 
There was a certain tribe of jins, called the Bani Bijah, 
living beneath the ground. Some of them became 
believers, and quarrels arose about water and pasturage 
between them and their unbelieving brethren. So 
'Arfatah, one of the jins, came in the midst of a whirl- 
wind to solicit Mohammed's intervention. When he 
disclosed himself his appearance was most strange, as 
he had much hair, a high head, prominent eyes which 
opened laterally, small eye-sockets, and teeth like a 
beast of prey. Undeterred by the messenger's unpre- 
possessing appearance, 'Ah accompanied him, ojffered the 




unbelieving jins three conditions, and on their rejection 
slew eighty thousand of them, whereupon the rest of 
them became Musalmans. On another occasion 'AH was 
sent to Yemen with a letter from Mohammed, and in 
one day the whole tribe of Hamadan became Moham- 
medans, and the conversion of the rest of Yemen followed. 
God once gave Abraham an ark in which were cells 
for ail the prophets and all their wazirs. Abraham broke 
open the cells, and in the last found Mohammed, by whose 
side was 'Ali, represented by a gigantic portrait beaming 
with light, and with his hand resting on Mohammed's 
girdle. On the portrait was the inscription, " This is 
the similitude of the wazir of Mohammed, and who is 
aided by divine victory " (? help). In answer to Abra- 
ham's inquiry, God declared that Mohammed and 'Ali 
were blessed and made immaculate, and chosen with 
their offspring before creation because of the goodness 
and purity of their hearts. Mohammed will deliver to 
^Ali " the banner of praise," which he will receive from 
God. Under that standard will be marshalled every 
prophet, righteous person and mart3^r, all of whom 'Ali 
will conduct into Paradise. 'Ali is the gate of the city of 
knowledge, the gate of Mohammed's wisdom, which he 
will spread abroad. Before sending him on his mission 
to convert the people of Yemen, Mohammed gave to 
'Ali, who was diffident on account of his youth and 
inexperience, a slight blow on the chest, saying, " O 
Lord, guide his heart ! " After this, 'Ali affirmed that 
he never afterwards had the least doubt respecting any 
judgment he pronounced. 'Ali, when weighed in scales 
brought from heaven against the whole multitude of the 
Moslems, outweighs them all. Mountains salute Mo- 
hammed and assure him of victory over all his enemies 
with the aid of 'Ali. He is so stalwart a champion of the 
faith that were all the inhabitants of heaven and earth 
to become infidels, God by him would sustain the true 
faith. One day a rude Arab named Bura greedily 
partook of a poisoned shoulder of mutton, which had 
been placed before Mohammed, before being invited to 
do so, and died in consequence. After the funeral, at 
Avhich 'Ali prayed that God would forgive Bura, Mo- 


hammed assured the relatives that a magnificent inherit- 
ance was Bura's in Paradise, and added that the Most 
High declared that " if Bura's sins had exceeded in 
number the sands, particles of dust, drops of rain, leaves 
of trees, hairs of animals, glances of their eyes, their 
breathings, motions and steps, all would have been 
pardoned at the prayer of 'Ali." On the other hand, if 
a man were to pile up good works till they reached the 
empyrean, and still harboured an atom of enmity to 
'Ali, his only reward from God would be that of ven- 
geance. It should, however, be noted that, in spite of 
all the exaggerated praise of 'Ali, Mohammed's precedence 
is safeguarded in many places. Nor can 'All's sinlessness 
be maintained in the face of such a tradition as the 
following, which says that Mohammed saw in similitude 
all his sect, and addressing 'Ali said, " I saw and implored 
forgiveness for you and 3^our Shi'ahs." 

According to Shi' ah tradition, Mohammed took great 
care during his lifetime to secure a pre-eminent position 
for the sacred famil}/, which besides himself included his 
daughter Fatimah, her husband 'Ali, and their two sons 
Hasan and Husain. Only these were permitted to par- 
take of the table sent down from heaven to Mohammed 
laden with viands and fruits of Paradise. After the con- 
quest of Mecca, Mohammed sent heralds to the Christians 
of Najran amongst others, summoning them to embrace 
Islam, pay tribute or prepare for war. Upon this a 
controversy ensued at Najran, and a deputation was sent 
to wait upon Mohammed, the chief point at issue being 
whether the Christians or Mohammedans were right in 
their opinions about Jesus, the latter holding Him to be 
no more than a prophet. At last it was decided to make 
an appeal to God, and invoke His curse on whichever 
party lied. At the time appointed, Mohammed took with 
him to the ordeal only 'Ali, Fatimah and their two sons, 
next to Mohammed " the most exalted of mankind," 
and sat down with them under a cloak which had been 
spread over two small trees and the space between them 

The night after Mohammed's death, God sent an angel 
to comfort the bereaved family with the consideration 


that all must die, and the assurance that they were 
particularly chosen and favoured by the Lord. 

At the Day of Judgment all men will have to pass 
over the bridge named Sirat. In the Haqqu'l-Yaqin, 
another of Majlisi's works, it is said that a part of this 
bridge, in length three thousand years' journey, is 
excessively difficult. Mohammed and 'Ali will be the 
first and second to pass it. And none will pass it without 
great difficulty except Mohammed and 'Ali and the 
family of the prophet, who will traverse Sirat together 
*' like the leaping lightning." 

Various instances occur where blessing and help are 
said to have been received through the invocation of 
blessings on Mohammed, 'Ali, and the sacred family. 
It is asserted that Adam, after his fall, through humbling 
himself before Mohammed and his family, was saved 
and delivered from his fault and shame and dishonour ; 
and by taking refuge in the name of the spirits of Moham- 
med and his family, Adam enjoyed the utmost degree of 
safety and pardon through them. 

From the traditions cited in the Hyat-ul-Kuloob, after 
making every allowance for later additions and exag- 
geration, it seems clear that Mohammed used every 
means in his power to secure the succession for 'Ali. 
Mohammed declared that Gabriel, when he descended 
from Heaven with Michael and Israfil to invest Moham- 
med with the prophetical office, pointed out 'Ali to 
Israfil as Mohammed's " brother and successor." When 
the people of Medina objected to 'Ali being left in charge 
there while Mohammed was absent on a military expe- 
dition, Mohammed consoled him with the consideration 
that he was his brother, holding in respect of him the ranl^ 
of Aaron to Moses, and that he would be Khalif ah among 
his people. Mohammed associated 'Ali with himself in 
the sacrifices he offered in his last pilgrimage to Mecca. 
During the return journey Mohammed halted at a place 
named Ghadir-i-Klium at which caravans never stopped, 
as it had neither water nor pasturage. The express 
object of this was to solemnly inaugurate 'Ali as his 
successor, in accordance with the divine command. The 
pack-saddles of the camels were piled together to form a 


sort of pulpit (some traditions say it was of stone), and 
Mohammed ascending this made a long oration to the 
people, and in the most explicit terms announced 'Ali 
as his successor. " Know ye then," he said, " people, 
that the Lord of the universe has ordained 'Ali your prince 
and ruler, your imam and leader, and has made obedience 
to him obligatory on Muhajarin and Ansar (*.e., those 
who accompanied Mohammed on his flight from Mecca 
to Medina, and those of the citizens of Medina who 
espoused his cause), on citizens and inhabitants of the 
desert, on Arabs and 'Ajamis (i.e., Persians), on free and 
bond, small and great, white and black, on all who 
worship God in the unity of His nature. Over all these 
the authority of 'Ali extends and his orders reach. 
Whoever disobeys him is accursed, and all that render 
him due obedience shall enjoy the mercy of God," — and 
much more to the same effect. The covenant was then 
solemnly ratified by the leading Mohammedans and the 
whole multitude of those present, by shaking hands with 
Mohammed and 'Ali. After his return to Medina, 
Mohammed authoritatively commanded all his wives to 
render obedience to 'Ali as his successor, and spoke much 
about the same subject in his addresses to the people 
and in many assemblies. Mohammed further declared 
that, when he met his followers after the Resurrection 
at the fountain of Kausar, he would demand of them 
what their conduct had been towards the two great things 
he had left among them, viz. : the book of God and his 
family. And during Mohammed's last illness 'Ali was 
again pointed out in the plainest terms as his successor 
and khalifah. 

Mohammed further tried to remove from Medina 
before his death those whom he knew to be opposed to 
'All's succession, some four thousand in number. He 
accordingly ordered them to retire to the frontiers of 
Syria, and appointed Usamat-ibn-i-Zaid their general. 
So unwilling were they to start, that they had to be 
forcibly compelled to quit Medina. But all Mohammed's 
careful plans proved to be of no avail. While the army 
was still in the neighbourhood of the city, Mohammed 
was attacked with what proved to be his last illness, and 


Abu Bakr and 'Umar, who were kept informed of the 
progress of Mohammed's sickness by 'Ayishah, returned 
secretly to the city. The very next day Abu Bakr, being 
informed by his daughter that neither Mohammed nor 
' Ali would be present to lead the public morning prayers, 
takes upon himself to do so. Mohammed, hearing of 
this, with extreme difficulty made his way to the mosque, 
signed to Abu Bakr to retire from his place, and began 
afresh the prayers that Abu Bakr had already com- 
menced. At the very time that 'Ali was filling up 
Mohammed's grave, the news was brought that Abu 
Bakr had been formally constituted khalifah or successor 
to the " prophet." 

In fact, whatever the reason was, the majority of the 
Musalmans were evidently determined not to have 'Ali 
as Mohammed's immediate successor. He was com- 
paratively young, being only about thirty-three years of 
age at the time of Mohammed's death, and famous for 
his witty speeches. Perhaps it was felt that he had not 
the necessary force of character to cope with the serious 
situation created by Mohammed's death, when the whole 
future of Islam was at stake. Many of the converts to 
Islam had lost relatives slain in battle by 'Ali, and they 
may naturally be supposed to have cherished no very 
friendly feelings towards him. The headship of Islam 
merely from a worldly point of view offered a splendid 
prize to the rude Arab. Quite apart from the other 
considerations just mentioned, this is quite enough to 
account for the fact that the most able and ambitious of 
the elder Moslems had no intention of forfeiting their 
chances of so enviable a position by allowing themselves 
to be at once and permanently set aside through 
acquiescence in the claims of 'Ali and his House. Indeed, 
Abu Bakr and 'Umar are stated to have made a league 
before Mohammed's death, the first article of which was 
to set aside 'Ah. At any rate the weight of the opposing 
faction was too strong for him, and not all the influence 
of the " prophet " himself, backed by several portents 
which were reported to have been seen after his death, 
indicating 'Ali as the rightful heir and the rival party as 
usurpers, were able to turn the scale in his favour. 


The memory of the three first Khahfahs, Abu Bakr, 
'Umar and 'Usman, is execrated by the Shi'ahs on 
account of their having kept 'Ah out of what they regard 
as his right. This detestation finds expression in the 
tradition that during the expedition to Tabuk twenty- 
four men, among whom were Abu Bakr and 'Umar, 
Abu Sufyan and Mu'aviyah, conspired to assassinate 
Mohammed, and in another tradition to the effect that 
'Ayishah and Hafsah, the daughters respectively of Abu 
Bakr and 'Umar, poisoned Mohammed. 

In spite of his martial valour and eloquence of speech, 
indications appear even in the Shi' ah traditions of the 
unpopularity of 'Ali, if not of actual contempt felt for 
him. Jealousy on account of his special intimacy and 
close relations with Mohammed is not an adequate 
explanation. When 'Ali accompanied 'Arfatah to the 
country of the jin below the earth, the hypocrites 
exulted in his supposed death and said, " Al-hamdu-lillah 
(Praise be to God !) God has delivered us. from Abu 
Turab " (a nickname, signifying, ' father of dust.') When 
Mohammed started on the expedition to Tabuk, leaving 
'Ali in command at Medina, the hypocrites were much 
scandalized, and taunted 'Ali with having been left 
behind lest he should bring misfortune on the expedition. 
'Ali, therefore, took his arms and followed Mohammed to 
Juraf, where he was consoled by him and persuaded to 
return ; but on the way back an attempt was made 
against his life. 

'Ali was only ten years old when Mohammed assumed 
the prophetical office. Fourteen years after this 'Ali 
married Fatimah, one year after the Hi j rah. She was 
the only child of Khadijah, who was born after Moham- 
med announced his mission, and was nine years old at 
the time of her marriage. Mohammed and 'Ali were 
inseparable companions. 'Ali said, " I w^as always with 
him, following him as a child does its mother, and he 
daily augmented my knowledge." " His light," said 
Mohammed, " was transmitted with mine through pure 
progenitors, he is partner in all the excellencies conferred 
on me . . . the first to embrace Islam, with whose aid 
I fear not the opposition of all others." At a feast, when 


invited to eat before 'Ali, Mohammed says, " The Most 
High makes no such distinction between me and 'Ali. 
He created us one hght, and our friends and enemies are 
the same, hkewise our joys and sorrows, and 'AH will eat 
when I do." Before the assumption of the prophetical 
office, when Mohammed was in the habit of retiring to 
Mount Harra, for prayer and meditation, it was 'Ali with 
Khadijah who alone marked the significance of these 
things and the future prophet's growth in divine love 
and knowledge and all that is praiseworthy and excellent. 
'Ali was the first to be instructed by Mohammed in the 
ceremonial prayers and ablutions. When Mohammed 
invited his near relations to a feast in order to announce 
his mission to them, he proclaimed that the first believer 
should be his khalifah, brother, coadjutor and successor. 
All the others remaining silent, 'Ali rises and accepts the 
offer, but is told by Mohammed to resume his seat, as an 
older mxan may perhaps come forward. None, however, 
does so. The invitation is three times repeated, accepted 
by 'Ali, and ratified by the prophet, and the company 
disperse laughing. All through the Mecca period, when 
Mohammed was looked upon as mad, foolish, bewitched 
and in league with Satan, 'Ali faithfully stood by him, 
and he was also cheered by the tenderness and consola- 
tions of his wife, Khadijah. Once Mohammed and 'Ali 
were pelted with stones by Abu Lahab and a mob in the 
streets of Mecca. When Mohammed was proclaiming 
his mission at the time of pilgrimage, and was driven away 
by a mob to mount Abu Qubais, it was 'Ali and Khadijah 
who went to seek him, found him and brought him home 
at night, and defended him in his house from the missiles 
of his enemies. When Abu Talib took Mohammed and 
the rest of the Bani Hashim and retired for safety to the 
defile called after him the defile of Abu Talib, fearing 
that an attempt might be made on Mohammed's life, he 
caused him to sleep part of the night in one place and part 
in another, and made 'Ali sleep the first part of the night 
with Mohammed so that the blow of any intending 
assassin might fall on 'Ali. Similarly, 'Ali slept in Mo- 
hammed's place and cloak the night he fled from Mecca. 
Mohammed refused to enter Medina until 'Ali arrived : 


this was the beginning of Abu Bakr's jealouvsy of 'AH. 
In 'Ah's expedition against the Bani Zubaid he appro- 
priated to himself a girl who should have been reserved 
for the " prophet " himself. On complaint bemg after- 
wards made to Mohammed, he declared that whatever 
was his was likewise 'All's. 

'Ali was entrusted with the performance of all the last 
offices for Mohammed after his death. He is to wash 
the corpse with six sacks of water brought from the well 
of Ghars, to wrap it in special robes with embalming 
perfumes ; and then to seat the body upright, when it 
will answer all his questions. Of the camphor brought 
from Paradise by Gabriel for Mohammed's obsequies, 
Mohammed reserves one-third for 'Ali. Mohammed gave 
him his armour, clothing, animals, and also his ring, and 
appointed him his executor. During his last illness 
Mohammed is nursed by 'Ali with the greatest tenderness 
and devotion. He lies with his head in 'All's lap. When 
sitting, 'Ali supports him. Day and night, 'Ali scarce^ 
ever leaves him. Mohammed calls for his friend and 
brother, and is only satisfied when 'Ali comes : he presses 
him to his bosom and communicates to him a thousand 
chapters of knowledge, each one opening into a thousand 
more. On the day of his death Mohammed repeatedly 
said, " Call the beloved of my heart." He took him 
under his coverlet and imparted mysteries and secrets to 
him, " till at length the bird of his sacred spirit sped its 
flight to its nest in the empyrean of mercy." Shortly 
before his death Mohammed gave various injunctions to 
'Ali, and among other things bade him endure patiently 
the violence which awaited him in this world. When 
the " Prophet " had breathed his last, 'Ali announced his 
death to those around. In washing and burying the body 
'Ali was assisted by Gabriel, the angels, and the Holy 
Spirit (Ruhu-1-Quddus), who is declared by the Imam 
Mohammed Baqir to be an angel superior to Gabriel and 
Michael. The Most High caused 'Ali to hear their con- 
versation, which was a charge by Mohammed, and an 
engagement by the angels, to protect and aid the 
" Commander of the Faithful " ('Ali). 'Ali performed 
the funeral prayers, and afterwards permitted the com- 


panions of the " Prophet " and all the people to enter 
the house in tens, and recite the following verse from the 
Koran, " Verily God and His angels bless the prophets 
0, true believers, do ye also bJess him and salute him 
with a respectful salutation " (Sur. 35, Ahzab, 56). After 
the body was laid in its last resting-place, 'Ali enclosed 
the grave with brick, filled it up, and poured a quantity 
of red pebbles on it. 

Concluding remarks, — We cannot wonder at the hold 
such a hero has taken on the imagination of the Persians. 
But we are astonished at the dimensions and elaborate 
details of the structure which has been raised on such an 
insecure and untrustworthv basis as that of biassed 
tradition. This, however, presents no difficulty what- 
ever to those whose stock of religious beliefs is supported 
and sustained from this dubious source. For the tradi- 
tions, on which they rely, are by the Shi'ahs traced either 
to Mohammed or to one or other of their twelve sinless 
Imams. And every such tradition, handed down on 
what is considered respectable authority, carries with it 
the weight of an inspired revelation. With regard to 
themselves the Imams declared that whatever was as- 
serted in their praise, provided only that divinity was not 
ascribed to them, fell short of the whole truth concerning 
their glory and dignity, — a licence of which the very 
fullest advantage has been taken. It is hardly too much 
to say, that the more incredible the assertion made on 
such unimpeachable authority, the more worthy of belief 
does it appear to the all too ready credence of willing 

From the Christian standpoint there is much that 
an enlightened religious consciousness looks for, and looks 
for in vain in this ideal 'Ali ; and the omissions are fatal. 
There is in him no true sense of the defilement of sin, or 
desire for growth in holiness and in likeness to God. The 
chief groimd of acceptance with God is correct belief 
with reference to the Deity and His reputed messengers. 
This, it may be remarked by the way, presents a curious 
contrast with modern Western thought, where there is 
a marked tendency in the opposite direction, and a dis- 
position to regard a man's life as the supreme test of his 


religion, and, if the life be adorned with the beauty of 
goodness and virtue, to regard it as unnecessary and 
almost impertinent to inquire from what religious source, 
if any, this goodness and virtue spring. In the famous 
prayer of Kumail, which was taught him by 'Ali, there 
are indeed abject confessions of sin and reiterated sup- 
plications for mercy and pardon : but one of the believer's 
chief claims upon God's compassion and forgiveness is 
his confession of the Unity of the Godhead, — a thing 
which was all very well for the pagan and idolatrous 
Arabs who embraced Islam, but which sounds singularly 
antiquated and insufficient in this present age as a 
ground of appeal to the divine mercy. In place of the 
actually realised salvation and peace of the Christian, the 
pathetic prayer ascends, " Have mercy on one whose 
resource is hope, and whose weapon is weeping." 

The Shi'ahs have adopted the cult of 'Ali and Husain 
and deliberately and persistently reject the Scriptural 
revelation of Jesus Christ, both as regards His divine 
and human personality and His work of atonement and 
mediation. These truths, intelligent! 3^ understood and 
embraced, can alone satisfy some of the strongest crav- 
ings of the human spirit. The heart yearns for a guide of 
such transcendant merit as to be worthy of all confidence, 
capable of satisfying the highest aspirations, and able to 
bridge the gulf between the seen and unseen. With all 
its natural and inevitable limitations in certain directions 
not essential to its main purpose, this is what the Chris- 
tian revelation really and truly does for countless num- 
bers of humble, seeking souls. The nemesis of rejected 
truth, as in so man}^ other cases, has overtaken the 
Shi'ahs. If the truth once for all revealed is not appre- 
hended, whether through ignorance, neglect or prejudice, 
the restless heart perforce seeks to satisfy its needs in 
some other way, and is liable to be ensnared and en- 
slaved by every form of specious error. 

Ispahan, Persia, W. A. Rice. 



The greatest religious concourse in Egypt is held each 
year at Tanta, about a month after the summer solstice — 
the time when the Nile has risen to its full height, and 
just before the dams are cut to let the water into the 
high level canals. This is significant as pointing to an 
ancient and purely Egyptian origin of this festival. I 
believe there are records that go to prove that it has 
been held continuously from extremely early historical 
times, and also that it was visited and described by 
Herodotus, but at the moment am unable to verify these 
facts. The estimated attendance is nearly always given 
as 500,000, about twice as great as that of the highest 
record at Mecca. But those who go to Tanta are not all 
religiously minded ; for not only is it a religious festival, 
but also a fair at which produce, more especially agricul- 
tural produce, is sold, and where recreation can be found 
which only a very few years ago was of a very grossly 
sensual order, although to-day Christian ethical standards 
have so permeated governmental circles that such things 
are no longer permitted. Consequently the attendance 
at most Mulids has greatly decreased. As yet there is 
no sign of diminution in the yearly attendance at Tanta, 
although we must add to the moral restraint the fact that 
the Mulid no longer has its former value from a trade 
aspect, increased facilities of communication making it 
unnecessary. Discounting, therefore, as much as we can 
the religious significance of the Mulid, we must still come 
to the conclusion that it is the principal factor in this vast 

To those who have lived in Egypt any length of 
time and mixed with the Moslem masses, this is not 
difficult to understand, the reverence paid to Sayyid 
Ahmed-el-Bedawi being almost like that paid to a 

*Popular pronunciation Miilid ; classically Maulid. 


deity. Practically, their love for him surpasses their 
attachment to the prophet, though none would admit 
this. All over Egypt vows are made to him and 
animals sacrificed in fulfilment of vows. When one seeks 
for the reason of this remarkable infatuation, it is hard 
to find. He is the least attractive, to our Western minds 
at least, of ail the founders of Dervish Orders. Of the 
other three, who are always classed with him by the 
Egyptian populace as the greatest of all saints, 'Abd 
el-Qadir el-Gilani had many winning characteristics and 
was a real lover of mankind, with a very sane mind, 
judging from his writings, and with sufficient marvel 
wrapped round him b}^ tradition to attract the popular 
mind. Ahmed el-Bifa'i was a most attractive figure, a 
lover of animals, a great ascetic, very humble-minded, 
and the possessor, according to tradition, of marvellous 
powers, especially over snakes. Ibrahim el-Dissuki was 
famous as the founder of a great '' tongues movement " — 
always a very attractive feature for those who have a 
craving for divine manifestations. Many of his utter- 
ances, taken down by his companions, are available 
to-day, and bear a striking resemblance to the best of 
such records of " unknown " tongues recently recorded 
in Western lands. 

Ahmed el-Bedawi, however, is of the low, vulgar. 
Yogi type of saint, a man who never took off a gar- 
ment to wash it, but wore it till it rotted off his back, 
an ecstatic rather than an ascetic, a man whose miracles 
read like those of the vulgar miracle-monger, whereas 
those of his three compeers sound more like the common 
phenomena of mysticism which are to-day easily placed 
by the science of psychology. Even to this day this type 
is venerated by the lower orders of Egypt, but not, I 
think, sufficiently to account for the extraordinary 
devotion to es-Sayyed (the lord) as he is affectionately 
termed. Personally, I think we must look for the reason 
in an old fundamentally Egj^ptian religion, which first 
became superficially Christian and then superficially 
Islamic. Now it does not take much imagination to see 
in the ceremonies connected with the Mulid, the worship 
of Ra, the Sun-God — its three anniversaries (for there are 




two other less important celebrations in the year in 
addition to the great festival) are all solar dates connected 
with the rise and fall of the Nile, thus reminding us of 
the cult of Osiris. 

El-Bedawi arrived in Egypt about 1236 in response 
to a vision. On arrival he mounted the roof of a private 
house and there stared into the sun until his eyes, all red 
and sore, became like two fiery cinders. For forty days 
he took neither food nor drink, but would remain for long 
periods absolutely silent, and at others would give way 
to prolonged fits of screaming. He seems to have 
suddenly entered into this life of ecstatic fanaticism when 
he was about thirty years of age, at Mecca, where the 
family had migrated from Fez when he was still a child. 
Until this crisis in his life, he seems to have been a 
merry, dare-devil kind of youth, noted as one of the 
boldest horsemen in Mecca ; hence his title of Bedawi. 
In estimating his influence on Egypt, we must not neglect 
the historical element. He arrived when the house of 
Saladin was crumbling to its ruin, the oppressions of the 
Mameluke Emirs w^ere already being felt, and taxation 
for the Crusades and the Syrian wars was bearing heavily 
on the people. Such times have always been favorable 
to the growth of mysticism. Later, when the Turkish 
Mamelukes came into power, the ^Ulema (scholastics) 
came into power with them, and were not backward in 
using their authority to oppress the Sufis. Mysticism 
thrives on oppression, hugging it to its bosom and 
welcoming it as an aid to the " Way " to God. The 
Bedawi cult has everything in its favour, and when, 
towards the end of his life, he won over that most romantic 
figure in the sultanate of Egypt, el Zahir Baibars, it was 
as if the movement had received its crown. One of his 
most noteworthy miracles illustrates the period. A 
mother, whose son was a captive with the Franks, 
petitioned el-Bedawi on his behalf. After a brief prayer 
the son appeared before all present, still wearing his 
chains, and el-Bedawi handed him over to his mother. 
At the Mulid this year there was a villanous looking 
faqir wearing heavy metal rings around his neck, which 
we took to be a commemoration of this miracle. 


Let me try to give the reader a visual picture of the 
MuHd, as some of us from the Cairo Study Centre saw it 
this year. To enjoy it to the full, you must travel there 
third-class, probably standing all the way. Even then 
you may have to climb over living bodies in order to find 
space for your feet. But what a merry, good-tempered 
crowd it is ; how full of affectionate ejaculations addressed 
to the Saint ; how full of stories of the blessings received 
in answer to supplications addressed to him, of frightful 
dreams that have led them to vow a sacrifice to him, — 
all these stories showing that in their joys and in their 
sorrows, in all the more intimate affairs of their family 
life, it is to el-Bedawi that they turn. One would not, of 
course, get these confidences if suspected to be an un- 
believer, but a fez is quite sufficient to change a European 
missionary into a Moslem pedlar of Manchester goods 
and, with some knowledge of their more idiomatic speech 
and a little of the policy of William the Silent, one can 
become the repository of confidences that greatly help in 
unveihng the real self, the thought-life of these people. 

On entering the Mulid grounds, which cover a vast 
area, one passes in the first instance the tents of those 
who would lure the " pilgrim in the Way " to forsake the 
life of asceticism and to sink into the mire of " forbidden 
things." These lures consist of two enormous circuses 
under canvas, with little more than a suggestion of 
sensuality displayed outside, with the usual blare of brass 
as a bait, and many minor shows of a kind common the 
world over. Next we pass the mercantile part of the 
fair, and then come to a large oblong open space devoted 
to the great firework display under the aegis of the 
Government. This space is surrounded by highly ornate 
marquees, where official receptions and Koran readings 
take place. But the true spirit of the Mulid is not to be 
found here. We pass up a long avenue of less pretentious 
tents, some belonging to dervish orders, but for the most 
part occupied by charm writers and other professors of 
white magic, a practice admittedly allowable in Islam 
and an integral part of the mystical system of the 
dervishes. At the end of this avenue we come to a vast 
open space, in the centre of which is a large pole with 




lanterns suspended from it, and here is the very heart 
of the MuHd, for it is round this pole, called the Sari, 
that all the invisible hierarchy of Moslem saints is con- 
gregated, and round this pole, the more devout, those 
who have come for definite blessing, have marked out 
a claim and are squatted on the ground in family and 
village parties. Men, women, children and infants, here 
they live sheltered from the mid-day sun by frail canvas 
shelters which they erect, and at night sleeping where 
they have sat all day. One has to pick one's way care- 
fully amongst them if visiting the Sari by night, or one 
would be in constant danger of treading upon the sleepers ; 
it is startling to see the l)are arm of a little child thrown, 
in sleep, right across the ill-lit patch on to which you 
were about to place your booted foot. 

On arriving at the Sari, we saw what at first seemed 
to be an epileptic in a fit close to the pole. People were 
crowding up to touch him to get a blessing from him ; 
a crowd of wild fanatical faqirs, the self-constituted 
guardians of this holy ground, would occasionally make 
what appeared to be efforts to cure him. We learnt a 
little later, after some careful enquiry, that the man was 
in a religious " state," or ecstacy. At length, when the 
man began to foam at the mouth, one of these wild, hairy 
fanatics took upon himself to control the case, finally 
Hfting the man, v/ho was much taller than himself, right 
off the ground and offering a long prayer in his ear. 
During all this period the limbs of the man were shaking 
with rigours, but when the dervish put him to the ground 
he came out of his " state " smiling, and was quite a hero 
amongst the simple people standing found. Later on 
we saw a grand combined dhikr (the religious exercise of 
the dervish orders Avhereby they seek to come nigh to 
God by repeating His name until all other things are 
shut out but the thought of Him. See Moslem World, 
Vol. II., No. 4). On this occasion, when we arrived the 
faqirs seemed to be aimlessly hitting the people who were 
pressing towards the Sari, to touch it for the blessing of 
the saints, with palm sticks and other weapons. This 
went on for some time when suddenly, as if by magic, 
there evolved out of the chaos a vast and almost perfect 


ring two and three deep, the devout ones who had staked 
out their claims round the pole sitting tight ; but they 
had to sit, for whenever one of them stood up to look 
around, one of the hairy fanatics would be sure to bela- 
bour him with a stick. An old sheikh inside the ring led 
a very simple dhikr, simply " Allah ! Allah ! " bayed 
out in unison in a deep note and a waving of both arms 
towards the Sari. This only lasted a short time ; then 
what appeared to be the local body of dervishes in 
connection with the tomb of Ahmed el-Bedawi, preceded 
by two banners, and their numbers swelled by the ragged 
crew of faqirs, began a slow procession round the ring, 
greeting every dervish of the inner circle with handsha,ke 
or kisses. Once more the simple dhikr, then another 
circumambulation of greeting, followed by the same 
dhikr, and then the vast ring melted, completely and 
suddenly, as it had formed. A large body of Sa'idiyeh 
dervishes then formed themselves into a circle and began 
a very perfunctory dhikr of their order : a little distance 
off a sheikh was preaching to a large crowd and teaching 
them certain prayers v/hilst some faqirs went round the 
ring collecting money. There were many other smaller 
gatherings — one actuall}^ being addressed b}^ an unveiled 
female sheikh, with a poor weed of a woman acting the 
Boswell to her Johnson. Her matter was the merest 
platitudes of Sufism ; and I overheard a very witty 
criticism of her, to this effect, by a mere peasant. There 
were many groups of exorcists who were plying their 
profession, principally amongst women, to the notes of 
the reed-pipe and the tom-tom. One little group of two 
greatl}^ interested the writer. It was a rank and file 
dervish who had got a bad crick in his spine through 
being too vigorous in the dhikr, and a leader of his order, 
who was manipulating his back according to what wag 
supposed to be a divine secret of the order, but what 
really was only quite skilful and apparently successful 

A most important feature of the Muhd is the visit 
to the large tomb-mosque in the town. All day long 
and well into the night, during the whole period of the 
Mulid, this is thronged with pilgrims who seek an oppor- 




tunity for making the circuit of the tomb. In making 
the circuit the pilgrim passes great boxes that are put 
up to receive alms. The misappropriation of these funds 
by the sheikhs of the mosque is an ever-recurring accu- 
sation of the Moslem press. 

What are the lessons of this Mulid for the missionary ? 
Nothing could bring before his notice more forcibly the 
existence of a religion amongst the masses, between 
which and the cold formalism of Islam, with its sterile 
doctrine of the unity of Allah, there are but the frailest 
of links : a religion which is grossly degrading although 
deduced from the teachings of men of the stamp of 
el-Ghazzali : a religion which has very much higher 
ideals in it than orthodox Islam, but which has no power 
to attain to its ideals, nothing to counteract the inherent 
dangers that are to be found in all mystic systems — e.^., 
the danger of the truth of divine intuition becoming the 
lie of vain imaginings tjiat put a crown on ignorance ; 
the truth of divine union becoming the lie of pantheism ; 
the truth of " mighty works " wrought by " faith which 
works b}^ love " becoming the lie of magic and theurgy. 
If then the missionary is to be skilful in his cure of souls 
amongst the masses of the population, surely he ought 
to understand their aspirations and be able to show how 
that in Christ they can find power to realise their highest 
ideals and in Him avoid their inherent dangers. More- 
over, he will probably find that Avhile faithfully giving 
himself to this duty, he will discover in himself either too 
much of the dangerous m3^stical tendency or too much 
of the cold repellant scholasticism. He will recognise 
in many modern religious " crazes " startling parallels 
to certain developments of dervishism ; will know liow 
to account for them, and Avill thus be strengthened in 
sound doctrine in an age when our ancient foe more often 
than not attacks us in the guise of an angel of light. He 
will, above all things, have found out how to surmount 
the many barriers that have hitherto kept him very much 
a stranger to the people to whom he has been sent. 
Zeitoiin, Egypt. George Swan. 





It is well-known to students of missions that the question 
of the use of Vernacular literature where a Classical 
language and literature are found, has raised a conflict 
of opinions in other lands besides those in which Arabic 
is spoken. This, I think, shows that equally earnest 
and competent persons may look at the question from 
different points of view, and, perhaps, form their judg- 
ment on an incomplete consideration of the facts. For 
this reason I have called my contribution a " Plea," 
and I have tried to state my point of view clearly, and 
to indicate some of the conditions and reasons that have 
influenced me in the judgment I have formed. 

I wish, first, to make clear my position with regard 
to the Literary Arabic. I have a great admiration and 
love for it and its literature, and I would not that any- 
thing in this article should be understood as depreciatory 
in the least degree of this, the most perfect of Semitic 
tongues. I a^m also an advocate of its use up to the hilt 
of its possibilities, or, in other words, to the fullest extent 
that the capacity and knowledge of those among whom 
we labour will permit. This last phrase will indicate 
where I part company with the pedant and the j)urist. 

Another point not to be lost sight of is that I write 
chiefly in view of the conditions that prevail in the 
Barbary States, especially Algeria. 

I. Relation of Vulgar Arabic to the Literary language. 

It is important that our conception of the relation 
that the modern dialects of Arabic hold to the literary 
language be as clear and exact as possible. The two 
forms are not to be considered as two different languages, 
but rather as the same language in different stages of its 



history. Islam and the Koran have preserved to a large 
extent the unity of the language, but have hindered the 
hterary cultivation of the spoken tongue. 

Renan in his Histoire des langues semitiques, Book IV., 
chapter ii., Section 7, has a long discussion on the relation 
which exists between the two forms. He says : — 

" The Vulgar Arabic, in reality, is only the Literary Arabic stripped 
of its learned grammar and of its rich environment of vowels. All 
the final inflections, expressing either the cases of the substantives, 
or the moods of the verbs, are suppressed. In place of the delicate 
mechanism of the Literary syntax, the Vulgar Arabic has substituted 
others much more simple and more analytic. Prefixes and isolated 
words mark the shades of meaning, which the Literary Arabic expresses 
by the play of the final vowels ; the tenses of the verb are determined 
by words joined to the imperfect form of the verb to give precision to 
the signification. With regard to the lexicology, the Vulgar Arabic 
has dropped out that superabundance of words which encumbered 
rather than enriched the Literary Arabic. The former knows only the 
current stock of the Semitic vocables, sometimes slightly turned from 
their original signification. Some foreign words, differing according 
to the different localities, Turkish for the most part, have alone vitiated 
the perfectly Semitic character of this tongue, which is spoken still in 
our day over a Avide stretch of the earth's surface." 

With regard to the final desinences he says : — 

" We are thus led to regard the final desinences as an ancient 
peculiarity of the Arabic, which became regularised rather late and 
was always neglected by the greater part of the tribes . . . Thus, 
without attributing to the grammarians the invention of the mechan- 
isms of the Literary Arabic, we recognise in these mechanisms a part 
of convention, in the sense that, of certain floating devices, vague in 
character, or applying only to certain words, the purists have made 
fixed and regularised proceedings. For the dictionary, in like manner, 
they have sanctioned the intrusion of a crowd of every origin that the 
people never employed, and which have made Arabic a sort of artificial 
language, after the manner of the academic Italian of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. The distinction of literary and vulgar 
Arabic has no other origin. After a grammatical recast, the tongue of 
the people is always found different from that of the learned. Then 
only commences the distinction of a Vulgar dialect in opposition to the 
learned tongue. The development of the language is, in a manner, 
split, and continues ever after in two lines more and more divergent ; 
the Vulgar speech succeeding the primitive speech by a process of 
corruption, and the learned tongue succeeding the same primitive 
source by a process of culture . . . This seems to us to be the point 
of conciliation between the two hypotheses which have been proposed 
to explain the relation between the Literary and the Vulgar Arabic. 


The Literary is not, as some philologists would have it, a wholly 
artificial language ; the Vulgar tongue, on the other hand, was not 
bom entirely,^'as some have claimed, of the corruption of the literary 
language ; ^but there existed an ancient language, richer and more 
synthetic than the Vulgar tongue, less regulated than the Literary form 
of the language, out of which the two forms have developed in opposite 
ways. We may compare the primitive Arabic to what the Latin 
language must have been before the grammatical labours which 
regularised it, about the time of the Scipios ; the literary Arabic, to 
the Latin language as we find it in the monuments of the century of 
Augustus ; and the vulgar Arabic to the simphfied Latin spoken about 
the sixth century, and which resembled in many ways more the 
ancient Latin than that of Virgil or Cicero . . . There took place 
with the Arabs, in the first century after the Hegira, what has been 
seen every time that a great mass of diverse populations finds itself 
all at once subjected to a language too learned for it ; the people, 
who only seek to make themselves mutually understood, make -for 
themselves a tongue more simple, more analytic, less burdened with 
grammatical flexions. Arabic could not escape entirely the tendency 
which leads all languages towards a dissolution, caused by the in- 
capacity in which the descendants find themselves to compress their 
thought into the synthetic forms of the language of their fathers ; 
but what is important to maintain is, that the new dialect never came 
to the point of making itself considered as a distinct language. The 
Arabs do not regard the Literary and the Vulgar Arabic as two lan- 
guages, but as two forms, one grammatical and the other non-gram- 
matical, of the same language. There are besides, between the one 
and the other, so many intermediary degrees that one cannot say 
where the Vulgar Arabic begins and where the Literary Arabic ends.* 
" In the conversational style, it is true the Vulgat* tongue has 
sufficient uniformity ; it is considered bad taste to employ the flexions 
of the Literary language ; but in the written style, each, as he has more 
or less of literary knowledge, tries to approach as much as possible, 
both in the choice of words and in the observance of grammatical rules, 
to the Literary language ; somewhat after the style of the Greeks of 
the Middle Ages who, as soon as they took the pen in hand, sought to 
conform themselves to the classical language ; in the same manner 
also in France, in the tenth century, they had no idea that the popular 
speech was capable of being written." 

The distinction made b}^ the Arabs and mentioned by 
Renan, between two forms of Arabic, one spoken and 
non-grammatical, and the other written and grammatical, 
might lead some to suppose that the spoken language 
had no rules, which is not the case. It is only non- 
grammatical in that it does not observe the rules of the 

♦While agreeing with the general tenor of these remarks, 1 would not commit 
myself entirely to every position laid down. 



literary language. The science of grammar properly 
understood does not make rules but finds out uniformities 
of usage, and states them. These are the rules of the 
grammar of any language, and the- Vulgar Arabic has 
such uniformities or rules, according to which the speech 
of anyone is judged correct or not. 

Professor Cherbonneau, who did much in the way of 
exploring the Algerian dialect of Arabic, wrote in the 
Journal Asiatique (1855), and in the Revue Africaine 
(1868), as follows :— 

" The North African dialect is a language * sui generis,' according 
to Ibn Khaldoun. I am now able to affirm that the style is uniform 
in the case ahke of learned and unlearned. The mufti and the Kadhi 
do not speak better than the barber and the weaver ; they all employ 
the same words and the same locutions ; they all have the same 
pronunciation. This constitutes a regular, simple, and often pictur- 
esque language in which one is able to enunciate clearly one's ideas." 

Professor Wright, in his Comparative Grammar of 
Semitic Languages, published after his death, shows, 
that although Arabic was the last of the Semitic languages 
to enter into historic?i prominence, yet it represents an 
earlier of Semitic than Hebrew or Aramaic, although 
at the same time more highly developed grammatically. 
He says : — 

" At this particular period, too {i.e. — the period of its entering as a 
factor in general human history), the dialect of the Koreish, which 
had already acquired a certain supremacy over the rest, was fixed by 
the Koran as the future literary language of the whole nation. Had 
it not been for this circumstance, we might have known Arabic in the 
form of half a dozen languages, differing from one another almost as 
widely as the members of the Romance group or the modern languages 
of northern India. But its literature has in great measure prevented 
this and preserved the unity of the language, so that the dialectic 
divergences of what is called ' Vulgar Arabic ' are by no means so great 
as we might have expected after all the struggles and vicissitudes of 
the last twelve centuries. From the mouth of the Tigris,throughout 
Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine, Arabia proper, Egypt and North 
Africa as far as Morocco, the language is essentially one and the same — 
sunk by gradual decay of its inflection to the level at which we become 
acqnm7ited with Aramaic and Hebrew.'' (ItaUcs my own. — P. S.). 

This last phrase should be sufficient to do away with 
the idea that the Vulgar Arabic is beneath notice as being 
only a debased tongue. Arabic has but followed the 
same path traversed formerly by Hebrew and Aramaic ; 


and as a spoken tongue is now at that stage in its history 
represented in those two languages by the BibHcal 
Hebrew and the Aramaic Hterature. 

My own study has convinced me that the Vulgar 
Arabic used in North Africa to-day is not one whit poorer 
in lexicology or in syntax than the Biblical Hebrew. I 
consider that a good criterium of comparison would be 
a translation of the Psalms with their parallelism into the 
Vulgar Arabic. This I hope will soon be forthcoming. 
The Epistle to the Ephesians would furnish a sufficient 
test of the capacity of the Vulgar Arabic to render the 
New Testament Greek. 

11. The View-point Presented. 

In 1909, after the publication of the first edition of 
the Gospel of Luke in the Algerian dialect, I made some 
MS. notes on it, chiefly grammatical and philological. 
As preface I wrote : — 

" It is hoped that these notes may help to do away wdth the reproach 
as being unfounded, that the Vulgar Arabic is poor in words and ex- 
pressions, and, therefore, unworthy as a vehicle for the Word of God. 
It is claimed that an idiomatic translation into the spoken language 
has one immense advantage over the Literary versions, in that it is 
instinct with life, a part of the nature of the people that speak it, 
whereas the Literar}^ Arabic must ever be, more or less, an artificial 
language, a tongue for learned discourse." 

At the first Annual Meeting of the Mission in North 
Africa of the Methodist Episcopal Church, held at Algiers 
in April, 1910, I expressed my conviction on this point 
after eleven years of work in the country. After de- 
scribing the educated Moslem and the literature available 
for reaching him, I said : — 

" There is, however, a considerable class of half -educated people, 
that is, half -educated from the Moslem standpoint, who hardly under- 
stand at all, or but very imperfectly, the Literary Arabic. The 
Literary Arabic is practically only a literary vehicle, much as was 
Latin in the Middle Ages and since. It is not the living language of 
the people, any more than the English of the days of Chaucer is the 
living language of the English speaking peoples of to-day. The same 
problem has presented itself in other lands. There exist ancient 
ecclesiastical versions of the Bible in Russian and Armenian, as well 
as the Old and New Testaments in Greek, but the need has been felt 
of having the Scriptures in the living speech of these peoples. The 
case is the same with Arabic. Five years ago I became especially 


interested in the work of translating the Scriptures into the Arabic of 
Algeria, and since then have worked at it with the co-operation of 
others. The Gospel of Luke has been pubhshed by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, and in Uttle over a year the first edition of 7,500 
is exhausted. (Since this report, a second edition of 10,000 has been 
printed and is selling rapidly. The Gospel of John, in an edition of 
10,000, is now exhausted. The Acts of the Apostles is in the press. 
The Psalms and some of the Pauline epistles are in preparation). 

" By means of these translations ... we beheve that we shall 
steal a long march upon Islam, for its leaders will do nothing to 
educate the poor and ignorant. I have never heard of any Moslem 
teacher in this country laying himself out to teach the ignorant to read, 
unless he were paid for it. One day, we believe they will wake up to 
find these masses indoctrinated with Christianity, having a fuller 
knowledge of the religion of Jesus Christ than of the system of Mo 
hammed. This is already the case with those who frequent our classes. 

" We have also tried to form the nucleus of a hymn-book in the 
same modern speech. These hymns are being appreciated, and are 
sung not only in our classes and meetings but also in the homes, and 
one can even hear them in the streets." 

The following extract is from my report read at the 
third Annual Meeting of the same Mission, held at Tunis, 
February, 1912:— 

" Following somewhat the old Arab method of study, namely, that 
of learning a highly condensed summary of a subject, often in verse, 
which is learnt by heart and forms the basis of further instruction, I 
have put into Modern Arabic verse the ' Story of the Creation of the 
World and of Man, the Temptation and Fall, with the Promise of 
Redemption and its AccompHshment in Christ.' Those in our Hostels 
have learnt this by heart, and they also sing or chant it after the manner 
of the Meddahm or the Raiviyyin." (Since then I have begun another 
series, entitled " The Divine Story." The first part contains some 
of the chief Prophecies as to the Coming of Christ and His Work, 
followed by the Announcement of the Angel to the Virgin Mary, the 
Magnificat and the Story of the Birth of Christ, all being in modern 
Arabic verse). 

Under the heading, A Question of Policy, the report 
continues : — 

" I would hke to record my firm conviction, to be confirmed or 
confuted by future developments. 1 almost tremble at my temerity 
in daring to express it in this ' City of Learning.' I beheve that when 
Christianity lays hold of the populations of Tunisia and Algeria, it 
will find its expression and vehicle not in the Classical but the Vulgar 
Arabic. I thank God that Islam as a doctrine is shut up in the former, 
but Christianity as a living religion will, I believe, appropriate the 
living tongue as its medium of expression, both in its worship and its 


propagation. The New Testament was written in the Colloquial 
Greek of its time, and it, too, had its literary despisers. But the 
Classical Greek never became again the language of the x)eople. The 
French language was not produced directly from the Classical Latin, 
but developed slowly out of the Low- Latin spoken in the Provinces and 
Gaul. I forbear further analogies, for the whole history of language 
development is on the same side. There is, and will be for a long time, 
a wide field for the Literary Arabic, but this will not stop the evolution 
of the language, and, without contradiction, the nearest way to the 
heart of a people is through its living speech. The majority cannot be 
sacrificed to the fastidious tastes of the few, nor can Christianity tie 
itself up to a language that is the privilege of the few, to a form of the 
Arabic that will never regain its hold of the people as a whole. The 
moral is plain. It is sure wisdom on our part to cultivate the Modern 
Spoken Arabic in a literary fashion, and redeem it from the unjust 
reproach of being a barbarous Ungo." 

In my report at the Fourth Annual Meeting of the 
Mission, held at Constant ine, May, 1913, I emphasized 
the same argument, as follows : — 

"In one particular we decidedly conform at Constantine to the 
Bisciphne of the Methodist Episcopal Church. According to the 
fifteenth article of rehgion, ' It is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word 
of God, and the custom of the primitive Church to have public prayer 
in the Church, or to administer the sacraments in a tongue not under- 
stood by the people.' We have accordingly made it a rule in this 
service of worship, that all praise, prayer, and preaching, shall be in 
the speech of the people, and that the Scriptures shall be read or 
translated in the same tongue, which is also the mother-tongue of the 
most learned Arab teacher that may ever enter our doors. In this 
way the illiterate will sufler no loss, and the learned has but to forget 
for the time his acquired hterary knowledge, and listen to the things of 
God expounded in the tongue he learnt from his mother's hps, and 
which he liimself habitually uses except in learned disquisition." 

The practice condemned by the original framers of 
the Article, cited above, is analogous to the point under 
discussion. The Roman Church conserves to this day 
the use of the Latin tongue in its services, because, for- 
sooth, it has the sanction of centuries of use ; the Moslem 
teacher does the same. For him it would be sacrilege to 
abase the language in which his sacred book was written, 
by condescending to write an}^ form of that language 
which does not conform to the laws of that sacred tongue. 
It is a religious, an Islamic, reason that has hindered the 
Moslems from cultivating in literature throughout the 
centuries their spoken language. Is that reason a suffi- 


ciently valid one for the Christian Church to follow the 
same example to-day ? It seems to me that those who 
oppose translations of the Scriptures and the publication 
of other literature in the modern Arabic dialects, are 
following the policy of Rome in withholding the Word 
of Life from the people in their own tongue. This has 
been the great blot on the Roman Communion, and it 
will prove the most effectual barrier to the evangelisation 
of the masses in Arabic speaking lands. I am firmly 
convinced that a noble literature could be created in the 
Vulgar Arabic, chaste in form and expression. The 
spoken language needs to be further explored by mission- 
aries and others. I imagine that some, were they to 
come to this study with sympathy, would be agreeably 
surprised by the vividness and richness of this Modern 

I reproduce here an extract from the British Vieehly 
of February 20th, 1913 :— 

" Of recent discoveries about the Bible none is more striking than 
the testimony as to the language of the New Testament, which has been 
unearthed during the last few years out of rubbish heaps of waste paper 
and broken pottery buried in the sands of Egypt, and dating back to 
the very beginning of the Christian era. What this new hnguistic 
evidence demonstrates may be stated in the words of Dr. J. H. Moulton, 
the eminent scholar, who has done so much to make it available in 
English, ' The conclusion is that " Bibhcal '* Greek was simply the 
vernacular of daily life . . . The Holy Ghost spoke absolutely in the 
language of the people, as we might surely have expected He would'. 
In other words, the New Testament was composed in the common, 
homely speech of those who first read its pages ; it was written in the 
Vulgar tongue." 

There can certainly be no incongruity, but rather a 
decided fittingness, in furnishing a like means through 
which the Holy Ghost may be able to speak to the masses 
in North Africa to-day. Opposition to this idea is under- 
standable in a Moslem teacher, when we consider his 
standpoint, but what Christian reason can a missionary 
bring why the Word of God should not be given to the 
people in the tongue that they speak ? 

Is Arabic to be the only language to be not cultivated 
in literature in the successive forms it takes on in its 
evolution ? There is a continuous evolution of all 


language, and the tongues which exercise the greatest 
living influence to-day and possess an ever-growing 
literature, are just those that cultivate in literature the 
living form of the language, while not neglecting what 
the past has produced. 

Where would the noble French literature be to-day 
if the mistaken idea of those of the tenth century, men- 
tioned by Renan, had always prevailed ? In the book 
of M. Lortsch, The Bible in France, one can see the great 
part that religious compositions and translations of parts 
of the Bible in prose and in verse played in forming the 
beginnings of French literature, until the sixteenth 
century, when the Reformation, following the Renaissance 
began to exercise a potent influence on the language. 
The following testimonies show the influence of Calvin 
on French prose composition : — 

" Everything is new in his book [Institutes),'' says M. Nisard, " the 
very matter, the method and the language." " He has given in the 
popular language on a theological subject the first example of a vast 
composition, thought out, ripe and well-arranged." (M. Marcou). 

There is no need to cite the influence that the trans- 
lations and writings of Wycliffe, Coverdale and Tindale 
and the Authorised Version, have had on the English 
language ; nor that of Luther's translation and hymns 
on the German tongue. And if Christianity is ever going 
to lay hold of the Arabic speaking peoples, why should 
not translations of the Scriptures in the popular language 
and other literature exercise an analogous influence on 
the spoken Arabic dialects ? Tn the providence of God 
all the countries of North Africa are now under the 
control of European governments, and they all aim at 
producing an awakening of the Moslem mind from an 
age-long torpor, and the introduction of modern life and 
civilisation. By the creation of a worthy literature, 
Christian in tone and character, the Christian Church 
should be able to give a new impulsion to Arab thought 
and life. This may seem Utopian to some, but we 
have the beginnings of it to hand, in the possibility of 
translating the Scriptures idiomatically into the spoken 
tongue. For the basis of a Christian literature must be 
the Bible. 


Having for some time urged these arguments and 
advocated this poKcy, I was much interested in reading 
the following extract in the July number of The Moslem 
World (1912), entitled, " Taking away the key of 
knowledge " : — 

" All missionaries who have struggled to attain to a working 
knowledge of the Arabic language themselves, have taught it in day 
schools, or have tried faithfully to circulate the Scriptures and other 
Arabic literature among the common people in Moslem lands, must 
have felt again and again how the Arabic speech itself is at once a 
vehicle and a barrier to evangelisation. It is a vehicle because of its 
widespread use, but a barrier because of its highly classical Uterature, 
and the style of Arabic used by those who write, not for the common 
people, but for the learned classes. Professor Macdonaid deals with 
this question from the standpoint of the Arabic scholar, in trenchant 
fashion, in his recent book, ' Aspects of Islam ' (pp. 320, 321). 

Speaking of the barriers to the spread of education 
among the masses, and the uplift of Moslem nations, he 
uses these words, which we heartily endorse : 

" Another necessity will be to teach in a language that the pupil 
can understand, and to cease to veil education in a literary dialect, 
which not one per cent, of the people can follow. This holds especially 
of Arabic speaking countries, where the difference between the Arabic 
spoken by all and the Arabic of hterature is as great as that between 
modem and ancient Greek. Thus in Egypt the hopeless attempt is 
being made to screw all education up to this pseudo-classical standard. 
How hopeless is this attempt a single instance will show. One day in 
Cairo I was shown most courteously by the Principal of what is called 
the Kadis College over his institution. This is a professional school 
for the training of Kadis and legal officials generally on the native 
side, and it is hoped that its influence may in time lead to a reform 
of the Azhar from within. The Principal first described to me the 
curriculum of the college, and he told me that the language used 
throughout was literary Arabic. Nothing else was allowed in the 
class-rooms, and they expected in a year to be able to enforce the use 
of it among the students outside the class-rooms. Then I was taken 
to hear parts of the lectures. One on Canon law especially interested 
me. The lecturer knew his subject, and was making it plain to his 
class. But suddenly there dropped from his lips a plirase of the purest 
colloquial : Mush kida ? said he, isn't that so ? He would have 
written Laisa kadhalik ? or something similar, but in speech the 
language of the street was too strong for him. And so it will always- 
be. Dead languages can never be evoked into living use, however 
strong our spells or hrm our purpose. They will only walk as ghosts 
among us, and blast and thwart our labours. Hear, then, the last 
word on Moslem education. It mast learn to bring forth character^ 


and it must clothe itself in a speech understood of the people. It has 
trained the scholar and let the masses go. With a stiff intellectual 
snobbishness, it has never seen that the abiding victories of science are 
won in the primary school. And so even now it clings to a scholastic 
language that bars the gates of hterature to ninety per cent, of the 
people. That bar it must learn to lift.' " 

From Aspects of Islam I quote the following : 

" Having mentioned this colloquial Arabic, permit me to diverge 
a moment and say that, for me, the great hope of the Arabic speaking 
races lies in the rise of an Arabic literature written in the language 
really spoken bj' these peoples. At present their older literature is as 
remote for them as Latin to an Italian or a Spaniard. And of such 
neo- Arabic literature a beginning has been made, although so 
far it is mostly limited to stories, jests and satirical verses. More 
serious subjects still array themselves in the language of the schools. 
Yet the beginning has been made, and all that is needed now is the 
appearing of a man of genius, a Dante or a Chaucer, who will follow 
up that beginning and wTite books of weight and genius in this collo- 
quial dialect. When he comes, with him will come the new Arabic 
literature — a rennaissance as tremendous as that of Europe." 

Should anyone still object that to give the Bible and 
other religious literature in the Vulgar Arabic would 
degrade the Christian religion, I would offer the following 
supposition : If our Lord came to Egypt or to any of 
the other countries of North Africa, what language would 
He use in speaking to the common people ? Naturally, 
the common speech. What He would deign to sa}^ in 
that tongue, I would not disdain to write. 

But some may say that this proposal to give the 
Scriptures and other literature in the tongue of the 
people will tend to develop the different dialects and 
thus break up the unity of the Arabic speaking world. 

In answer to this one may say : (1) That the learned 
will alwa3^s seek to know their classical language and 
literature, and that the present literary unity is likely to 
continue as long as Islam stands. 

(2) That as far as the common people are concerned 
the only unity that exists is the unity of speech, which is 
real despite the dialectic variations. 

(3) Is the maintenance of the unity of the Arabic 
speaking world — that central portion of the Moslem 
world — a thing so greatly to be desired by the Christian 
Church, that she should hesitate to give the masses the 



Word of God in their own tongue, for fear of breaking 
up that unit}^ ? I doubt much whether the different 
European States that govern so great a portion of the 
Ara,bic speaking world would regard a break-up of the 
said unity as a very great calamity. There is a political 
break-up already. I am Urmly of opinion that if the 
Vulgar Arabic does not become the literary vehicle for 
the Barbary States, it will not be the Literary Arabic 
that will become such for the masses, but French, Italian 
and Spanish. There are at least a million Europeans in 
these States, and the number is rapidly increasing, as 
also the number of Mohammedan youths that are learning 
to speak and read French. 

In Algeria the teaching in the Franco-Arab govern- 
ment schools is given in French. In the upper classes 
sufficient Arabic is taught to enable the scholars to read 
and write their own speech, but little more than that. 
Only in colleges for the training of Moslem functionaries 
for government service are Arabic grammar and literature 
taught along with French and French literature. The 
Arabic taught in the Franco-Arab schools is not sufficient 
to enable them to read the Koran, but it is sufficient to 
enable them to read any literature in the Modern Speech. 
Besides those wiio pass through the primary government 
schools, there is a large number who have begun in the 
Koranic schools but have not continued long enough to 
get a grasp of tlie literar}^ language. To all such, liter- 
ature in the Vulgar Arabic would be acceptable. 

The conclusion, then, is, not that the use of the 
literary version of the Scriptures and literature in that 
form of the language is objected to ; on the contrary, 
the fullest possible use of them is advocated. But, 
seeing that the hope of bringing up the masses to the 
educational level of the literary Arabic seems hopeless, 
here lies before us an unlimited field of hope for a liter- 
ature in the Vulgar Arabic. Peculiarities of a purely 
local character could be neglected, and in contiguous 
countries a result might be reached that would prove" 
.satisfactory and stimulating. 

The two literatures could exist side by side. Time 
would decide the fate of each. Percy Smith. 




A YOUNG Sheikh, Mohammed el 'Attar, for some years 
a teacher in El Azhar University and a voluminous 
writer of pamphlets, has recently issued a small booklet 
under the title, " Where is Islam ? An Essay setting 
forth the Present Condition of Moslems, Socially, In- 
tellectually and Morally." In this pamphlet of only 
thirty-two pages we have a cry from the heart of a 
Moslem of the old school, despairing of reform and 
watching with regret the decaying forces at work in 
Islam. It is not a book of controversy against Christians, 
but is addressed to Moslems by one of themselves. It 
is a call for reform, if reform is yet possible. It is a cry 
of despair, for in the words of the author, " There is no 
true and living Islam left in the world." We translate 
verbatim some of the most striking portions of this 
treatise, which lays bare the ver}^ heart of Islam and 
shows us what goes on in the minds of the leaders in the 
Azhar itself, and in Cairo, the intellectual capital of 

'' Praise be to God and thanksgiving, with the 
highest praise and most hearty thanks. I have not 
written this little book to criticise my brother Moslems 
or to wound their consciences by recording the disgraceful 
practices which have crept into our religion, but I have 
prepared it as a homily to stir up the hearts of the 
faithful, and my trust is in God . . . What heart is there, 
O Most Glorious God, that is not terrified at the present 
condition of Islam, and what eye is there that does not 
weep for it ? I searched for Islam in Mecca, the most 
honourable city, where some of the verses of the Koran 
came down as a revelation to men and a clear guidance, 
but I saw nothing there save corruption and error and 
shame and woe. I found there wine and adultery and 



wickedness and what-not. Obscenity has multipHed and 
all propriety ceased in the land of Mecca, the mother of 
Islam. Land of Mecca, thou art too pure that thou 
shouldst be thus defiled ! " 

He then goes on to show that most of those who go 
on pilgrimage do not go in the right spirit, but many of 
them spend money which they have wrung from the poor 
by usury and expect thus to gain merit with God. 

" Yet I was not so sorry for these deluded people as 
I was for the inhabitants of Mecca itself ; those who 
dwell forever near the House of God, but pay no attention 
to the warnings of God, living on in their savagery and 
barbaric customs, ignorant as cattle, and further away 
from the true road. 

''I searched for Islam in Medina, the Illustrious, but 
found only miserable people complaining of nakedness 
and hunger. So I stood and spoke to them in kindness 
and without anger : ' ye despairing, hungry and 
miserable Moslems ! I weep for you blood instead of 
tears, for by God my heart is filled with sadness at your 
condition. Seek death if you are freemen ; if not, you 
are in an evil case. 

" I sought for Islam under the government of the 
Sublime Porte and the Ottoman race, and I found only 
divisions and parties with names and degrees without 
number, and no doubt the names and the degrees are 
only degrees of vanity and lying. Nor is the Lord 
ignorant of what they do. God has made their career 
a mockery to those that mock and a laughing-stock to 
those that deride. By God, if I were not an Arab, I 
would flee away from your religion to escape from these 
people whose souls have become inhuman and whose 
faces have become ugly and knavish. And is not God 
mighty and the Avenger ? This is the company which 
have manifested hatred and enmity the one to the other, 
80 that there is no longer peace between the father and 
the son, nor between brothers, nor between rulers and 
the ruled. They are of those without understanding." 

Here follows a lament for the Turkish defeat, the loss 
of Adrianople, the state of the Turkish Government and 
the destruction of the Khalifate under Ottoman rule. 



" I searched for Islam in Europe, and I returned to 
my native land smiling with pleasure at what I saw there. 
. . . There I found men who loved their fellows and loved 
goodness for its own sake. There I saw people who were 
kind to their poor — and how few were the hungry and 
the miserable. Peace be to you, O Europe, as long as 
the sun shines. 

'' I sought for Islam in India, but no sooner had I 
reached Madras than my heart was disturbed and over- 
whelmed with sorrow ; and for what reason do you 
suppose ? As soon as I came to this land of unbelievers 
I picked up their books translated into the Tamil lan- 
guage, in which the Moslems recorded the life of the 
Seyyid Abdul Kadir el Jilani, whom they regard as a 
god to be worshipped. Would that they only mentioned 
him as a prophet or disciple, but they give him the 
attributes of deit}^ For example, the}^ call him Lord of 
heaven and earth ; the One who helps and hinders, the 
One who has the control of the universe ; the One who 
knows the secrets of the creation ; the One who raises 
the dead and heals the blind and the lepers ; the One 
who forgives sins and takes a,way calamity, etc., etc. 
When they visit places built in his memory they say, 
O Thou most excellent fountain of eternity, O Lord 
Abdul Kadir el Jilani . . . What sane man would thus 
take titles and attributes which are only proper in the 
case of God, and apply them to one of His creatures ? 
W^oe be to my heart at such a state of Islam. By God, 
death is better than life for such Moslems, and they 
deserve punishment in this world and the world to come. 

" I sought for Islam in the Azhar LTniversity, built 
upon injustice and hatred and tyranny and oppression, 
and I found its people consisting of two parties : leaders 
and teachers : and disciples. As for the leaders and 
teachers, they are the ones Avho manifest enmity and 
hatred and oppression, and there is none among them 
with justice or equity. They make a great show of Islam 
before the common people, and God knows how much 
hypocrisy there is in many of them." He then speaks 
of the faults of the teachers, addressing them with his 
counsel, saying that he is one of their number, but that 


does not excuse him from speaking frankly of the con- 
ditions that now obtain among the learned. The pupils 
receive still stronger admonition, and at the end of the 
paragraph he says there is no true and living Islam left. 

*' I sought for Islam in the mosques, and I saw that 
the most of those who prayed there, stole the sandals 
of their co-worshippers, and I said in my heart. Where 
are the Moslems to-da}^ ? Yea, where is Islam ? 

*' I sought for Islam in the school of the teachers, 
Dar el 'Aloom,'' (He refers to the new school for the 
training of Moslem missionaries in Old Cairo, and goes 
on to indicate that this school for the training of propa- 
gandists spends its energies in disputes regarding 
grammatical niceties and quibbles about Arabic syntax). 
"So I said, Leave them alone with their Arabic, and I 
departed laughing, and they were laughing too." 

" I sought for Islam in the law school, and I saw 
there a sheikh of the most learned of his kind lecturing 
on fiqh. I said to him. What is your judgment regarding 
the washing of the head before pra3^er ? Must it be done 
wholly or only in part ? And then I was amazed to see 
the teacher blush in his ignorance, unable to answer ; 
and so I turned awa}^ from him, saying. Here is a company 
of those who teach, without knowledge, and profess to 
understa^nd, without understanding. 

" I sought for Islam in the dwellings of the rich, but 
I found wine upon their tables, and I heard them singing 
songs in praise of the joys of this life . . . 

" I sought for Islam in the hearts of the Sufis and the 
followers of the ' Way ' (mystics), and I hoped against 
hope that I would find it there. But here also it was 
lost and in decay. I found them taking hashish and 
drugs, and all their supposed worship is full of deceit and 
fraud. Nor is God ignorant of what they do." 

The writer closes his long indictment by saying : 
*' I searched for Islam throughout the whole world, from 
east to west and from north to south ; nor did I find it. 
Where shall I find it ? Shall I find it among those who 
are not Moslems ? " He then lapses into poetrj^, apostro- 
phising the European culture of Cairo as a centre of 
worldUness and sin, — and in this judgment we all agree. 


On the other hand, he praises the West for its progress 
in art and Hterature ; and says (page 21) that although 
Islam is dying and among Moslems there is nothing but 
back-biting and slander, truth, kindness and covenants 
still hold among Christians. Some of the evils of which 
he accuses his co-religionists are so gross as to be un- 
translatable, and he is specially grieved at the corruption 
of the Arabic tongue by the introduction of foreign words. 

The last two pages of the pamphlet are addressed to 
his critics. He knows his writing will not be reviewed 
with favour, as the exposure of hypocrites always means 
their hatred, but he asserts that the high-minded among 
them know that he is speaking the truth ; and that, 
therefore, those who are sincere will accept his warning. 
A humorous touch is given by the author's request that 
the Azhar kindly repay him £150 sterling, which he 
spent there in vain ! He also says that as there will be 
few favourable reviews of his treatise, he furnishes the 
reader with a review of it by a late Sheikh of El Azhar, 
Mohammed Abdu, saying that this reached him by 
wireless telegraphy from Paradise ! Mohammed Abdu 
in his telegram corroborates the judgment of the author 
and praises him for his audacity. 

It appears that this is only the first part of thi& 
terrible arraignment, and that the second will shortly 
come from the press. When a consulting physician has 
carefully diagnosed a patient who is suspected to be 
suffering from the deadly germ of tuberculosis, and the 
irrevocable verdict has been given that the disease has. 
advanced so far as to be incurable, one may say that 
he is a dying man. The forces of death are already at 
work, and it is only a matter of time when they will do 
their worst. Or when the species of fungi known as 
dry-rot begins to penetrate oak timber, the process of 
destruction cannot be easily arrested. If Mohammed el 
'Attar is not a mere pessimist, but, as we believe, a true 
prophet from the midst of his brethren, then Islam is 
already doomed. Its vital forces have been sapped and 
moral and spiritual collapse are as inevitable as was 
the case in the Moslem world of politics. 





Until recent years Islam was considered by many in 
the West as a system of false doctrine and iniquity with 
no redeeming qualities. At least that was the impression 
made upon my mind during my years of training in 
college and the theological seminary. Gradually, how- 
ever, a change has taken place through better knowledge 
of the Koran and other Mohammedan books and by the 
contact of Western peoples with Mohammedans in 
business, politics and socially. Indeed, the change that 
has taken place in some quarters is so great that Islam 
is now looked upon with special favour, and is regarded 
as a religion worthy to be compared with the Christian 
religion and the Jewish faith. Some men of high standing 
in the world of literature and religious education speak 
and write of it as worthy to be considered as one of the 
present forces in the world that are influencing the human 
race along the lines of modern civilisation ; and some 
have even gone so far as to say that the sincere, faithful 
Mohammedan does not need the Christian's Saviour. 
Under these circumstances it becomes the duty of the 
missionary to inquire what is the attitude which he is 
to take towards Islam. 

In a few weeks I shall have spent fifty-two years 
as a missionary in Egj^pt, where Islam is the state religion, 
and where at least nine-tenths of the people profess and 
practise that faith. With these people I have been 
brought into contact almost daily, under various circum- 
stances, and among them I have many acquaintances 
and friends ; therefore, I may be permitted to give my 
opinion as to what should be the attitude of the mission- 
ary toward them. 

I cannot but hold that the missionary should alwa3^s 
regard Islam as a false religion and its followers in need 
of a Saviour able to save them from the power, the con- 


demnation and the corruption of sin. Any other attitude 
will not comport with the revelation of our Scriptures, 
which we consider to be the foundation of our hol3^ faith 
and the standard of our duty. 

This is the attitude imposed upon us by the Great 
Commission of our divine Master, in which He says, 
" Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every 
creature." That is, every creature, in eYerj nation, of 
every religion, is to be regarded as in need of this Gospel, 
and any religion which does not contain this Gospel of 
the Great Commission is producing false hopes in its 
adherents. We all know that Islam has not this Gospel, 
and that its plan of salvation is diametrically opposed to 
it ; therefore, the missionary is obliged to regard it as 
untrue, and its followers as standing in need of the 
crucified Christ. 

This is the standpoint which we are bound to assume, 
if we follow the example of the Apostles. In obedience 
to the Saviour's comma,nd, they went everywhere. 
They were to go even to the Jews whose Scriptures were 
written by inspiration and were intended to prepare the 
way for the promised Messiah, but now that He had come 
and had opened the living way, consecrating it with His 
own blood, they were no longer to trust in types and 
ceremonies, but to the Lamb of God, who takes away 
the sin of the world. The Apostles thus regarded even 
the Jews as needing the Gospel of the crucified Saviour. 
Their attitude was such as to make them fee]. We have 
the Gospel of salvation which you have not and which 
you need, and we come to call you to repentance and 
faith in Jesus Christ, without whom there is no salvation, 
" for neither is there another name under heaven given 
among men whereby we may be saved." In this 
manner also the Apostles went among Romans and 
Greeks, preaching the Gospel of the despised Nazarene. 
And in this spirit we are to come to the Mohammedan, 
feeling that all his fasting, his prayers, his almsgiving and 
his pilgrimages cannot atone for the least of his sins. If 
the missionary assumes any other attitude and conveys 
any other message, he will be encouraging him in a false 
hope, saying. Peace, peace, when there is no peace. 



The Gospels and the Epistles teach the same truth. 
Christ said to the Jews, " He that belie veth not the Son 
shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.'* 
When He said, " The Son of Man came to seek and to 
save the lost," He meant by the lost, every son and 
daughter of i^dam who is not resting in the merits of 
the crucified Saviour. From ail the Epistles we learn 
that the Apostles everywhere regarded the followers of 
other religions as unsaved, as entertaining a false hope, 
as sinners needing salvation ; therefore, they, as ambas- 
sadors of Jesus Christ, came to them with the message, 
" Be ye reconciled to God," through faith in His Son, 
Who was made sin on our behalf that we might become 
the righteousness of God in Him. All this shows us 
clearly what should be the attitude of the missionary of 
the Cross towards non- Christians, and the Mohammedans 
are no exception. 

But this does not mean that we are to regard a'hd 
treat them as our personal enemies, although they may 
sometimes manifest that spirit. We are to have for them 
the love that God had for the world when He sent His 
only begotten Son as the hope of eternal life. We are 
to have the same compassion over the great cities of 
Islam which moved Jesus Christ upon the Mount of 
Olives, when He looked upon Jerusalem in all its wicked- 
ness and the shadow of coming judgment, and wept saying 
" Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that killest the prophets and 
stonest them who are sent unto thee, how often would 
I have gathered thy children together even as a hen 
gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would 
not." If they curse us, we are to bless them ; if they 
hate us, we are to love them and pray for them and be 
ready to sacrifice all our personal interests in seeking 
their eternal good. If rejected to-day, we are to return 
to them on the morrow, if it may be the Lord will touch 
their hearts. We are to take advantage of every point 
of contact between Christianity and Islam in order to 
secure a hearing and attract their attention, and we are 
to avoid in conversation and public discourse ever}^ 
expression calculated to offend. Our Master taught us 
to be wise as serpents and harmless as doves. 


The attitude for which I am contending does not, 
however, allow us to ignore any of the precious doctrines 
of our holy faith, or tone down any of its characteristic 
expressions, or relegate to the realms of silence any of 
its fundamental teachings for the sake of pleasing the 
Mohammedan and removing his opposition. We are 
not to give up the Bible representation of God as a loving 
Father and accept instead the Koran representation of 
Him as an arbitrarj^ sultan ; nor are we to forget our 
Master's exhortation to use not vain repetitions as the 
heathen do. The Apostles, in preaching to the Jews and 
the Greeks, did not cease preaching the Cross of Christ, 
although the doctrine was an offence to the Jews and 
foolishness to the Greeks. 

Let it always be remembered that what has offended 
the Mohammedans most of all and embittered their 
attitude towards Christianity during the past centuries, 
is not what is contained in the Gospels and the Epistles, 
but the doctrines and conduct contrary to these books 
which the traditional Churches have held up before the 
Eastern world in the name of Christianity, — such as the 
worship of pictures and images, the invocation of saints, 
the deification of the Virgin Mary, transubstantiation, 
and the confessional. For hundreds of years Moham- 
medans never saw a body of Christians observing in their 
Churches, in their homes and in their lives, the Christian 
religion as taught by the Lord and His Apostles. When 
President Garfield was assassinated some thirty years 
ago, our Consul General had a memorial service in our 
large Church, which all the ministers of state attended 
and where I made a brief address in Arabic. When the 
services were over the intelligent Minister of Public 
Instruction, a Moslem gentleman, expressed his great 
surprise and delight at finding our Church without 
pictures and images. It is Christianity as seen in Moham- 
medan lands that is responsible for many of the opinions 
Mohammedans have entertained and still entertain as 
to its being a religion of idolatry and superstition ; we 
must prove the contrary by preaching the whole and the 
only pure Gospel. Andrew Watson. 






I AM asked to furnish an unvarnished statement of the 
case for Bulgaria as against the rumours which were so 
prevalent against her, and to describe briefly the present 
situation, especially as regards Bulgaria's Moslem popu- 
lation and those who have become Christians as a result 
of the war. 

First, as to the accusations charging the Bulgarian 
troops in Macedonia with horrible excesses, and alleging 
that during the anarchy consequent on the outbreak of 
the interstate war foreigners in Bulgaria were massacred, 
attempts were made on the King's life, and the state of 
things generally was so dangerous that her neighbours 
had to occupy her territory. 

The latter part of these accusations may be dismissed 
in two words — absolute falsehood. There was no anarchy, 
and no approach to it. 

The former part of the accusation must be treated 
with discrimination. It has to be kept in mind that, for 
better or for worse, all through the war irresponsible, 
revolutionary bands hovered round the regular army, 
giving their services as guides. But it would also seem 
that the neighbourhood of the army emboldened these 
bands to carry out against sections of the population 
schemes of revenge which they had long cherished. To 
give the devil his due, they did not even then indulge 
in indiscriminate massacre ; but in many places they did 
seize and kill proscribed individuals and plundered their 
property ; and their lists of proscribed persons were not 
always short. How far the commanders of the regular 
troops were cognisant of these doings could be determined 
only by official investigation ; but it is reasonable to 
suppose that the campaign occupied all their attention," 
and it would be unlikely that they should know what 
the irresponsible revolutionaries were doing on their 


flanks. Moreover, the known character and reputation 
of the officers there in command renders it almost certain 
that they had no knowledge of what was being done. 
Accordingly, while revengeful excesses on the part of these 
bands have to be admitted, they must not be put down to 
the charge of the regular army. 

For the rest, cumulative evidence is almost unanim- 
ously negative. In this town w^e have harboured about 
five thousand Bulgarian refugees from the seat of the 
later wat, and have seen many thousands of demobilising 
soldiers pass through. My colleagues and I, as well as 
others interested in the matter, have examined many of 
these, we turning special attention to the Protestants 
among them, and particularly to the pastors and teachers, 
all well-known to us. We enquired minutely along the 
line of the charges made ; and no one of them had seen 
or heard of any excess committed by the army. On the 
contrary, they said that they had often wondered at 
what seemed to them the too easy treatment accorded 
by it to unfriendly populations. One pastor, who had 
been in the army, told of repeated cases he had personally 
met of people migrating so that they might come under 
Bulgarian authority ; and it is known that Jews in 
Salonica offered Bulgarian soldiers money to live in their 
houses and protect them from the other soldiery. 

A member of the Carnegie commission of investigation, 
which recently visited our town, did say that they had 
come across one case of excess on the part of the regular 
army. It was when the troops entered a certain place 
and found a heap of mangled bodies near the burnt 
Bulgarian quarter. The sight so enraged them that they 
fell — not upon the civilian population — but upon their 
military prisoners, killed them, and burned the remaining 
part of the place. But the fact that my informant cited 
only this one case, and that the commission could not 
wholly conceal what the general result of its investigations 
so far had been, leads me to believe that its report will 
very largely clear the good namiC of the Bulgarian army 
and nation. 

And then, there is so much else to strengthen this 
conviction. There is our own long and intimate know- 



ledge of the character of this people, making it impossible 
for us to harmonise with it the atrocities charged against 
them. There is the fact that Bulgaria promptly de- 
manded an international investigation, and that she alone 
of the three Balkan States concerned welcomed the 
commission and helped its work. There is the fact that 
these charges against Bulgaria were put into circulation 
when, by concerted action, she was for six weeks kept in 
postal and telegraphic silence, unable to refute the 
falsehoods. And, again, there is the fact that not only 
were the despatches of the special correspondent of The 
Times in Sofia altered in transmission through Bukharest, 
and made to convey the opposite of what he had written, 
but also a telegram sent by several pastors in Salonica^ 
including our colleague there, to the American Christian 
Herald was made to vouch for atrocities committed by 
Bulgarians, whereas what our colleague signed was onh^ 
a statement of the great need of relief funds. As to the 
confirmation of atrocity charges by British and other 
consuls, it has to be remembered that in these regions 
consuls are not unfrequently of some native race. 

Second, as to the present situation, especially as 
regards the Moslem population. 

The Turks, who after the war of thirt3^-five years ago 
elected to remain under Bulgarian rule, have shown no 
interest in Christianity. The Orthodox Church has left 
them severely alone : evangelicals have done but little 
amongst them : they remain steadfast Mohammedans. 
But the Pomaks — ^Mohammedan Bulgarians — have al- 
ways been an object of curiosity. As soon as the recent 
war broke out, it began to be asked. What will be its 
effect on them ? Will they remain Mohammedan, or 
will they return to the faith that their forefathers 
professed before their enforced conversion to Moham- 
medanism by the Turks five centuries ago ? When 
martial law is lifted, and investigations at; present 
impossible can be made, there will fall to be written the 
story of a very curious episode in the " religious " history 
of these regions. At present the barest outline of it 
can be given. 

As soon as the Bulgarians had won their first successes 


in Macedonia, and fairly established their rule, rumours 
began to be heard of a movement among the Pomaks. 
Emissaries from the Bulgarian Holy Synod went hurrying 
to the Piazlog ; and presently it was announced that the 
Pomaks by their thousands were coming over to the 
Orthodox Church. The ecclesiastics professed to be 
jubilant over their rich " spiritual " harvest. But as 
time went on things began to leak out. There had, 
indeed, been approaches made by Pomaks to be received 
into the Christian Church. Perhaps in a few cases their 
national sentiment had at last felt free to assert itself. 
In some cases undoubtedly the step had been taken in 
the hope of averting deserved avenging punishment. In 
most cases it had been the calculating move of throwing 
in the lot with the conquering religion. Yet, all told, 
these cases of spontaneous approach to the Church were 
not proportionately numerous. But they sufficed to 
tempt the ecclesiastics. The priests sent to treat with 
them began to pass from encouragement to persuasion, 
from persuasion to urging, then to threatening, and 
finally to compulsion. There was plenty of force avail- 
able. The militia had been left behind by the army, a 
loan to the local authorities as a kind of military police. 
Their task in that region was light, — why not give them 
something to do ? And the too pliable authorities, new 
to the dignity of power, sharing the common hatred of the 
Pomak, and, hke the Synod and its agents, insensible to 
the true significance of religion, and with mediaeval ideas 
of tolerance, readily lent themselves to the plan. The}^ 
^nd the priests, with the aid of the militia, simply forced 
the Pomaks ; and the pitiable and scandalous sight was 
seen of thousands of protesting victims being compelled 
to baptism, receiving the Christian rite with sullen but 
impotent indignation. One man at least hanged himself 
rather than submit. Happily, neither the government 
of the country, nor the military, nor the nation at large, 
can be reproached with this outrageous proceeding. It 
was the fruit of ecclesiastical fanaticism and bourgeois 

But the proceedings have done an immense amount 
of harm. They have caused the Pomaks to hate Christi- 


anity more fiercely than ever. It is anticipated that as 
soon as martial law comes to an end, the greater number 
of those who have been baptized will return to Moham- 
medanism. And it is to be feared that as a body they 
will be more intractable than before. There is, however, 
one gleam of light in the outlook. Before the war, one or 
two Protestant pastors working in the Rhodopes had 
taken an interest in the Pomaks, and were meeting with 
considerable encouragement. When, therefore, the en- 
forcing proceedings began, these Pomaks expressed the 
desire, if they must become Christians, to be baptized 
into the evangelical faith. But this was not in the 
Synod's plan ; and the offensive preference for evangeli- 
calism was met with stern and threatening denunciation. 
Yet the very contrast between the attitude of the evan- 
gelicals and that of the Synod towards them at that time 
has but strengthened in the minds of the Pomaks the 
favourable impression already made by the former. 
And while, after all that has happened, it cannot be said 
that the outlook for Christian work among them is 
immediately encouraging, it is felt that, when things 
settle down again and feelings calm, it may be found 
that the door of entrance amongst them for evangelical 
workers is wider open than before. 

The Synod's proceedings, however, have had another 
and by it unexpected result : they have helped the 
grov/ing discontent of Christian Bulgarians with the 
Orthodox Church. Up to the outbreak of the war it 
may be said that all Orthodox Bulgarians, however 
indifferent to religion, felt an attachment to the Church 
as a national institution. But much has happened during 
the year. Orthodox Servia and Greece have proved (I 
write as a Bulgarian) perfidious allies. Orthodox Rou- 
mania has acted the brigand. Worst of all. Orthodox 
Russia — the defender of the faith and the champion of 
the Slavs — has shown herself a relentless opponent. The 
Bulgarian Orthodox Church has done practically nothing 
in the way of relieving distress. The great bulk of the 
funds contributed in aid have come from Protestant 
Britain and America. The most active defenders of 
Bulgaria's good name, and out of all proportion the most 


numerous, have been Protestants ; and these have also 
been specially distinguished as raisers and administrators 
of relief funds, as workers in hospitals, and above all as 
the Aarons and Hurs of the Bulgarian cause, upholding it 
with unwearying prayer. When, therefore, to these 
considerations was added the Synod's mediseval method 
of converting the unfortunate Pomaks, the rising dissatis- 
faction with Orthodoxy was consider abty strengthened ; 
and we have witnessed the unprecedented phenomenon 
of Sofia secular papers opening their columns to contri- 
butors who seriously advised that the nation should 
renounce Orthodoxy and should seek union with the 
Anglican Church ! 

Doubtless that was but the red and angry glow of the 
iron, when the furnace of trial was at its hottest. It will 
die down ; and the nation will m.aintain its Orthodox 
Church. But the old lo3^alty to it has largel}^ gone. And 
it is to be feared that what there was of religion and piety 
in the countr}^ has to a great extent gone by the board. 

It is a critical time. Infidelity, long widely rampant 
in the land, draws encouragment from Bulgaria's many 
and unjust sufferings, and finds in orthodoxy, not a 
worthy foe, but a useful foil. There is but one hope. 
War and disaster and their attendant miseries are God's 
deep-furrowing plough ; and when the rains of His Spirit 
are given on the seed cast upon wounded and bleeding 
hearts, such a harvest is realised as would be impossible 
in what are called happier times. That the seed sown 
by the handful of evangelicals may thus fall upon pre- 
pared soil and be watered by the Divine Spirit, is what 
we are all praying for and labouring after. We seek the 
prayers of others also. Robert Thomson. 

Samokof, Bulgaria. 






Before we consider the important question — " How shall we best 
reach the Moslem women in China ? " — may I record one or two 
personal observations ? They are the result of twenty years among 
the Mohammedans in the provinces of Kansu, Shensi, and Honan, 
where they are very numerous. 

In speaking of " Moslem lands " most of us have not yet even 
thought of China as, to some extent, a " Moslem land." And in this, 
we have very jjrobably one important reason why, up to the present — 
so far we as know from China's Mission Records — not one lady worker 
has been set apart for this very great, and very neglected, field of 
service. This is not, perhaps, the place to say what position the 
Moslems would have in a national census ; but, without doubt, a very 
astounding one, if the census were accurate. 

Close contact with this people has given convincing proof that the 
line of demarkation between Moslem and non-Moslem Chinese is as 
great as, if not greater than, that between Chinese and foreigners. 
Though for centuries there has been intercourse between these two 
classes, it has mostly been at the point of the sword ! And there is 
ever " a great gulf fixed," how great only those who have lived among 
them know. I have no hesitation v/hatever in saying tha,t the social 
and moral condition — they have no rehgious — of these Moslem 
women, for whom the Quran and the other books which contain 
Mohammed's teachings lay down a special line of treatment, is 
infinitely sadder than that of the heathen Chinese women, for whose 
benefit and salvation so many saintlj^ and cultured women are pouring 
out their lives. 

In addition to the foregoing, we shall do well to bear in mind that 
modes of thought, manners and customs, and all their traditions — the 
latter are well preserved — all tend to make it almost as impossible 
through the ordinary " Chinese women's work " to reach the Moslem 
women, as the mixing of oil and water ; and here we come to an 
important conclusion why they have not been reached. Moslem 
women cannot bo classed with the heathen Chinese women ; their 
upbringing and whole train of thought being entirely different. These 
and other reasons, dealt with later, have convinced me that if we 
desire to reach these neglected ones, we must certainly have special 

My experience in regard to this need has been that of some other 
missionaries : spealdng generally, the Chinese Christians look upon all 
the followers of Isla^n as being outside the pale and possibility of 

♦aeprinted from "The Chinese Heiorder," Feb. 1913. 


salvation ; consequently, I have found it almost always necessary to 
meet, entertain, and exhort these Moslem guests myself, rather than 
entrust it to even devoted and experienced Bible-women who, alas f 
only too frequently are still powerfully swayed — where Moslems are 
concerned — by their old native prejudice. 

Special training of natives in view of Mohammedan work is also- 
necessary. This very necessary and highly important work should 
have for its sole aim the salvation of the Moslem women and children. 
In arranging a course of study toward this end, the following subjects 
should be included : — 

{a) What are the real teachings of Mohammed and of Islam ? 

(6) What has been the e-ffect of these teachings ? 

(c) What does the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ offer to all who 

believe ? 

(d) How should the Gospel be presented to those who have never 

been idolaters ? 

Special guest-rooms for Mohammedans would also be a wise 
provision. I feel sure we should then reach numbers of Moslem women, 
and they would greatly appreciate the loving thought which had 
provided for their peculiar need. In such guest-rooms, their strong 
aversions to so many of the native habits and customs would not be 
ridiculed by the " other " Chinese. Gently and prayerfully they might 
be dealt with, and many, we trust, would by the Love of Christ be 
constrained. Not a few of us have done far more than this in order to 
meet the great need, and to carry the Gospel to the other Chinese 
women ; why not for the Moslem women ? 

Most of all we need special literature for Mohammedans The one 
great reason Avhy special literature is needed is because Moslems 
worship ''The One God " and are not idolaters. Another reason why 
they should have special literature is that their terms are quite different 
from those used in ordinary Chinese literature — I speak of Christian 
literature as prepared for the Chinese. Although the Moslems have 
had, in one sense, to conform to Chinese laws, there is another sense 
in which they are always a law unto themselves. The profound 
teachings of Buddha and Confucius are nothing to them. Consequently 
they have to be treated in an entirely different way, and along an 
utterly different line of thought. The Gospel is the same for all classes, 
but the presentation requires adaptation to the special class of hearer. 
We have catechisms and tracts expressly prepared for heathen women, 
and surely it is reasonable to ask that such should be prepared for the 
Moslem women. In the general ■\\ork, hymns too have been greatly 
used. All missionaries know the impossibility of working efficiently 
without these factors, and the immense blessing they have been. 
We are not forgetful of the most important literature for Moslems — the 
Holy Scriptures, the true guide for all mankind. These are ever of the 
first importance in all our work ; but we are now writing of the need of 
special Christian literature for the Moslem men and women. Trans- 
lators and compilers have taken exquisite pains to prepare books for the 
heathen Chinese, now we need a like provision for the Moslem Chinese. 
Let us pray that speedily all that is needed to carry forward this further 
work may be forthcoming, and, at no very distant day, the " True 
Light " may break over Chinese Islam. 

And, finalty, the special study of Islam by foreign workers is 
desirable. In addition to a good \\'orking knowledge of the spoken and 
■\^Titten Chinese (some knowledge of the Arabic would be a great stand- 




by) it is most desirable that workers in Moslem districts should have a 
fair knowledge of the Koran, and the teachings of Islam. One fact 
which may not be generally known is the existence of an " unsevered 
link " between Mecca and this land of Sinim. Pilgrimages are or- 
ganized and carried out, and there is constant exchange of correspond- 
ence. Anything that will bring about a greater insight and enhght- 
enment touching Islam, especially that regarding the fine shades of 
Mohammed's teaching in respect to women, would more than repay 
what it cost. Dr. Pfander gives much that is very needful for us to 
know in his great work " Mizan u'l Haqq " (" Balance of Truth ") in 
this connection. 

In closing, let me emphasise the need of a special band of courageous 
and spiritually-minded women who, with holy boldness and in the 
power of the Risen Christ, will enter this " open door," and with the 
good old " Aveapons," which have stood the test and seen the downfall 
of many a hoary fetish, will not cease their efforts until the fanaticism, 
which has crushed all that is good and beautiful and right out of 
Moslem womanhood, be compelled to yield ; and Islam's women in 
China be brought to the feet of Christ. Oh ! to sound a clarion note 
for these millions who are powerless to plead for themselves, and for 
whom. " the fulness of time " has come. 

L. V. 8oderstr6m. 




On August 6th and 7th, 1913, a Conference of far-reaching importance 
for Mohammedan missions was held at Bethel bei Bielefeld, Friedrich 
von Bodelschwingh's garden city of misery and love in the Westphalian 
Highlands. Only some forty persons took part in it, mostly from 
Oermany, but we had amongst us four Dutch representatives, two 
Swiss, and one French delegate, together with three visitors from 
across the sea. The Conference was in no sense official, although 
several missionary societies had sent official representatives to it. 
Everj'^one present came out of personal interest for the cause, namely, 
that of missions to Mohammedans. We had with us directors of 
missionary societies, such as Dr. Paul, of Leipzig, Lie. Axenfeld, of 
Berlin, Herr Oettli, of Basel, and Herr Gunning, of Holland ; Univer- 
sity lecturers on Missions, such as Professor Haussleiter, of Halle, and 
Dr. Julius Richter, of Berlin ; and missiona.ries, such as M. Allegret, 
of Paris, and Dr. S. M. Zwemer, of Caiio. The chair was taken by the 
chairman of the Commission on Islam of the World Continuation 
Committee, nearly all the Continental members of which were present. 
The purpose of the Conference was the same as that of a Conference 
held in New York on January 14th, 1913, namely, the frank and 
friendly discussion of the obligation upon Christendom to evangelise 
the Moslem world. There was no immediate thought of fresh enter- 
prise. Those present had no pov/er of action, and so much is already 
in train. Our one desire was the fuller realisation in friendly conference 
and united prayer of what we had already undertaken. The Conference 
programme was very simple. In three half -day sessions we discussed 
three subjects. Each- was introduced by a short address by one or 
more experts, and the principal thing was our open discussion. 

1. We first surveyed the Moslem world and the God-given respon- 
sibility of the several nations represented there at Befchel for its 
evangelisation. All our hearts were moved by M. Allegret 's statement 
of the overwhelming responsibility laid upon the little company of 
French Protestants by their great African possessions. The Dutch 
delegates described their work in the Sunda Islands, the German 
more especially their colonies in tropical Africa, which are being 
covered by a ceaseless floodtide of Islam. Each section was deeply 
conscious of its own particular burden, and it was encouraging to spend 
the evening session following upon our first meeting in hearing reports 
of successful work among Moslems all over the world. 

2. Then came the question which focussed the entire Conference : 
How shall the Home Church be roused to the fulfilment of its re- 
sponsibility ? Missions -inspector Axenfeld, who had leturned shortly 
before from East Africa, was the first speaker, and gave the lead to our 
discussion. His words were a call to repentance. Christendom, he 

♦Translated from the German, 


said, has taken her responsibihty for Islam too Ughtly, and we have 
much ground to regain. What we have hitherto been doing for Moham- 
medans has been largely inspired by what is not the right motive ; we 
have worked against Islam rather than on behalf of the Moslem. We 
are called not to defend our position, but to win victories for Christ. 
In order to achieve this, we must above all learn to love and to arm 
ourselves more fully with the spirit of prayer. Our very missionary 
motive must become more deeply rooted. The motive of compassion 
is inadequate. We need a stronger realisation of the sacredness of the 
great commission, to which we owe obedience ; and the deepest and 
most potent motive still remains, the ministry of reconcihation of 
2 Cor. V. 18-21. From this point of view alone can the inner circle of 
missionary supporters be armed for the fray. 

Then, of course, there is the question of impressing the urgency of 
the situation upon the home Church as a whole. Let us endeavour to 
bring out small monographs on Islam and Mohammedan Missions and 
circulate them more extensively. Let us approach the Church Coun- 
cils of Germany with the view of at last getting Mohammedan missions 
included in our public Church Service. The chief thing, however, is to 
enlist a company of men and women who really know Islam and really 
love the Moslem and who will throw themselves into the work of 
■developing interest in this matter in the home lands. 

3. Our third topic was the training of missionaries for Moslem 
lands. We realised that this was a great problem which we have only 
just begun to solve. We have set to our hand, however, and we, 
therefore, faced the question with good courage. On the Continent, 
the Theologische Schule at Bethel has especially undertaken the 
training of missionaries to Mohammedans. Its two lecturers on Islam, 
Pastor Simon and Pastor Oestreicher, therefore opened our discussion. 
Tv/o other members of the Conference had also been in Cairo a short 
time before, and had made acquaintance with Zwemer's and Gairdner's 
Study Centre there. The twofold opportunity of Bethel and Cairo 
was thus presented to us, rich indeed when supplemented by the 
Orlentalische Seminar in Berlin and the Kolonial-Institut in Hamburg. 
Yet manifold, too, are the needs of the situation. 

There are clearly two classes of missionaries to Mohammedans. 
First, those who go to the ancient Moslem lands where Islam has been 
fast rooted for hundreds of years, and where Arabic is the vernacular 
B>s well as the language of scholars. Such workers need a thorough 
knowledge of classical Arabic, the Koran and Mohammedan tradition 
and theology. On this foundation they must then build a knowledge 
of vulgar Arabic and present-day Islam. Secondly, there are those 
who go to regions where Islam is still a new thing and where Arabic 
is not spoken. For them a certain knowledge of Arabic and the funda- 
mentals of Islam are sufficient. The chief thing for them is to become 
familiar with Islam as it is to-day, suffused with all kinds of heathen 
elements. Obviously the former class of worker requires a longer and 
more thorough course of study than the latter. The former will profit 
by the full course in Cairo, but not without a good grounding at home 
first in classical Arabic. For the second class of worker a shorter 
period of study in Cairo is also desirable, because tbey can feel there 
the full pulse of Moslem life. The Conference, therefore, expressed the 
•desire that for this class of worker there might be special courses from 
time to time in Cairo, lasting perhaps for six months, to which, however, 


it would be understood that they did not come without some previous 

The Conference closed with the passing of two important resolu- 
tions. The first took the form of an appeal to University students 
from whose ranks there must come not the smallest proportion of the 
missionaries to Mohammedans of the future. The appeal was forth- 
with presented at the Conference of the Student Christian Movement 
in session at Wernigerode, and is now going the round of the Contin- 
ental countries. The other resolution consisted in a letter addressed to 
the Continental missionary societies with the modest but urgent 
request that each society should promote work among Moslems with 
as serious purpose as possible in its particular field. 

What will be the lasting result of those days at Bethel ? The 
friends who Avere together there will know more definitely than they 
did before that they are fellow-workers, with a great common cause 
for which they are called to labour and pray. Their minds are the 
clearer concerning their purpose, and they will seek its attainment with 
greater zeal. The report of the Conference will carry the message to 
the missionaries of our Continental societies in Africa and Asia that 
there are people at home who aie concerning themselves with this 
long neglected task, and it will give them fresh courage. And for the 
rest, those who plamied the Bethel Conference fully realise that their 
work has only made a beginning and that the accomplishment of its 
j^urpose will need long persistent effort in great faith. 

Biehen bei Basel, Friedrich WtJRZ. 




Islam in Madagascar. 

From the Journal des Missioiis Evangeliques we learn that Islam is 
making considerable progress in Madagascar. On the north-west 
coast there are Moslem propagandists who travel from port to port 
and visit the villages. Some of them come from Zanzibar and others 
from Arabia. Although their work of conversion is superficial, not 
touching the inclination towards drunkenness on the part of the 
inhabitants, or heathen superstitions, it is still noteworthy in its 
results. Most of those who turn to Islam are women ; and even 
here the pan-Islamic spirit is in evidence, for they have collected 
money to assist the Khalif " in his war against the wicked Christians." 
There seems to be little Christian missionary contact with Islam in 
Madagascar at present. 

Unhappy Armenia. 

We are glad to call the attention of our readers to an international 
monthly pubHshed at 175, 5th Avenue, New York, entitled Armenia. 
The editor is Arshag D. Mahdesian, and the magazine has the co- 
operation of a number of friends of the oppressed Christians in Armenia, 
both in England and America. The object of the magazine is expressed 
in the words of Gladstone, " To serve Armenia is to serve civihsation." 
The contents include strildng cartoons, articles on the present day 
situation, Armenian folk-tales, poems and Church history, as well as 
a review of the press and its attitude toward the Armenian problem. 
The magazine is well edited and printed. A recent number of the 
paper informs us that " the Armenian residents of Burma have ap- 
pealed to the Hague Tribunal, under date of February 3, 1913. This 
appeal is the exact counterpart of the appeal of the Armenian residents 
in Japan, and protests against Turkish atrocities in Armenia and 
demands for Armenians in their native land the right to obtain arms 
in order to defend themselves from extermination. The appeal 
emphasizes that all Turkish atrocities in Armenia are perpetrated 
through the connivance of the Turkish Government, supported by 
the Powers of Europe." 

The Moslem Artisans of Kashmir. 

It is not generally realised that the most Moslem province of India 
is Kashmir, where the percentage of the Moslem population is larger 
than in any other section of India. An interesting article by Mukandi 
Lai in The Modern Review, Calcutta, for August, 1913, although not 
speaking in complimentary terms of these Moslems, still credits them 
with many virtues and acknowledges their great skill in handicraft. 
The whole article is well worth reading : — 


" According to the census of 1901, out of a population of 1,157,394,. 
Kashmir possesses 1,083,766 Musahiians, 60,682 Hindus and 12,637 
Sikhs. The Musalmans are only nominally so. Barring their filthy 
habits, they are Hindus so far as their civilisation and social polity are 
concerned. Their shrines, which are so different from the mosques of 
other Musalman countries, are situated on those very spots which are 
associated with Hindu gods. They never think of Mekka ; Biskis, 
Babas and Pirzadas are objects of their veneration — the divine beings 
whom they worship in Ziyarats. But traditionally they also divide 
themselves into Shaiks, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. Shaiks are 
by far the most numerous, and are the descendants of the Hindus. 
Such Hindu caste names as Kaul, Bat, Aitu, Rishi, Mantu, Ganai, 
derived from Brahminic names, and Magre, Tantre, Dar, Dangar, 
Raina, Rathor, Thakar and Naik, derived from Kshatriya septs, are 
still common among Musalmans. 

" Two very pecuhar types of Musalman sects have to be mentioned 
here, though strictly speaking they belong to the agricultural (Zamindar) 
class. There are some Musalman colonies in the south-west of the 
valley where the Pathans had originally settled. The most interesting 
of these colonies is the one belonging to Kaki-khel Afridis at Drangham. 
They retain all the old Pathan customs and speak Pastu. They adorn 
their persons with a picturesque dress and carry about sword and shield 
on their person. They regard themselves as a brave and chivalrous 
people, and when they are in a rage, there are no men (foes) skilful and 
powerful enough to vie with them. They pass into the wilds and 
encounter bears with sword in hand on foot, or with a spear on their 
ponies. In the early days of the modern State of Kashmir its rulers 
\Yere not indifferent to their valour, and they were eniployed in mihtary 
service, for which they held villages free of revenue. 

" Another sect of this type of peculiar peasants are fakirs, profes- 
sional beggars. They own several villages, and work as agxiculturists 
in summer and go about begging in winter. They are proud of their 
profession, and are not disHked by the people either. They contract 
marriages with mendicant peasant famihes called Bechanwols. This 
mendicant peasant tribe is scattered in the valley and does not own 
any particular area, nor have they any marked features about their 

" All the Musalmans for all practical purposes are divided into two 
classes, Zamindars (agriculturists) and Taifdars (artizans). Taifdars 
include the market -gardeners, herdsmen, shepherds, boatmen, minstrels 
leather workers and the menial servants of the villagers. No Zamindar 
would inter-marry with a Taifdar. In this division are included some 
of the very important classes of Kashmir — Dums, Galawans, Ratals 
(Watal) and Bhands. 

" In order of merit or importance, the Dums stand first. They 
claim descent from a Hindu king who is said to have scattered his sons, 
for fear of their numerical strength, into the valley. But some people 
say that they are descended from Chaks. They are village watchmen. 
Formerly they were the guardians of the State's share of the crops. 
As officials they are very trustworthy and have never been found 
guilty of misappropriation or dishonesty. But as private citizens they 
are by no means a desirable set of people. They never miss an oppor- 
tunity of annoying the villagers. They are an object of terror and 
dislike to the peaceful villagers. 


" Galawans are the custodians of horses, and people call them 
hcrse-kee'pcrs, and I have given elsewhere an account of these honour- 
able horsestealers. Violence and restlessness are engrained in their 
blood. Originally they eked out an existence by grazing ponies, but 
subsequently they found it more lucrative to steal them. Eventually 
they became a criminal tribe. During the Sikh rule (1819-46) they 
proved a terror to the people. Khaira Galawan, the legendary hero 
of these robbers, was killed by the Sikh Governor, Mian Singh. Gulab 
Singh, the founder of the modern State, hunted down the tribe and 
transported many of them to Bunji. But they still hold a recognised 
position in the valley, a^nd som.e of them are o^^Tiers of hundreds of 
Kashmiri ponies in addition to their being the guardians of thousands." 

Twice to Mecca and now Preaching in South-east Borneo. 

From the monthly magazine of the Rhenish Missionary Society, we 
learn of their work in south-eastern Borneo among pagans and Moslems. 
In May last, Inspector Wagner, with Missionary Hensgen, made a 
journey in the Sampit District, going inland from the coast. The 
population of this entire region along the coast, with the exception of 
some Chinese merchants, is already Mohammedan. Among the 
Moslems there are a great number of returned pilgrims from Mecca. 
Islam is also making rapid inroads among the pagan tribes, and there 
is a loud call for reinforcements. At Samba a new mosque has been 
erected, but further up the stream of the same name there is a village 
asking for Christian teachers. In other villages there is a dem^and for 

Among the natives who accom.panied the missionaries on this 
journey was a former Jiajji from the Sultan's family of Kutai on the 
east coast of Borneo. Twice he had made the pilgrimage, and was 
robbed and badly treated by the Arabs. His attention was attracted 
to Christianity, and he was finally baptised. He became an evangehst, 
and although driven from his former home, is now doing excellent 
work in the region mentioned. 

Missionary Progress among Moslems in China. 

Mr. F. Herbert Rhodes writes from Chefoo as follows : " You will 
rejoice to know that definite testimony to the Lord Jesus Christ among 
our long-neglected Mohammedans is now being borne in not a few places. 
Recent letters report that two cities — liitherto unoccupied for Christ, 
and both well-known strong Moslem centres — are soon (d.v.) to be 
opened, and the missionaries concerned are prayerfully facing the dual 
work necessary. One worker writes from ' Muhammadan Kansu ' 
(North-West China) that he has four colporteurs out in the district ; 
to each he has given special Chinese hterature for the Mohammedan 
laity, as well as Arabic for the Mullah class. A worker in North- 
Central China writes as follows : ' I am endeavouring to place a Chinese 
Tract for Moslems in every Mohammedan home in this city.' Another 
missionary writes as follows : ' A few days ago, some thirty Moslems, 
Mullahs, students of Arabic, and followers, came to our Gospel Hall 
and asked, later demanded, that no more Chinese tracts for Moslems 
be issued there . . . ' In closing his deeply interesting report he 
adds, ' As if we should stop ! ! In the Name of the Lord of Hosts we 
go forward ; the Truth must win.' " 


Islam in Lagos. 

A correspondent in West Africa sends us two photographs of 
mosques recently erected in Lagos, and gives the following information 
regarding conditions there at present : — 

" All that has been written in regard to the rapid progress of 
Mohammedanism in West Africa is very true, without any exaggeration. 
I subjoin a quotation of the last census taken about this time last year, 
when the population of Lagos was put down as 73,766. It reads thus : 
' Of the total population, 21,155 were scheduled as Christians, and 
36,018 as Mohammedans. The proportion of Mohammedans to the 
total population is, therefore, 49 per cent, as compared with 29 per 
cent. Christians and 22 per cent, pagans.' The figures speak for 
themselves. The above does not touch the interior. Although the 
Government provides a school specially for Mohammedan children, 
where they are taught the three Rs, and some of the parents avail 
themselves of the opport.umty of sending their children to that school, 
yet the more enhghtened parents send theirs to our missionary schools, 
which are provided with better teachers and where they know the Bible 
is taught ... I have also learned that many who were once disposed 
to embrace Christianity readily yield to persuasive arguments, because 
our religion does not tolerate polygamy, and to profess Christianity 
mthout the hope of receiving the rite of baptism is repugnant to the 
Mohammedan mind. 

" Unfortunately no direct efforts have been made in this mission 
since it was established some seventy years ago to stem the rushing 
current of Islam. This important question is frequently discussed 
among us with no practical result, because ill-equipped to make 
aggressive efforts ; and so with our eyes open, how very painful to see 
that Mohammedanism is carrying away everything before us, winning 
not only pagans but, alas ! some professed Christians also. 

" A special organisation is very much needed to combat Islam in 
this Yoruba Country : this we all know, but we have neither the men 
nor means to carry out our intentions. There is no bhnking the fact 
that Christian missions in this country are seriousl}^ threatened, because 
the antagonism between the crescent and the Cross was never more 
pronounced than it is to-day." 

The Two Ideals and How to Meet them. 

One who signs himself Sufi writes in Muslim India concerning the 
contrast between the East and the West, and we may read between 
the lines of his argument a good suggestion as to the right attitude 
of the missionary toward the Oriental and the ^vrong application of 
Bible texts. " The Koran," he says, " teaches ' We belong to God, 
and to God we go,' while the Bible says ' Dust thou art, and unto dust 
shalt thou return.' A Moslem, when he hears of any person's death, 
in voluntarily^ says, Inna lilldhe wa inna elehi rdjeoon — i.e., for God's 
we are, and to God we go ; while no funeral prayer among the Christians 
can pass without citing the above text from the book of Genesis. But 
what a great contrast between the two ideals given in these two texts — 
one goes to God and the other to dust ; and this we learn from the very 
beginning of our infancy, when we receive impressions not to be 
obliterated easily afterwards, from which we receive inspiration 
unconsciously throughout our hves ; it affects our future activities 


and influences our aspirations. One has simply to read the West and 
the East in this Hght and he mil reaUse the truth of these remarks. 

" ' Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return,' has moulded 
the character in the West and influenced their philosophy of life. 
This is what an Occidental would think — I am dust, the last evolution 
of the dust, the product of the cosmic force in its final stage, to be 
reduced again to dust very soon ; I must make the best of my present 
sojourn. ' Struggle for existence ' is the Cosmic principle, and ' the 
survival of the fittest ' the rule observed by every organism coming out 
of dust, as Huxley and other thinkers in the West say. As a positivist, 
I see the same in the Avhole dumb nature, and in the various mani- 
festations of the dust ; self-assertiveness, the only secret of life ; I 
must find means to make the best of my life beyond which there is 
nothing but dust. Let others die to my advantage ; I am superior 
to them, and they are born to bear my burden ; it is what is done by 
every atom in the universe, if it cares to have existence. ' Dust I am, 
to dust I go ' ; I must be true to my origin and to my destination. 
Hence the modern western philosophy, and Mammon the deity. 
Let us turn to a Moslem, and see what he thinks as to the aim of his 
life. He would say on every occasion : For God's I am, to God I go. 

" Why should I be so sordid, base and selfish ? Let not filthy lucre 
corrode me ; I have to go to God. Why should I worship Mammon, 
whose gifts are transitory ? I may have a few hours of ease and 
luxury, no doubt ; but I am not going to dust and to oblivion for good. 
I have an eternal life before me. I am going to God, the fountain of 
eternity. How to equip myself for my permanent abode ? I can be 
accepted by Him only if my ways are after His ways. He is the 
Creator and Sustainer of all. The weak and the strong and the white 
and the coloured are all equally welcome to His vast bounties ; His 
blessings are open to all. These are the broad. Divine morals which 
I read from the book of Nature, and so they should be mine. If He 
is our universal Father we are all brothers, and self-assertiveness and 
treating others as my burden-bearers must be most abominable to 

A new Attitude toward Christianity in India. 

A lady missionary, writing in the Punjab Missionary News, speaks 
of the great change that has taken place in the Punjab. " In the last 
fifty years the attitude of people in India towards the Gospel has under- 
gone a great change. When I was first in the Punjab, in those days 
the feehng was one of contempt and hatred. It was no uncommon 
thing for a Mohammedan on hearing the name of Christ to show his 
disgust by spitting. If he did not go so far as that he would often try 
to drown the sound of Christ's name, and to cleanse his ears from the 
pollution of hearing it, by a loud repetition of the creed of Islam. 
Cases were not uncommon when the Bible was snatched from a mis- 
sionary's hand — thrown on to the ground and trampled under foot. 
That was the attitude of Mohammedans especially as I first recollect it , 
and my work has been mostly amongst them. 

" Go back twenty-five years and we find a change. Hatred and 
contempt no longer, but fear of the name of Christ and of the Bible. 
Many lads came to Mission Schools for economy's sake, but came with 
strict injunctions from their parents not to touch the Bible, and it 
was hard to get some of them to do so. It was looked upon as a ' bomb' 


is now-a-days. It might explode in some way if carelessly handled^ 
and might blow the handler's reUgion to pieces. 

" Now all has changed. One m.eets Mullahs and others who have 
their Bibles and read them. One finds men of all classes wanting to 
possess them. In a college where regular Bible-readings are given, 
but where no student is asked to buy one for himself, it is remarkable 
how, as the year passes, more and more of the first year students come 
and ask where they can get Bibles, and bring them with them to the 
class. One finds oceasionaily about the college the Bible of some 
senior student and notes signs in it of careful study, and an occasional 
student will remark, ' We come to your college to learn the Bible. 
The Koran we learnt at school but not the Bible, and it is as much our 
book as yours. We want to know it.' Christ's name is used with 
reverence and listened to in the same way. 

" To one who has known something of the country for the past 
fifty years, the three stages through which the attitude of Moham- 
medans has passed are very clear, viz. : from contempt and enmity, 
through fear to reverence, and a desire to learn." 

Turkish Diplomas for American Doctors. 

The difiiculty of obtaining a medical diploma from the Ottoman 
authorities is proverbial, and we heartily endorse the editorial that 
appeared in The Orient for July 30th : — 

" The recent success of an American in obtaining in very sliort 
order a permit from the Ottoman authorities for the practice of medicine 
in this country, brought out a remark from one of the Ottoman officials 
concerned which is worthy of note. ' Janum,' said he, ' what is the use 
of putting any obstacles in their way ? If we find a reason for refusing 
to allov/ these Americans to pass with, merely a colloquium, they take 
all our examinations and do a lot better than our own trained doctors ; 
so we might as well let them go ! ' The average American physician 
who comes out here is a picked, and his subsequent cai'eer proves 
it. He will hold his own with his competitors anyAvhere. The old 
theory that those who couldn't succeed in America came out to foreign 
parts as missionary physicians, is exploded. In character, as well as 
in attainments, they rank with the best. And those who have been 
in their hospitals under their treatment are loud in their voluntary 
testimonials to their self-denying devotion and wonderful skill. Tur- 
key would do herseK and her people the greatest possible favour if she 
made practice in her borders easy instead of difficult for these conse- 
crated knights of the lancet. The suffering and the dying do not stop 
to inquire whether a man knows French enough to answer questions 
put by a Turkish medical professor. They need more such men as 
these foreign physicians have proved themselves to be, French or no 
French. It ought to be possible by this time for the Ottoman Govern- 
ment to allow medical examinations in English." 

Reforms in Asiatic Turkey. 

From official sources we have a summary given us of the proposed 
reforms in Turkey. The promises certeinly are big, and the reforms 
will be fundamental if only they can be carried out to the satisfaction 
of those for whom they are intended. Each one of the four items 
would be the correction of age-long abuse under Ottoman rule : — 

1. We.kf properties, whose revenues are to be used for local 
beneficent purposes, are hereafter to be managed by the local com- 
munities according to special new regulations. 


2. The recruits of each district shall in time of peace do their 
military service in their own regions. If, however, the Government 
sees the need of sending an expedition to any frontier of the Empire^ 
all soldiers must be ready to join it. The troops, now stationed in 
Hedjaz, Yemen, Assir and Nejd will be in proportion to the number 
of local troops in each province. 

3. Considering the advantages of the teaching of the Arabic- 
language in schools in regions where the majority of the people speak 
that language, it has been decided to adopt Arabic for the present in 
the primary and secondary schools, with the prospect of adopting it 
later on in the higher schools as well. Still, since the official language 
is Turkish, this will be taught, as in the past, in the schools at vilayet 

4. Officials sent to Arabic-speaking regions must Imow Arabic 
as well as the official language, and this point will be taken into con- 
sideration in choosing such men. Functionaries of the second class 
will be chosen locally by the vilayet in conformity to existing law. 
Judges and officials of justice will be chosen by the central government, 
as their nomination has to be ratified by imperial trade. 

The Population of Morocco. 

There is no doubt that exaggerated estimp.tes have been given of 
the total population of this country. In the Geographical Journal 
for 1906, Capt. Larras placed the estimate for the total population at 
from four to live millions. According to the August number of the 
same journal, M. de Caix has given, in UAfrique Frangaise, reasons 
for the belief that even these figures are too high. " A census of the 
Shawia territory has given a total for this comparatively fertile and 
well-peopled area of 205,000, or only eighteen to the square kilometre. 
Such a density applied to the whole of Morocco, fertile and desert 
ahke, would give a total of only 3,600,000. On the other hand, a 
careful estimate of the population of all the occupied districts and 
regions bordering on them places the total of these at only some 
2,300,000, and the reports of travellers regarding the outl3ang regions 
give no reason for adding, for these, more than would bring the grand 
total to 3,000,000. These conclusions are supported by a comparison 
with Algeria at the time of the French occupation, allowing for a 
certain excess of fertile and well-peopled territory in the case of 

In Persia and Arabia the populations have also been over-estimated, 
and with the decrease in the number of Mohammedans in China by 
recent investigations, the total Moslem population of the world may 
be considerably less than that which is ordinarily given — 230,000,000. 
We hope soon to be able to give our readers a new and careful estimate 
of the totals of Moslem population in the world. Professor Wester- 
mann is preparing the figures for all Africa. 

The Mosque at Woking, England. 

In the course of a letter to the Paisa Akhbar, Lahore, M. Mahbub 
Alam announces that, thanks to the generosity of Mi*. Henry Leitner 
and Mrs. Leitner and the noble efforts of Mirza Abbas AU Baig, member 
of the India Council, the mosque at Woking (England) has been made 
over to the Mohammedans. The Mas j id was originally built by Dr. 
Leitner, the famous Orientalist, whose memory will always remain 


green in the Punjab ; but for many years past it formed part of the 
private property of the Doctor's son and widow, and was not used for 
Mohammedan prayers. All the legal formalities in connection with 
the making over of the mosque to the followers of Islam will be carried 
out in the near future. Mirza Abbas Ah Baig, however, has already 
permitted Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din to reside there temporarily and use 
it as a place of Moslem worship. 

Bible Work in Sumatra. 

"It is now just two years since the British and Foreign Bible 
Society has had a European working in Sumatra," writes Mr. Chas. 
E. G. Tisdall, " all the work there having since been done by Chinese 
colporteurs. In fact, it might be said that, with the exception of a 
short tour this year to the East coast of the Malay Peninsula, we have 
had no European selling Scriptures direct to Moslems anyvvhere in the 
agency, the whole time of the sub-agents being occupied in supervising 
the native colporteurs. 

" Notwithstanding this, the sales of Malay Arabic and Malay 
Roman Scripture portions show a gratifying advance on the sales of 
the previous three years, the figures being : — 

Malay Arabic. Malay Roman. Total. 

4,152 7,271 

5,365 8,752 

7,602 14,317 

10,011 20.720 

11,223 24,723 

or an increase of 240 per cent, in the past five years. 

" Of the 1912 sales, 15,000 books were sold in the F.M.S., Johore, 
Borneo, Banka and Sumatra, but principally in Sumatra, while 9,000 
were sold in Java. The great majority of these books were sold to 
Malays or at least to Moslems. 

" Khoo Chiang Bee, one of our Straits-born Chinese colporteurs 
is at present in the Padang district of West Sumatra. At Fort de 
Kock (which I proposed as headquarters if a Malay Mission could be 
formed), and other places around, he writes me that he has sold 5,000 
books already, and he has not been there two months yet. The 
people up there are all Moslems, and most of the books sold are Malay 
in Arabic character. 

" A few Europeans who would be willing to rough it, and lose 
themselves in the heart of Sumatra for months at a time, would, I 
believe, be able to place tlie Word of God in the hand of almost every 
one able to read, and in a few years time \^'ould have more converts 
than they were able to attend to." 

A Case against Japan. 

Mercantile enterprise must also reckon with the Mohammedan 
faith and their reverence for their prophet and his creed. The high 
respect which all Moslems pay to the Koran is certainly to be commend- 
ed, and we can well understand how their feelings were ruffled when 
manufacturers put the Moslem creed upon ordinary articles of com- 
merce which may not always be used with respect. We learn from 
The Englishman of Calcutta that " the Mohammedans of Rangoon have 
petitioned the Viceroy to prohibit the importation into British India 
of manufactures bearing inscriptions, verses or texts, from the Koran 

1908 . . 

.. 3,119 

1909 . . 

. . 3,387 

1910 . . 

. . 6,715 

1911 .. 

. . 10,709 

1912 . . 

. . 13,500 


or the other sacred books of Musulmans, subjecting the offenders to 
penalties prescribed under the Sea Customs Act for similar offences. 
This petition it is understood is the outcome of the strong feeling 
against a local firm who, in July last year, imported from Japan two 
thousand mats inscribed with a mosque, and the ' Kalma ' or the 
creed, ' there is no God but one God, and Mahomet is his prophet.' 
These mats were seized by the police to prevent a disturbance which 
was feared if sale were allowed, and the firm was ordered by the 
District Magistrate to refrain from selling the mats for two months, 
which period was extended by the Local Government for one year in 
December last year." 

Sarikat el Islam. 

A Moslem Congress of the Sankat el Islam was recently held at 
Solo, Java, when not less than 30,000 people were present. One 
thousand six hundred native workmen on the States railway re- 
ceived permission to attend. The president of the Congress was 
Hajji Samanhoedi, and the vice-president R. M. Tdokroaminoto, a 
journalist of Surabaja. The latter opened the Congress in an address 
of welcome, in which he paid a tribute to H.M. Queen Wilhelmina of 
Holland. He stated that the object of the Sarikat Islam (Javanese 
for Sharikat el Islam, or Moslem Union) v/as to further Mohammedan 
interests and the Moslem faith, native industries, freedom and brother- 
hood. The Sarikat Islam seems in some respects to be a successor of 
the Boedi Oetama, the Young Javanese movement for self-government 
and nationalism, but is on a larger scale and appears more religious 
in character, the former being largely political. We hope to favour 
our readers with an article on this new movement in Islam shortly. 
Meanwhile we note that at Modjo-Warno the native Christians have 
started a society in opposition to the Sarikat el Islam, emd they already 
have many members. One of the missionaries writes, " What the 
future of the movement will be no one can say, but it is certain that 
within the past year greater changes have come into the minds of the 
Javanese than in the past twenty-five years. We stand before a new 
epoch. Will it be favourable for the spread of the Kingdom of Jesus 
Christ 1 It is a call to persevering prayer that Java in its present 
awakening may not only desire education and true nationalism, but 
also that salvation which is only in Jesus Christ our Lord." 

The Education of Moslem Women. 

The movement among Moslems in India for the education of their 
daughters is growing stronger everywhere. They themselves are 
opening schools and advocating higher education, while the mission 
schools and zenanas also report a considerable access of pupils. Miss 
A. Martin, writing in India's Women and China's Daughters, says : — 
'' A striking feature at the present time is the growing desire for 
w omen's education in the Mohammedan community, and the increasing 
readiness of Government to promote it. Her Gracious Majesty, the 
Queen Empress of India, showed great interest in the cause of female 
education on the occasion of His Majesty's visit to his Indian Empire. 
To commemorate her Gracious Majesty's interest, the Nawab Begam 
of Bhupal has established on a grand scale a Madresseh for girls at 
Delhi, and other similar institutions have been opened in Lucknow, 
etc. In Calcutta there are about nine schools for pardah girls. These 
are happy signs in favour of women, and by means of education the 


rising generation of Mohammedan women will be better fitted to take 
their places as wives and mothers, specially if they are married to 
educated men. 

" I have been asked by educated men about the pardah system. 
If the pardah is to be broken, it must be begun from childhood, as there 
is danger if it is not done gradually ; it may give cause for much 
discontent. Again, many educated women are quite pleased to remain 
within the four walls, and do not msh for a change. They say the waj^ 
their grandmothers and great-grandmothers lived is quite good for 
them. I have heard of one woman, the wife of a Government official, 
who, with her children, has come out of pardah, and further, has given 
her sister in marriage out of the pardah system. 

" Although these Indian schools have been opened, our work is not 
hindered ; we have open doors, and some girls who have been to these 
private Mohammedan institutions have given up and are being taught 
by missionaries. The following remark Vv-as made to me by a Moham- 
medan gentleman, ' House-to-house visiting by mission ladies has 
been a success in the past, and it will always be the same in the future.' " 

From United India and Native States we leain that at the opening 
ceremony of the first zenana central school in Bombay, the presiding 
Moslem laid stress on the fact that there was no institution in the 
Presidency which had for its object the training of Mohammedan girls 
as teachers for Urdu girls' schools. Though this object had not been 
attained, the Mohammedan community were thankful to Government 
that they now had a Central School in which to prepare girls of their 
religion for a course in the Training College. In replying, the Director 
of Public Instruction referred to the appreciable increase in the attend- 
ance of Mohammedan boys in the primar}^ schools of the Central 
division during the last six years, which he considered a healthy sign. 
Considering the increase in the attendance of Mohammedan girls, 
Government had wisely resolved to estabhsh central schools where 
Mohammedan girls would be prepared for the teaching profession. 

Russian Occupation cf Armenia. 

Writing in the magazine Armenia, Mrs. Diana Agabeg Apcar says : 
" The luckless geographical position of our country places the Arme- 
nians at the mercy of three evils, — Turkish Reforms, to be controlled 
or superintended by ' The Powers ' ; German Interests in Asia Minor, 
which are very great and which are tied up with those of ' Turkey ' ; 
and the Russian occupation of Armenia. As Turkish Reforms, to be 
controlled or superintended by ' The Powers,' have always meant 
and can only mean massacre, plunder, torture and outrage, if not 
controlled, or at least superintended, by ' The Powers ' ; and as German 
Interests in Asia IVIinor made the raising of the Armenian Question 
when the Armenians were being slaughtered from Constantinople to 
Van a ' serious inconvenience,' and also required that ' The Sultan 
should be allowed to do with his subjects as he liked,' it could only be 
expected that German Interests would decree again that the Armenians 
vshould die ; therefore, the most cruelly tortured and the most cruelly 
outraged and oppressed of peoples cannot do anything else except 
ohoose Russian occupation of Armenia, not because it comes near to 
the faintest shadow of a blessing, but because it will be a verj^ much 
modified evil when compared with the other two. 


" As is well-known, our Patriarch at Constantinople spends his 
days in running from one audience to another with Ministers of State, 
protesting against wrongs and demanding redress. 

" Against these appalling conrjitions in Armenia under Turkish 
overiordship, the conditions prevailing in that portion of our country 
under Russian domination compare very favourabl}^ Apart from the 
fact of amehorated conditions, the Armenians assimilate and they and 
the Russian people (fellow-sufferers like themselves) intermarry, and 
they are free from that accursed moral degradation which Moslem 
domination inflicts upon a Christian people. 

" The Russian Government is mighty and pov/erful, and the 
Armenians are pitifully weak, both numerically and otherwise ; they 
cannot stand against the Power in the North whose ominous shadow 
broods over them, therefore the sooner the Armenians co-operate 
with tlie government of the Tsar for the Russian occupation of Armenia, 
the better for our countr^^ and our people." 

Open-air Preaching to Moslems. 

That the opportunities for evangelisation are rapidly increasing 
everywhere and opposition diminishing, is evident from the possi- 
bilities of out-door preaching. The Rev. C. W. Thorne, M.A., of the 
Church Missionary Society, recently sent home a description of an 
evangelistic campaign carried on at Roza near Aurungabad. Here 
there is a shrine of a famous Mohammedan saint where more than 
200,000 pilgrims flocked this year. " Crowds of fa^kirs (so-called holy 
men) and beggars of all sorts gathered to reap their harvest from the 
offerings of the faithful ; there must have been at least 50,000 of these 
' holy men ' present. Shoals of children besieged the weary pilgrims, 
and hung about them for cowTie shells and pice. All the way to the 
shrine of the saint, right from the entrance gates of the town, sheets 
were spread on both sides of the road to catch the cowrie shells and 
copper pice which pilgrims shed as they went to the tomb." It is good 
to know that the witness of the Gospel was not absent. 

Public preaching services for Moslems are held in Cairo at four 
centres every ^^'eek, and the meetings are largely attended. Tent 
meetings have also been held in some of the villages, and it has been 
possible during the past year to distribute a considerable quantity of 
literature at the Tanta Miilid among the thousands of pilgrims. The 
most interesting news in this connection, however, comes from 
Morocco. Mr. George J. Fisher writes as follows from Mequinez, in 
the Gospel Message, of a meeting held in the market square. 

" A table for the Scriptures, a chair for a pulpit, a song in Arabic, 
a prayer, and the people gathered quickly until there was a good 
audience close about, of from seventy-five to ninety. Then our 
Brother Reed mounted the j^ulpit and preached, and it did my soul 
good to look upon the scene. Sunday another meeting was held, and 
Monday morning I preached in the same place through an interpreter 
to quite a large audience. Standing upon my chair i^ulpit, what a flood 
of recollections my suJToundings brought to my mind. At my extreme 
left and at the front of the great plaza stood that wonderful gateway, 
called Bab Mansur el Alj, that led to the palace. Just beyond the 
great wall the Sultan Mulai Ismail, who reigned from 1672 to 1727, 
built his magnificent palace. On the works about Mequinez it is 
recorded that he employed at one time twenty-five hundred European 


captives and thirty thousand native prisoners, his stables alone 
stretching out for three miles. How the Moorish nation has been 
despoiled by its own rulers until it was indeed a festering sore among 
the nations of earth ! But now the French army and French guns 
have lifted a good deal of the oppression, and the natives are able to 
draw a long breath ; and I, one of the despised Nazarenes in such a 
place as this, am able to stand with Jews, Moors and Berbers, gathered 
without fear about me while I set forth the Word of God. 

" These public meetings have continued from day to day in this 
city, sometimes three being held by the brethren at one time, generally 
with good attendance — from fifty to one hundred and twenty-five — 
and with good interest. Occasionally someone will want to contend 
or speak out and try to take the crowd away, but usually there has 
been good order and a wondering look upon the faces at the new 
doctrine. At the close of the meetings we offer our Colloquial Scriptures 
for sale, and during the m.onth past have sold about one hundred and 
fifty copies." 

The Cairo Study Centre. 

The Rev. W. H. T. Gairdner, Dr. Zwemer, and those associated with 
them, are to be heartily congratulated upon their effort to put into 
effect the suggestions of Edinburgh, 1910, and Lucknow, 1911. The 
last paragraph of their first Report gives a very good idea of their aims 
and the character of their work : — 

" Looking back over the first year of the Study-Centre, we feel 
that a good start has been made. We are not concerned about num- 
bers, the too rapid growth of which is not desired by us. We aie more 
concerned to strengthen our organisation, and we have no desire to 
weight it with any but students who possess the fullest credentials 
from missionary societies, and who in the truest sense of the word 
mean to study. In sending out this report, our desire has been to 
make it perfectly clear what the Study-Centre does, and does not 
attempt to do. It is a Study-Centre, not a College ; for its Superin- 
tendents are not professors : they are on the contrary exceedingly busy 
missionaries with serious responsibilities towards the duties entrusted 
to them by their Societies or Churches. They do not undertake to 
give many lectures, or to conduct many classes. Only a few of these 
can be given per week, and for the rest the work of the Superintendents 
consists in organising and superintending studies and in training and 
organising the native instructors. Those v/ho know how slender has 
been the assistance given to recruits in the past, will be best able to 
appreciate the magnitude of the advance represented by the programme 
of the Cairo Study-Centre even as thus restricted." 

But this gives no idea of the amount of work entailed in the super- 
intendence. We read, however, in various parts of the report, of the 
engaging, training and superintending of special teachers ; of the 
production of a text-book entitled, " A Phonetic Introduction to 
Arabic Pronunciation and Reading," also Part I. of a series of graduated 
conversational lessons on a sound and strictly scientific plan ; of 
lectures given that must have entailed considerable research and 
preparation ; and reading between the fines we see that the hands of 
these already busy missionaries must have been more than full. 

The report was sent out before the first examination of students 
had taken place, but we have since heard that the results were highly 


satisfactory ; incleed, in the case of those who had whole-heartedly 
adopted the new methods of the Study Centre, a triumph. After five 
months' tuition these students were able to give short addresses before 
a board of examiners, in " the language understanded of the people," 
and actually to commence, in their second semester, the study of 
classical with colloquial as the medium of instruction. 

We believe our brethren in Cairo have been laying firm foundations 
for giving that highly specialised training that is needed by missionaries 
to Mohammedans. We cannot think that the Boards who have such 
missionaries to train will be hkely to neglect the opportunities available 

In lending so much of the time and energy of the Rev. W. H. T. 
Gairdner and Dr. Zwemer to this work, the C.M.S. and the Board of 
the Reformed Church in America (Dutch) are leading the way in a new 
spirit of altruism amongst Missionary Societies, and it will only be as 
the other societies catch this spirit that this work, and others like it, 
will be developed as they should. The report points out that one of 
the essentials for the work is that there should be hostels to accom- 
modate the workers that the societies would send, so as to reduce to a 
minimum the cost of living in Cairo, also for facilitating tuition, and 
for other important reasons. It goes on to say that " such institutions 
could not be run on self-supporting lines, and this being so, it is clear 
that either a fund must be raised or an annual deficit must be guaran- 
teed by the societies to whose interest it is that such institutions should 
exist in Cairo." 

Since issuing the Report, the Cairo Study Centre has sent out a 
fuller prospectus for 1913-1914. It is as loiiov/s : — 

I. ARABIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (for Missionaries only). 

(i) For beginnei s : Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. 

The main features of Egyptian colloquial. 

(2) For second-term students : Arabic New Testament (reading, translation 

and grammar. 

(3) For advanced students : Kalila wa Dimna ; Qur'an : selections 

illustrating evolution of style and subject-matter. 

(4) Tafsir — el-Baidawi. 

(1-3) W. H. T. Gairdner, B.A. (4) R. F. McNeile, M.A. 
The lectures on Arabic phonetics, Egyptian colloquial, and tafsir will be 
arranged for privately at special times. 


(i) General introductory course : — S. M. Zwemer, D.D. 

Text-books : Klein's " The Religion of Islam " (Kegan Paul). 
Zwemer 's " Islam." 

(2) Historical course — R. F. McNeile, M.A. 

Summary of Qur'an theology. Doctrinal development : 
(a) its historical background ; (b) its origins in political and 
controversial issues. Evolution of the four usul, Qur'an, 
Tradition, Consensus, Deduction. 
Text-books : " The Saracens " (Story of the Nations). 
D. B. Macdonald's " Muslim Theology " 

(3) Islam in daily life : — George Swan, Esq. (Routledge). 

Practical mysticism in orthodox Islam, as illustrated by a life of 
the founder of one of the great dervish orders (ash-Shadhili). 


(i) Apologetics : Mohammedan objections to Christianity answered ; 
and. How to present the message of the Gospel to the Moslem 
mind and heart. — S. M. Zwemer, D.D. 

Text-books : Tisdall's " Mohammedan Objections Answered " 

Rice's " Crusaders of the Twentieth Century " 

(CM. Society). 
(2) The presentation of the Gospel to Moslem women. — 

Miss A. Y. Thompson. 



A New Step toward Religious Liberty. 
Friends of missions to Muslims, especially those of Egypt, will be 
interested in hearing the result of the trial, for alleged defamation of 

Mohammed and his book, of Sheikh A. A. F , a recent convert 

from Islam to Christianit}'. The trial was held at Minet al Qamh, hi.^ 
home toAvn, October 14th. He was charged with using the objection- 
able language one night last Ramadan (August), when some discussion 
arose betweer him and a crowd that liad gathered about him while 
he was sitting in a cafe. 

In this trial he escaped with only a nominal sentence, the payment 
of a fine of two pounds — $10 — although it was in the power of the 
judge, had his guilt been proved, to impose a fine of fifty pounds and 
imprisonment for a year. 

The issue of the case is remarkable in view of the seriousness of the 
charge, and of the fact that the judge is a strict Muslim. 

The testimony of the witnesses, of whom there were seven or eight, 
was conflicting ; various statements were made. The man had 
declared that the Koran was only a human compostion, poetry of 
unknown authorship, that the prophet was a liar, a lover of women, 
and that his religion was false. The only witness on whose testimony 
the convert had been relying refused at the last moment to tell the 
truth, evidently through fear. All his own family were against him, 
even the one or two that had promised to help him with their testimony, 
failing to appear in court. 

^^ Our stay in tiie town where the trial occurred was very short, and 
we had no opportunity of interviewing the judge after the trial. But 
we think that his verdict means one of two things : either that he 
disbelieved the evidence of his co-religionists and did not fear to 
disregard it, or that he did not consider the language used really 

On whatever his decision was based, the missionaries and friends of 
the man generally count the judgment a victory for him and for us 
all. Only a few years ago it would have hardly been possible. The 
remark made by one of the witnesses in giving his testimony — he was 
an Azhary sheikh by the way — was significant. He said in referring 
to his feelings during the discussion with the convert, " Had there 
been ' liberty ' I v/ould have done with the man what he deserved. 
I understood that he would have made short work with him 

W. L. McClenahan. 


The Rev. K. S. Krishnasamy asks us to point out that the quotation 
from " The Comrade " on page 424 of our last issue, is taken from a 
leader in that journal. 




Le Nationalisme Musulman en Egypte, en Tunisie, en Algerie. 
By Andre Servier. 12mo ; pp. 239. Price 3 francs. 
(Boet, publisher, Constantine, Algeria). 1913. 

Originally published as a series of articles in La Depeche de Constan- 
tine, of which the author is editor, this book has now reached its third 
edition. It is well docnmente. The writer aims at revealing to his 
fellow-countrymen the spirit and aspirations of the Young Tunisian 
party and the more recent Young Algerians. He treats of the Moslem 
Nationalist movement in Egypt as introductory to the chapters on 
Tunisia and Algeria, because it " exercises a very active influence '* 
in these latter countries, where its disciples, " although inferior to the 
Egyptian leaders as regards the extent of their movement, their 
knowledge and experience, are yet imbued with the same ideas, having 
the same uncompromising faith in the superiority of the Mohammedan 
religion and the same desire to free themselves from the wardship of 
European powers in order to live their own life and attempt to revive 
the decayed splendours of Islam." In the course of the argument he 
touches on the Brotherhoods of the North of Africa. " If (Moslem) 
civilisation in the North of Africa is less developed the more one re- 
moves from the East, the religious spirit on the other hand is more 
vigorous as one approaches the West ... In Egypt the nationalist 
idea has a political rather than a religious origin. Religious fanaticism 
is stronger in Algeria, and attains its maximum of intensity in Morocco. 
The rehgious brotherhoods were born in the Maghreb and in Algeria, 
and are more numerous in these countries than in the Orient." 

He thus sums up the points he has tried to establish, and advocates 
the following policy for the French Government : — 

(1) Develop the natural riches of the country, so as to- increase 
the well-being of the inhabitants and augment the national wealth. 

(2) Educate the natives and snatch them from their poverty and 
barbarism, and make of them loyal collaborators of the work we have 

To accomplish this it is necessary : — 

(1) To interest the natives in the maintenance of order and the status 

(2) Govern with the mass and not Avith the minority. Avoid all 
hostile groups. 

(3) Give the children a practical education answering to their 
needs, which will permit them to live their life in their own surroundings 
without the risk of their becoming " declassds." 

(4) Ameliorate the condition of the Moslem woman. 

(5) Maintain the material, moral and intellectual superiority of the 
French, so as to remain the directors of the evolution of the natives. 

(6) Increase by all possible means the French population. 


The work will prove interesting to all who seek to understand the 
Moslem mind and present-day tendencies of the Moslem world. I 
think the book represents the general attitude of the more influential 
class of French in Algeria, of those who take a real interest in the 
native problem. Percy Smith. 

The Governors and Judges of Egypt. By El-Kindi. Royal 8vo ; 
cloth gilt ; pp. 686+72. 125. nett. Luzac & Co., London. 

This handsome volum.e, which contains the nineteenth work issued 
by the trustees of the " E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Fund," forms an 
important addition to Arabic literature. 

The author's name (or title) is alone sufficiently attractive to cause 
the student to make an incursion into the history of the Arabs, for 
Bani Kindi was, perhaps, the most powerful tribe in Ai-abia, and some 
of its rulers were styled kings, while it is a most interesting fact that 
the three Al-Kindi's best-knoAvn to history all bore Christian name& 
or were descended from those who bore them. Of these, the famous 
philosopher at the court of Al-Ma'mun was named Ya'qub Abu Yusuf, 
while the author of the " Apology for Christianity " (Risalat al-Kindi) 
is styled Ibn Ishaq, and the author of " Governors and Judges " wa» 
Ibn Yusuf Ibn Ya'qub. Among other men of letters from this tribe 
may be mentioned Imru 1-Qays, the brilliant author of the best-known 
of the Mu'allaqat poems. 

Our author was born about 283 A.H., and died about 353A.H., but, 
by means of appendices based principally upon Ibn Hajar, the work 
has been brought down to 419 A.H. The importance of the book 
consists in the fact that it is one of the chief sources for Maqrizi's 
Histories of Egypt, and his Al-Khitat has been found a valuable means 
of checking and correcting this MS. 

The first section of this work consists of 298 clearly printed pages, 
forming Part I., "The Governors of Egj^pt " {i.e. — The Walis), then 
follows Part II., occupying 180 pp., upon " The Judges " (Qadis), 
after which we are given a very full supplement of 114 pp., mostly by 
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani. A seventy-page closely-printed index of 
proper concludes the Arabic text, which has been excellently 
printed by the Beyrout Catholic Press in 1908. The heavy super- 
calendered paper chosen was to the printer's advantage, but even 
allowing for this there is still room for congratulation. 

The Editor, Rhuvon Guest, Esq. (ex R.N.), has worked most 
strenuously, not only at his English introduction of seventy-two pages, 
but also at the criticism and correction of the MS., of which the original 
is in the British Museum. An interesting feature is the lithograpliic 
reproduction of several folios of Arabic MS. ; this should be very 
interesting to Arabic students, to whom we corc^ially commend this 

There are also two maps, one of Lower Egypt at the author's 
peiiod, and another of the Abbasid Empire. 

With regard to the editor's valuable glossary and notes upon 
grammatical style, he does not seem to have made it quite clear that 
the Arabic peculiarities are of two sorts : (1) those that are ortho- 
graphic eccentricities only ; (2) those that are out-and-out grammatical 
errors (and we do not absolve even the Koran from such). These in 
Class I. we find are very noticeably akin to the Koranic pecuharities of 


spelling — in fact, we doubt not, that Al-Kindi imitated the Koranic 
orthography as closely as possible. Let the budding student beware, 
for the orthography used by the best writers to-day does not too 
closely adhere to the Koran ! 

As to Al-Kindi's subject matter, we must admit the book to be 
rather tedious reading. This is partly due to the fact that he is so 
careful to trace his authorities to the fifth remove (as the editor has 
shown in his tables) that, roughly speaking, one-fourth of the book is 
nothing but isndd. Here there is a resemblance to Bukhari, the great 
haclith relater, and why should there not be ? for Bukhari had died in 
256 A.H., or only twenty-seven years before Al-Kindi's birth. 

Many of the related incidents are very trivial, but the author 
foresaw this objection and provided for it by saying that his book 
was a tasmia of the Judges, etc. (=enumeration !) 

We were disappointed to find so little reference to the Copts. 
Where were they ? Minding the flocks like the Anglo-Saxons after 
the Norman conquest ? Anyway, the references to them are scant, 
^nd in one passage they are spoken of as the 'Ummal (=workmen). 

The student will be interested in the Arabic notice of Al-Kindi's 
works to be found in Zaidan's excellent " History of Arabic Literature," 
Vol. ii., p. 319. A. T. Upson. 

Histoire des Arabes. Par CI. Huart. 2 vols. ; pp. 380, 512. 
Paris : Librairie Paul Geuthner. 1912-13. 

This most recent history of the rise of Islam and of the Arab 
conquest is in every way a remarkable production, most of all for 
its condensation and its precision of treatment. The first volume 
appeared in 1912, and the second, completing the study, has just come 
from the press. The author is consul-general of France and inter- 
preter for the Government, as well as professor at the School for 
Oriental Languages. He has thorough command of his material, and 
at the conclusion of each chapter gives a full bibliography. 

The first volume treats of the early history of Arabia, the kings of 
Ohassan and Hira, and of the city of Mecca and its rulers before the time 
of Mohammed, in six chapters. Two chapters are devoted to the 
mission of Mohammed and the organisation of Moslem society at the 
time of his death. From chapter 9 to 17 we have the history of the 
early caliphates, the Omeyyades, the Abbassides and the Fatimites. 
A specially interesting chapter deals with the political and economic 
conditions of this period. 

Volume II. begins with the period of the Crusades, and deals with 
the Fyyoubites and the Mamluke Dynasties. Special chapters are 
devoted to the Moslem rulers of Spain and Morocco, as well as a 
brief sketch of the independent sultanates and imamates of Yemen, of 
Oman, and the rulers of the iiifcerior of Arabia. The three final chap- 
ters deal with the history of the Mahdi in the Sudan, and give a sketch 
of science and literature among the Arabs. Although covering so large 
a field, the Avork has been well done, and the author may well say in 
his preface : — 

" Les pages qui suivent off rent au public un manuel, puissent-elles 
repondre a I'ideal qu'on se forge d'un ouvrage de ce genre, concision 
dans I'exposition, precision dans les details ! Si, en les lisant, on se 
fait une idee nette d'un developpement historique pom-suivi k travers 
treize siecles, Tauteur sora heureux, car tel est le but qu'il s'etait 
propose d'atteindre." 


The book contains a number of interesting tables, 112 pages of 
index and a map. At the end of the volume the author gives his 
conclusions, which we deem worthy of presentation to our readers : — 

" We have now finished this long account of the history of thirteen 
centuries. The impression gained from this succession of catastrophes, 
of constant wars, of endless pillaging, of changes in government, of 
the establishment of a military ohgarchy among a people continually 
suffering from their oppression, sometimes with submission and again 
in revolt, is one of distaste and weariness. It is evident that Islam, 
the rehgion that succeeded in producing a form of society, with the 
family as the foundation, which has become by its very length of 
existence intangible and indestructible, and of which one is unable to 
predict either the transformation or the end, — has been incapable of 
lifting this form of society to its natural perfection, namely, the 
formation of organised states permitting, under cover of this organi- 
sation itself, the evolution of customs, ideas and relationships . . . 

" The flaws in pohtical organisation go back to Mohammed himself. 
He had thoroughly succeeded in estabhshing at Medina a theocratic 
power, but he did not assign the devolution of it to his successors. 
Did he think the end of the world so near that such a contingency 
need not be faced ? Did he imagine that the fact of his having en- 
trusted the conduct of the solemn Friday prayers and the dehvering 
of the sermon to Abu Bekr, would be regarded as the designation of a 
successor, in which case he would have disagreed with his devoted 
followers ? It is a hard question to decide, owing to lack of evidence. 

"... Time has done the rest. The Arabs have remained in their 
desert land, but their language, having become the vehicle of Islam, 
has spread over an immense area, and its literature, full of the science 
of the middle ages, is enjoying a renaissance wliich assures it an ever 
increasing influence ; for the future, it has to fill the part of moral 
education for those populations, which, still lost in their dreams, have 
reahsed only too recently the advance taken by Europe and America 
in the development and progress of humanity." S. M. Z. 

Twenty-five Years in Qua Iboe. By Robert L. M'Keown. 
16mo. London : Morgan & Scott. 1912. 
A beautifully illustrated popular account of pioneer missionary 
effort in the Niger Delta, with interesting notes on the country and 
people. The wonderful story of the power of the Gospel \vill appeal 
to the reader. 

Saints of Islam. By Husain R. Sayani. 16mo ; pp. 90. Luzac 
and Co. 
Brief and shght sketches of the Hves of three Moiem saints, mth 
some of their sayings " rendered freely into English to bring out the 
spirit of their thought." Khwaja Hasan (sic.) hved 19 to 110 A.H., 
and experienced the tyranny of Hajjaj ; Ibn Adham, the prince who 
became a dervish at Balkh for love of God, and died at Mecca dming 
the reign of Mutasim Billahi ; St. Junaid (sic.) was born in 232 A.H. 
at Bagdad, and was an exponent of Sufi thought. A welcome illus- 
tration of how educated Moslems are seeking to interpret that which 
is best in their past history. . Z. 


Beduinennamen aus Zentral-Arabien. Von J. J. Hess. 12mo ; 
pp. 54. Heidelberg : Carl Winter's Universitatsbuchhandlung. 
This study was prepared for the Heidelberger Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, and is of interest to the student of Islam, first, because 
it gives a fairly complete list of all the names one meets among Moham- 
med's companions and in the story of the early wars of Islam ; and 
also because the etymology of these names and the reasons for giving 
names to-day among the Bedouins carries us back to the Semitic life 
which is at the basis of all Moslem thought. The author remarks that 
among the real Bedouins even to-day names composed of Allah and 
specifically Moslem names, such as Ahmed and Mohammed, are not 
common. However, at Mecca (see page 37) he notes two forms of the 
word " Servant of God " — Abdullah and Abdillah, which are distin- 
guished by the tribes as different, although of the same etymology. 
The name 'Isa is, however, common among the Bedouins. The book 
is not carefully printed and has no less than seventy-two errata, but 
even this does not include all the mistakes ; see, for example (page 47), 
Kreitsir for Karkar, and Mtsajiz for Mkajiz. S. M. Z. 

El-'Aqud El-lu'lu'iyyah (The Pearl Strings). A history of the 
Resuliyy Dynasty of Yemen, by Aliyyu'bn'ul-Hasan el- 
Khazrejiyy. The Arabic text edited by Shaykh Muhammad 
'AsAL. 442 pp. Price 8/- or $2. 
This is the latest of the many volumes published in the '' E. J. W. 
Gibb Memorial Series." It is Vol. IV. of the work. Vols. I. and II. 
contained the English translation (1906, 1907). Vol. III. is taken up 
with the Annotations on this translation by the late Sir J. Redhouse 
(1908). The present Volume contains the first half of the Arabic text 
(1913). The second half of the text is in the Press, and will form 
Vol. V. and complete the work. This Arabic text is taken from the 
original MS. in the India Office Library, from which Sir James Red- 
house m.ade his transcript. The omissions of some poetry and obituary 
notices in this transcript, alluded to by Sir James in his Preface to 
Vol. I., have been restored, so that this, now, is an unmutilated copy 
of the original MS. The printing and the get-up of the book is all that 
could be desired. The history is written in a simple, clear, Arabic 
style. It will be easier to appreciate its historical value when the 
second part of the text is published. In the English Preface to this 
volume by Mr. E. G. Browne, the trustee responsible for the production 
of the work, we read that " any fuller observations as to the text and 
its value and peculiarities will be reserved for the Preface to the final 
volume. Percy Smith. 

The New Dictionary : English- Arabic. By Elias A. Elias. 8vo ; 
pp. 440. Cairo : El Muktataf Printing Office. 1913. 
This new dictionary has been complied chiefly for the needs of the 
Egyptian student in the study of Arabic, but in many respects English 
speaking students, who have attained some degree of proficiency, will 
find it more useful than other larger dictionaries. By a special device 
in utihsing every available space in the double columns, the author has 
been able to include more than 30,000 Enghsh words. Both the 
Arabic and Enghsh are clearly printed. The definitions and Arabic 
equivalents are good, and the author has had the assistance of the 
well-known Orientahst and linguist, Mr. Edward A. Van Dyck, as well 


as the help of other scholars. The idiomatic use of such verbs as 
" take," joined to various other words and prepositions, is carefully 
treated, and is one of the most valuable features of the dictionary. 
On the other hand, many words might have been omitted, either 
because they are seldom or never used, or are not English in any sense — 
e.g., ahalienate, ahomasum, acclivous, accouple, roostcock, rouqe laure^ 
cosher, cothurn, sillabub, sinciput, siliqua, etc. For the rest, we are glad 
to commend this dictionary as convenient and practical. S. M. Z. 

Islam en Christentum. Tweede druk bewerkt door Jacqueline C. 
Rutgers. Den Haag. 1912. 

The first edition of this book intended for Dutch Mission Study 
Circles was practically a reproduction of Gairdner's " The Reproach 
of Islam." The second edition has only a loose connexion with 
Gairdner's work, and the method of adaptation followed by the author 
is to be highly recommended. When no one is for the moment in a 
position to vmte a book for study circles which will be adapted to special 
national requirements, this kind of compilation, which includes original 
elements, is very valuable. It is obvious that Holland with her 
extensive missions to Mohammedans in the Datch East Indies must 
see to it that this, her one special work, receives adequate treatment. 
This has been done in this book, and Chapter X. on " the History of 
Missions to Mohammedans in the Dutch East Indies " is of importance. 
We could almost have wished it went into further detail. All the other 
sections, however, — e.g., the history of Islam I. -III., which covers the 
subject down to the present time, are clear and succinct, and lay due 
emphasis upon important points. 

As regards the present situation, I should have liked to see it more 
disfcinctiy shown that the greatest momentum in Moslem propaganda 
is at present in Africa. The perils for Equatorial Africa should have 
been definitely specified. Nor do I entirely agree v/ith the statementa 
about the relation between Christianity and Islam. It should have 
been pointed out, for instance, that John Damascene had already 
recognised the main points at issue between Christianity and Islam. 
Raymund Lull, on the other hand, is, perhaps, treated in too much 
detail. In my opinion Raymund Lull failed owing to his scholastic 
method. Further explanation of this can be easily found in the two 
pamphlets : " Geisterkampf des Christentums gegen den Islam " by 
Keller (Leipzig, 1896), and " Die Polemik des Islam," by Palmieri 
(Salzburg, 1903). Unfortunately also the book does not agree with 
other authorities in the matter of statistics. In 1910 Dr. Becker gave 
19,195 as the total number of Mohammedan-Christians in Java, to 
which he added 20,000 Sadrach Christians (a sect). The Year Book of 
Dutch Missions for 1911 gives 24,700 as the number of Mohammedan- 
Christians in Java, presumably without the Sadrach sect, whereas this 
book only reckons the Christians to number 18.000. The statistics for 
the total number of Mohammedans in the Malay Archipelago are 
equally at variance. In the Year Book the total population is given as 
38 millions, 35 million of whom are Mohammedans, whereas in this 
book we find only 31 miUion Mohammedans among a total population 
of 44 millions. We should be glad if our Dutch friends would explain 
this divergence. 

" Vraagpuncten," questions for Mission Study Circles, and a 
" Handleiding," helps for Circle leaders, have also been published : 
both are very practical, although they perhaps make rather great 
demands upon those who use them. G. Simon. 


A Wife out of Egypt. By Norma Lorimer. 12mo ; pp. 368. 
London : Stanley Paul & Company. 1913, 
A remarkable amount of information, well told and generally 
accurate, regarding Egypt, its monuments, peoples, and social customs, 
is woven into this study of the vexed question of marriages between 
Europeans and Orientals. The unsatisfactory nature and exclusiveness 
of some classes of society are shown, and also the benefits which the 
British occupation has brought to the country. The religious customs 
and manners of Moslems, Copts and Syrians are sympathetically 
spoken of, together with the " love of progress and hunger for modernity 
iind the regeneration of Egypt " found among some. An appeal is 
made for the betterment of Egyptian women and girls — the future 
mothers of the land. A. Y. Thompson. 

Hukum en Nebi Mohammed, lil filosuf Tolstoi. (Mohammed's 
Wise Sayings, by Count Tolstot). 16mo ; pp. 79. Cairo. 

This tract professes to give Mohammed's best sajdngs, and the 
opinion of leading Russians, including Count Tolstoi, on the prophet 
of Arabia. It has been published by the Moslems in Cairo with the 
same intent as governed those in India when they reprinted Carlyle's 
" The Hero as Prophet." The object is to show that Islam is one of 
the three great, true religions with Judaism and Christianity, and that 
Mohammed was a great man in every sense of the word. It is curious 
that among the sayings of Mohammed we have the following prayer 
of the prophet : — 

'' O living, self -existing God ! There is no God but Thee. I cry 
to Thee to help me in Thy mercy. Forgive my iniquities, reform my 
condition, and dispel my grief by Thy mercy. Forgive my great sins. 
None can forgive great sins except the great Lord. my God ! have 
mercy upon me or I perish. I am not as thankful as I ought to be for 
the great mercies Thou hast bestowed upon me, nor patient enough 
under the temptations Thou hast sent upon me. Great, Merciful 
One, save me from that into which I am sinking, and help me to 
escape that which has fallen upon me. All this I ask for the sake of 
Thy glorious face. Amen." 

Who among Moslems will say after this that one who utters such a 
prayer of deep contrition and confession was a sinless and infallible 
prophet ? Metry S. Dewairy. 

Islam, France et Turquie. Par Youssotjf Fehmi. 16mo ; pp. 36. 
Paris. 1913. 

In his introduction the author, who is a disciple of Auguste Comte, 
the " fondateur de la religion de THumanite," states that this pamphlet 
is an extract from a larger work on Islam and Turkey now in course 
of preparation. 

After a brief sketch of the problems which France, with her 
35,000,000 Moslem subjects, has to face, he gives several reasons why 
Islam is the only stepping-stone by which the backward pagan tribes 
in her African possessions may be uplifted socially and morally. them are the Koranic interdict against alcohol, the abolishment 
of cannibalism, the organisation of communal government, and the 
development in women of a sense of shame and modesty ! Anticipat- 
ing the question whether Christianity will not bring equal reforms, he 
says that its teachings of sacrifice and self-abnegation do not appeal 


to the pagan mind, proving, perhaps unintentionally, the superiority 
of the Christian faith, which demands more than a mere veneer of 
conversion. Another difficulty mentioned — and one which all 
missionaries know to be a serious obstacle — is the inabihty of the native 
to distinguish between the Christian missionary and the European 
whose life is so far from the ideals presented to him in the Gospel. 
The book is full of Positivist doctrines, and shows the writer's attitude 
toward the foreign occupation of Moslem countries, closing with an 
appeal to France to recognise and fm-ther the position of Turkey as the 
great Islamic power. C. B. Kellien. 

The Ottoman Empire, 1801-1913. By William Miller, M.A., 
LL.D. Cambridge University Press, London. 1913. 
For those students who desire to trace the restless and tangled 
story of the Balkan Peninsula and Greece during the nineteenth 
century. Dr. Miller has furnished an accurate and comprehensive 
volume. It would have been more satisfactory if the book could 
have been written by one who had lived among the Turks rather 
than by this author whose relations have been largely with the Greeks. 
The disputes and differences which have arisen about the occupation 
of Crete and the iEgean Islands are narrated with great detail and 
very naturally from the Greek point of view. Diplomacies, hostilities, 
campaigns and the careers of prominent statesmen largely occupy its 
pages. Thus it belongs to the chronology type of history. A work 
on the Ottoman Empire which would deal broadly with economic, 
racial and rehgious questions, giving an adequate conception of the 
nature of the Turks, their thoughts, customs and aspirations, would 
be of greater value to the missionary than this type of history. Yet 
unquestionably this book v/ill serve a valuable jpurpose, as it forms 
one of a large series for the interpretation of mxodern European history. 
The strongest impression upon the reader is that of the decline of the 
Ottoman Empire throughout the nineteenth century. Province after 
province has broken away from the old empire and has estabhshed 
itself as a nation. The minute details relative to the disputes between 
the Balkan peoples and the Turkish government throughout every 
decade of the century, furnish an impressive account of the causes 
which led up to the Balkan War. There is slight reference throughout 
these pages to the Mohammedan aspect of Turkish power. The 
essential principles of the Moslem state and the influence of the Moslem 
faith upon politics are not em^phasised. The Greek and Armenian 
massacres are mentioned as incidents in the unsettled conditions of 
the empire. The epilogue on the Balkan League is a concise statement 
which brings us to the events of March, 1913, when the Turks had no 
prospect of retaining Adrianople. The Greek and Servian reaction 
against Bulgaria has now given affairs a very different turn and the 
Turks are not wholly driven from Europe. The nineteenth century 
has seen the disintegration of the European and African possessions of 
Turkey. The absorbing question is, Will the Asiatic posessions be 
retained during any considerable period of the twentieth century I 
Will Constantinople long remain the political capital of Islam ? 

Stephen van R. Trowbridge. 



[We have received the following spontaneous communication from 
the reviewer of Spiro's Arabic Colloquial Grammar, published by 
Luzac & Co., and reviewed in our last issue. — Ed.] 

*' On reading through my review I feel that while adhering to the 
criticisms I thought right to offer, I said disproportionately httle about 
the meiits of this book. These were indicated but not emphasised, 
and I should like a^gain to call attention to the admirable conciseness 
and accuracy of the grammatical part. This alone makes the book 
probably the most useful of the smaller grammars of the Egyptian 
colloquial published as yet. The exercises well illustrate the gram- 
matical rules, even if, in my opinion, they might have been more racy, 
I still desiderate the reconsideration of many of the spellings, in cases 
which show clearly that it was not the sound of the colloquial so much 
as the form of the classical that the writer had in mind. That Professor 
Spiro is a trustworth}^ guide in matters colloquial it would be an 
impertinence to emphasise, which fact does not forbid nor invalidate 
criticisms, the sole object of which are to suggest improvements in a 
book which the public needs and which the public will rightly buy. 

" There was a series of typographical errors in my review which I 
i'egret : in all the Arabic words printed with a long mark over certain 
vowels, the long mark is a printer's en'oi, and instead the vowel should 
be in italics." 





Inhalt des I. Jahrgangs der 'Mir Islama, ' Petersburg, 1913. 
Von M. Hartmann. Die Welt des Islam. Berlin. 1913. P. 132. 

Bibliographic der russischen Muhammedaner-Literatur. 
Die Welt des Islam. 1913. P. 161. 

The Balkan War and Christian Work among Moslems. 

Howard S. Bliss. International Review of Missions. October, 

The Future of Asia Minor. By the late Prof. Arminius Vambery. 
Asiatic Quarterly Review. October, 1913. Works out the idee 
that " the Turk constitutes the only national element in the 
Near East capable of ruling and leading hordes . . . It is in the 
interest of humanity and of the peace of the world that the power 
of the Ottoman State in Asia Minor should consolidate itself." 

The Hope of Moslem Progress. By IVIarmaduke Pickthaxl. 
Nineteenth Century. September, 1913. Shows there is real hope 
for progress in Turkey if she may but have ten or twenty-five 
j^ears' peace and if her ruling class will study and promote her 
weKare by taking personal interest in her provinces instead of 
travelling in West Europe so much. 

Staat de Islam voor een Keerpunt ? (Has Islam reached a turning 
point ?). Missions direktor Schroder. Orgaan der Nederl, 
Zendingsvereeniging. 1913. No. 6. 

Is de Kracht van den Islam gebroken ? (Is the power of Islam 
broken ?) De Mazedonier. XVII, 9. 

Islam from Within. By Rev. S. M. Zwemer, D.D. Men and 
Missions. New York, September, 1913. Quotations from 
educated Moslem sources to phow that Islam is to-day " not 
conscious of its strength but of its weakness and everywhere 
bemoaning a day of opportunity that is lost." 

The True Failure of the Turk. By G. K. Chesterton. The 
British Review. September, 1913. A sketch of the Imperialism 
of the Turk, who although " he wanted all his subject peoples to 
belong to him altogether, had not the slightest aspiration to belong 
to them at all," and so has remained an alien everywhere. 

Esquisses Marocaines : Paysages et Religion. Par Claude 
BoRiNGE. Revue des deux Mondes. September 1st, 1913. 

Scenes de la Pacification Marocaine. (1) Au Pays des Dissidens. 
(2) Une Colonic de Pacification. Par Pierre Khorat. Revue 
des Deux Mondes. October 1st — November 1st, 1913. 


Montenegro and the Eastern Question. The Church Quarterly 
Revieio. London, July, 1913. An account of the historical 
development of the Montenegrin people, emphasising the courage 
with which they resisted the Turkish domination for 400 years. 

Arabische Vogelnamen von Palastina und Syrien. 

Von Prof. G. Dalman. Zeiischrift des Deut. Palastina- Vereins. 
Vol. XXXVI. P. 165ff. 



Der falsche Prophet vor den Toren von Kirinda. Nachrichteu 
aiis der Ostafrikanischen Mission. June, 1913. Concerning the 
advance of Islam in Ruanda, German East Africa. 

Die Aulad- ' Ali-Beduinen der libyschen Wiiste. 
Der Islam. 1913. P. 355. 

Der Islam in West and Central Sudan. W. Westermann. Die 
Welt des Islams. Berhn, 1913. Vol. I. P. 85. 

Die Kulturtrager der maurischen Staaten. K. E. Schabinger. 
Die Welt des Islam. Berlin, 1913. Vol. I. P. 109. 

Mitteilungen iiber Syrien, iEgypten, Marokko und Tiirkei. Mar- 
tin Hartmann. Die Welt des Islam. Berlin, 1913. Vol. I. 
P. 127. 

The Alevi Turks of Asia Minor. By Rev. G. E. White, D.D. 
Co7itemyorary Review. November, 1913. Description of the 
Alevis, sectaries from the orthodox or Sunnite faith of Islam, 
found in large numbers among the Kurds, and to a certain extent 
among the Turks of Asia Minor. " Affiliated in feeling with the 
Persians on the East, and with a considerable section of the 
Albanians in the West, as well as with the Nusariye in Syria and 
scattered communities elsewhere." The leaders of the sect are 
the Bek Tash dervishes with their centre near Kir Shehr between 
Angora and Csesarea. A visit to their tekye in 1912 is described. 
Some account of their relations with Christians which are friendly 
and " probably due to lingering memories of the times before the 
Turkish invasion." 



Animismus und Damonenglaube im Untergrunde des jiidischen. 
und islamischen rituellen Gebets. Der Islam. Vol. IV. P. 219. 

Sarikat Islam. Some details of this remarkable movement in Java 
embracing some 380,000 members and its latest congress at which 
30,000 were present. Van het Zendingsveld Orgaan der Salaiiga- 
zending, 1913, No. 10 ; Orgaan der Nederl. Zendingsvereeniging, 
1913, Nos. 7, 8, 11 ; De Mazedonier, 1913, XVII., 6, 8. 

Der Kalender der palastinensischen Fellahen. Dr. T. Cana'an. 
Zeitschrift des Deut. Palastina- Vereins. Vol. XXXVI., P. 266ff. 
Study of the Palestinian agricultural labourer's calendar, showing 
the influence of tiie Greek Church calendar with its fixed festivals- 
as contrasted with tlie movable feasts of Islam. 


Bilder und Skizzen aus der Bauzeit. Missionar Enderlin. 
Sudan-Pionier. 1913. No. 5-11. Description of the life of the 
lower classes in Egjrpt. 

Reise nach der Tiirkei. Dr. Lepsius. Der Christliche Orient. 
Berlin. 1913. Nos. 7-9. 

In Schools and Zenanas at Calcutta. India's Women and China's 
Daughters. London, September, 1913. Symposium showing the 
growing movement among Moslems for the education of girls and 
the increasing readiness of Government to promote it. 

XJber Scheidung u. Wiedervereinigung muhammedanischer 
Ehegatten. Von Dschir-jus J. Churi in Bir Salem. Zeit- 
schrift des Deut. Paldstina-Vereins. Vol. XXXVI. P. 130ff. 
Description of Moslem law of divorce and re-marriage with 
special reference to the Beduins of S.-W. Palestine. 

The Heart of the Mohammedan Woman. By Mrs. B. W. Labaree. 
Missionary Review of the World. New York, August, 1913. The 
moral and spiritual need of the Mohammedan woman for Christi- 

Frauen und Madchen in .^gypten. Eliz. Francke. Missions 
pddagogische Blatter. I. 44. 

Literature for Moslem Boys. Blessed be Egypt. London, October, 
1913. An appeal for attention to this subject. 

The Call of Moslem Children. By Bishop Joseph C. Hartzell, 
D.D., and Rev. S. M. Zwemer, D.D. The Report of the World's 
Sunday School Commission on Moslem Lands presented at Zurich, 
June, 1913. The Missionary Review of the World, New York, 
October, 1913 ; also Blessed be Egypt, London, October, 1913. 

Mussalman Education in Kashmir. United India and Native States, 
October 25th, 1913. Account of an interview between a depu- 
tation of the All-India Mohammedan Educational Conference and 
H.H. the Maharajah of Kashmir, with a view to urging the 
promotion of education among his Mohammedan subjects. 

The Heart of Asia : Chinese Turkestan. L. E. Hogberg. 
Daiim in Central Asia. London, November, 1913. Account of 
Mohammedan education in Chinese Turkestan in the ' mektale ' 
and ' medressa ' (corresponding to the Western ' public school ' 
and ' high school '). 


Africa's Choice : Islam or Christ, Pvcv. G. T. Manley. 

Church Missionary Review. October, 1913. Historical sketch of 
the advance of Islam in Africa with a special appeal for stronger 
Christian effort in the C.M.S. field of Nigeria. 

The Advance of Islam in Africa. By Rev. A. W. Smith. Church 
Missionary Review, November, 1913. Shows that Islam appeals 
to the African as the most accommodating of religions, " and 
makes earnest demand for cultivating native evangelism." Africa 
has been widely and successfully Islamized by Africans. '' Now 
or never let the Christian Church arise and do her very utmost 
to train Africans to do that ^^ ork Avhich aa hite men can never hope 
to do alone." 


Islam und Islam-Mission. JaIC. Witte. Zeitschrift fur Missions- 
kunde und Rdigionswissenschaft. Berlin, 1913. No. 5. 

The Gospel with a Stereopticon in Turkey. By Rev. H. H. Riggs, 
Harput, Turkey. Missionary Review of the World. New York, 
November, 1913. 

Who gave Himself. Rev. G. F. Fisher. The Gospel Message. 
Kansas City. July-August, 1913. Description of changed con- 
ditions for evangelistic work in Morocco since the French occu- 

Das Schulwesen Palastinas. Lie. P. Otto Seitz. Missions 
pedagogische Blatter. Vol. I. P. 54, 65. 

Islam en de Christlyke Zending of Java. (Islam and Christian 
Missions in Java). Maandbericht van het Nederl. Zendeling- 
genootschap. 1913. No. 11. 

Aus der Arbeit im mohammedanischen Siiden. Berichte der 
Rhein. Missions Gesellschaft. October, 1913. Incidents show- 
ing the intermingling of Islam and Animism in Southern 

China's Moslem Millions, i., ii. F. H. Rhodes. India's Women 
and China's Daughters. London, October-November, 1913. 
Sketch of present conditions among the Moslems of the various 
provinces of China. 


The One God and Islam is the Religion of all men. By Dr. A. Geo. 
Baker. The Review of Religions. August, 1913. Qadian, 
Punjab. Reprint of a pan-Moslem lecture delivered before the 
Cooper Literary Institute, Philadelphia, March 4th, 1913. 

The Struggle for Existence. Central Africa. London, September, 
1913. An appeal to Moslems to beware especially of Christian 
literature. Translated by Canon Dale from An-Najah, an 
Arabic journal published weekly in Zanzibar. 

Islam versus Christianity. A review from the Moslem standpoint 
of Dr. Herrick's Christian and Muhammadan, by Qazi Abdul 
Hague. The Review of Religions. Qadian, September, 1913. 

The Muslim Formula of Faith. By A. H. Ahmadi. The Review 
of Religions. Qadian, Sej)tember, 1913. A brief consideration 
of the question of deity as ascribed to Jesus but not to Mohammed. 

Which is the Religion of Compromise, Islam or Christianity ? 
By MiRZA Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad. The Review of 
Religions. July, 1913, Qadian, Punjab. A reply translated from 
Urdu to Ml*. W. A. Shedd's article on " The Influence of a Moham- 
medan Environment on the Missionary," in The Moslem World, 
January, 1913. 

A Mighty Prophecy and the Balkan War. The Review of Religions. 
August, 1913, Qadian, Punjab. An appeal to Turks and Arabs to 
be loyal to Islam on the strength of sundry prophecies of Mirza 
Gulam Ahmad of Qadian, which it is claimed have been fulfilled 
since 1904 in the course of political events in Turkey, India, and 


A Twice-born Turk. Parts I., II. Reminiscences of a converted 
Moslem Sheikh, translated by A. T. Upson. The Missionari/ 
Review of the World. New York, October-November, 1913. 

A Form of Prayer for the Admission of a sometime Mohammedan 
as a Catechumen of the Church. Rev. W. H. T. Gairdner, 

Church Missionary Review. October, 1913. 

Der Islam : Betrachtung iiber den Islam als Missionsobjekt, 
De Mazedonier. 1913. XVII. 7. 

Het wapen tegen den Islam. (Our weapons against Islam). De 
Mazedonier. 1913. XVII. 10. 

Polemik des Islam gegeniiber em Christentum. P. Gottfkiei> 
Simon. Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrijt. 1913. P. 385. 

The Teaching of the Qur'an. Part IV. Sin. Rev. W. R. W. 
Gardner. The Indian Interpreter. October, 1913. 

The Vital Forces of Islam. (Part VII.) Duncan B. Macdonald. 
The International Review of Missions. October, 1913. 



Errata. In the October number, and consequently in the index 
for the year 1913, the name of C. Stanley G.. Mylrea, M.D., was in- 
advertently confused with that of his brother, Rev. C. G. Mylrea, of 
India. The article was written by Dr. Mylrea, of the Arabian Mission. 


The editors of this review earnestly desire to increase the list of 
subscribers, and will greatly appreciate a word of commendation spoken 
for the quarterly by those who receive it ; and will send a sample copy 
to any address furnished us by our readers. 

The Moslem World 

Vol. IV APRIL, 1914 No. 2 



The seventh International Convention of the Student 
Volunteer Movement was held at Kansas City, Missouri, 
December 31st, 1913, to Januar}^ 4th, 1914. In his 
report to that wonderful gathering of North American 
students, remarkable both in its numbers and its spiritual 
power, Dr. John R. Mott declared : " There is need of 
placing stronger emphasis than ever upon the Watchword 
of the movement — The Evangelization of the World in 
this Generation. If such a Watchword has been appro- 
priate in the past, what shall we not say of its aptness 
and tim.eliness for the present day ? The present is a 
time of unprecedented opportunity. Never has there 
been a time when simultaneously in so many parts of the 
world the doors were so wide open as now. It is a time 
of unprecedented danger. Above all, it is a time of 
unprecedented urgency owing to the fact that so many 
nations are in a plastic and changing condition, owing to 
the growing spirit of nationalism and racial patriotism, 
owing to the rapid spread of the corrupt influences of our 
so-called Western civilization, owing to the dangerous 
tendencies in connection with the non-Christian religions, 
owing to the recent unparalleled triumphs of Christianity 
and the rising tide of spiritual success on every hand, 
and owing to the possibility of entering into the marvel- 
lous heritage prepared by the recent period of thorough 

Every sentence of this striking appeal applies also 
and with special cogency to present-day conditions 
in the world of Islam. The unity and urgency of 


the task have been recognized at church councils and 
missionary gatherings. The impact of Western civiHzation 
through commerce, hterature, and Western governments 
has utterly disintegrated old social standards, practices, 
and ideals among educated Moslems, and is compelling 
them to readjust their faith in the Koran, or abandon it. 
The advocates of the New Islam in India, Turkey, Persia, 
and Egypt, are the allies, and not the enemies, of Christi- 
anity in the realm of ethical reform and higher social 
ideals ; and we welcome their co-operation in this realm. 
The veil and polygamy are doomed as well as slavery. 

There is also a new attitude towards Christianity and 
the Bible nearly everywhere. Instead of arrogance and 
fanaticism, there is an entire willingness to hear and 
investigate. In some centres of the Moslem world, the 
New Testament is to-day the best-selling book. Public 
baptisms are no longer rare ; once they were at the risk 
of life. 

This number of our Quarterly contains startling 
evidence of unprecedented opportunities for evangelism 
and of movements towards Christianity. It is the fulness 
of time to expect great things from God and to attempt 
great things for Him. We face the whole task. We 
know the whole need. We see all doors nailed open or 
opening before us. 

Well may we ask with Dr. Mott, " Why has God made 
the (Moslem) world known and accessible to-day as never 
before ? Why has He provided such extensive and 
well-equipped missionary agencies at the home base and 
on the foreign field in our day ? Why has He at this 
particular time placed such boundless resources at the 
disposal of the Church ? Can we question, in view of the 
character of God and the present-day facts of the world, 
that it is His will that the whole field be occupied and 
evangelized in our day, and that, however great and 
difficult the undertaking, there are resources in our Lord 
Jesus Christ and latent in His followers available and 
sufficient to enable us to carry out that will." 

The Evangelization of the Moslem world in this 
Generation — shall it not be our Watchword and our 
prayer-programme ? S. M. Zwemer. 





To assert that Albania is the key to the Mohammedan 
world sounds like a bold assumption, that will call for 
a strong support of argument and fact to justify. It is 
my purpose in this article to attempt a justification of 
that claim. 

My first point is the present movement of Moham- 
medan Albanians towards Christianity. It has not as 
yet taken on such outward form that the numbers can 
be counted and statistics given. It is seen, however, 
by a nation-wide cleavage from the Turkish government 
and a strong feeling of resentment, of bitterness and 
revolt against a regime whose four hundred and fifty 
years in the land has reduced the nation to the brink 
of ruin and disaster. 

During this occupation of the land by the Turk, the 
population has been reduced by probably half. This 
has been accomplished by persecutions and forcible 
conversions which have driven threequarters of a million 
Albanians into other countries ; by carrying off thou- 
sands of Albanian women and girls to stock the harems 
of the Empire, from the Sultan's down to that of the 
common soldier; and by drafting thousands of young 
Albanians for the army and sending them to the plague 
spots of the east from which not one in a hundred 
ever returns. 

These processes have reduced cities to towns, towns 
to villages, and villages by the hundreds have been 
abandoned and left without inhabitant. Thousands of 
acres of fertile land, once under cultivation, have re- 
verted to swamp and wilderness, breeding malaria for 
the populations which remain in the land. Reduced to 
extremes of poverty, the people, especially women and 


children, have been the easy victims of disease and 
death. The mortahty of infants and young children is 
undoubted^ above fifty per cent. 

Hence the nation is united in feeling that Turkish 
rule in Albania has been an unspeakable curse, and it 
is impossible for the leaders, the thinking men, to disso- 
ciate Mohammedanism from that rule and a consequent 
share in the responsibility. The Sultan has been the 
spiritual head as well as the temporal ruler of the nation. 
All the reins of power have been in the hands of the 
government. These last years the governing party, the 
Young Turks, have been openly and pronouncedly swayed 
by religious motives, viz. : the Ottomanization of the 
empire — the sinking and merging of all nationalities 
into one Mohammedan whole. Hence the nation's 
leaders say that the reason for the nation's oppression 
is a religious reason which, if they submit to for the sake 
of the faith, will mean national suicide and death. 

Hence they declare boldly that Mohammedanism has 
been a curse to the nation, and always will be so long 
as it has a foothold in the land. Again, these leaders, 
scores of them, educators, hod j as, business men, are 
saying to each other and to me, " The religion of our 
forefathers was Christian. What shame, or disgrace, is 
it for us to return to that faith ? Then our nation was 
prosperous and happy, to-day we are starving for 
bread." They say, moreover, that Mohammedanism was 
forced upon the nation by the Turks who are Asiatics, 
while they themselves are Europeans ; it has never been 
indigenous to the land, never adapted itself to their 
conditions of life ; instead of having been a stay and 
support and inspiration, it has only been an additional 
burden, " Let us throw it off with the Turkish yoke, of 
which it is a part." Then these men are unanimous in 
their declaration for the Protestant Faith as the type of 
Christianity to which they wish to attach themselves. 
Many things unite to make the older churches, the Greek 
and Catholic, an impossible refuge. They revolt at the 
empty forms and ceremonies, the kissing of pictures, the 
bowing before ikons and images and crosses, as mere 


They believe that there should be no go-between in 
the approach of a soul to its God. In these things they 
are at one with us. Another powerful reason is found 
in the fact that in Albania both the Greek and Catholic 
churches have been associated with powerful political 
propagandas, the one on the part of Greece, Servia and 
Bulgaria, the other of Austria and Italy. They have 
believed that, controlled by these nations, these faiths 
have been only the cloaks behind which the enemies of 
the nation have been at work to destroy its life. Hence 
to join with them would bring little or no improvement 
to their present state. Then during these recent wars 
the last vestige of standing and regard which the Greek 
church may have had in Albania has been forfeited by 
the unspeakable barbarities which have been inflicted 
on the nation by Servian, Montenegrin and Greek armies 
in the name of the cross. Beyond and above all this 
is a real, positive desire to accept the Protestant Faith 
for what they believe it, in its great outstanding truths, 
to be. During these years of oppression and bondage, 
the eyes of the nation have looked longingly to the great 
Protestant nations of Great Britain and America, with 
their civil and religious liberty, their moral worth, their 
public spirit, their interest in all that makes for national 
greatness, their world-wide enterprises for humanity's 
betterment and uplift, and they have said to themselves : 
" There is none like that ; give it me." Consequently 
from the commencement of our mission, we have had the 
moral support and sympathy of the nation. They have 
treated us as confidential friends and helpers, brothers 
in a common task. Forbidden to hold pubHc services by 
Turkish officials, we have opened our home, and Sunday 
after Sunday these Mohammedans would attend and join 
devoutly in our worship, knowing all the time that they 
would suffer for it. As a matter of fact, many were 
punished with imprisonment and beating for no other 
crime than that they were our friends. Now that 
Albania becomes a free state under the protection of the 
Great Powers, the preference of the nation for the 
Protestant Faith is being openly and boldly expressed. 
First in a demand which they made upon the Ambas- 


sadors' Conference that they be given a Protestant Prince 
as ruler, which demand has been granted in the recent 
appointment of the Prince of Wied to the throne. Then 
in an appeal, so widespread and inclusive as to be fairly- 
national, which was made to me during a recent trip 
which I made through the country. They said to me, 
" We are as sheep without a shepherd, and the wolves 
are all about us seeking our lives. Unless you can save 
us we are lost. You represent the great nations of Great 
Britain and America, which alone have no selfish interest 
here. We want you to shepherd us and our children. 
Give us teachers, show us the right way, and we will 
walk in it. Take our girls who are to become the mothers 
of the nation, teach them vour ideals of motherhood. 
Take our boys who are to become the future leaders of 
the nation, teach them how to make the nation great 
and good and strong, to rise out of the awful misery and 
darkness and woe into which we have been phmged. If 
you will do this, we can hope that in twenty years, or 
more, we may become a truly Protestant nation." They 
said to me, " We have empty school buildings once occu- 
pied by Turkish schools, they will never be used as such 
again. Will you bring teachers and open schools there 
for our children ? We will place them in your charge, 
and you shall have them to train as your own." I have 
been officially commissioned to go to Great Britain and 
America and voice this appeal from the Albanian nation. 
Such is the opportunity before us to-day. Suppose 
we are able to avail ourselves of it, to set the agencies at 
work throughout the nation, that will evangelize it in 
the next twenty-five years. With Divine favour and 
help that does not seem an impossible task. For the 
human agencies, I believe a hundred thousand dollars 
for equipment and fifteen thousand dollars a year for 
current expenses, would provide the necessary machinery 
for the task. What in such a case would be the effect on 
the Mohammedan' world ? How will it furnish the key ? 
In the first place, it opens a breach in the wall of Moham- 
medanism as wide as a nation. There are probably a 
million and a half Mohammedan Albanians. These peo- 
ple know the faith, in part the language, the weakness 


and strength of the rehgion. Then they are a dominant, 
masterful people. I am told that throughout the Turkish 
empire, where men are making good as governors, judges, 
civil administraters, in the majority of cases they are 
Albanians. The Albanians are a people inured to hard- 
ship, schooled in poverty and danger and death — these 
have been their daily companions. They fear no foe, 
they are unspoiled by the " upholstered life." They have 
the courage to go anywhere that duty calls. As the 
Children of Israel were trained and disciplined in Egypt 
and the wilderness to become the moral teachers and 
guides of the ages, so God has had this people under the 
same rigorous discipline, and, as I believe, for the same 
divine purpose, to lead a conquest against the last 
unyielding fortress that opposes the world-wide dominion 
of our Lord. Once charge this race with the spirit of 
Jesus Christ, who " loved not His life even unto death," 
and a weapon will be formed against which no stronghold 
will be able to stand. For the bringing of this people to 
Christ, the nations to whom they have so earnestly 
appealed, Great Britain and America, stand charged 
before God. At present two missionaries and two native 
workers, employed by the American Board, constitute 
the entire force in the field. This force should be greatly 
increased at once and a sufficient equipment provided 
for a nation-wide evangel. I appeal to all who love their 
Lord to help " buy up this opportunity " of bringing a 
nation to His feet. " The King's business requireth 
haste." Powerful forces are at work to thwart the 
Lord's design, and delay may be fatal to the cause. 
When Paul heard the call and saw the vision, Luke tells 
us, " Immediately we endeavoured to go." For such a 
response to this present vision and call, the Master waits. 

C. Telford Erickson. 




In 1872, the great explorer and missionary hero, David 
Livingstone, wrote of the Eastern Sudan, " If Baker's 
expedition should succeed in annexing the valley of the 
Nile to Egypt, the question arises. Would not the miser- 
able condition of the natives, when subjected to all the 
atrocities of the White Nile slave traders, be worse under 
Egyptian dominion ? The villages would be farmed out 
to tax collectors, the women, children, and boys carried 
off into slavery, and the free thought and feeling of the 
population placed under the dead weight of Islam." 

Little did even he anticipate the extent of two 
developments so quickly to follow ; one, the rapid pro- 
gress of Islam across the belt of the dark Continent known 
as the Sudan; and the other, that within the closing 
years of the nineteenth century England should undertake 
the government of the Eastern Sudan from Egypt to the 
Lakes, including all the lands of the Nile, besides the two 
great kingdoms of Darfur and Kordof an, and the populous 
Western Sudanese realms of Nupe, Bornu, and Gando, 
alone as large as England itself, and Sokoto which in- 
cludes the seven States of Hausaland — the whole Nigerian 
territories. Nor did he expect that in the same decade 
France would assume the government of the Western 
Sudan beyond the spheres just mentioned, and rule from 
Cape Verde and the Atlantic across to Timbuktu, on to 
Lake Chad, and over three great lands on the East of 
the Lake — Kanem, Bagirmi, and Wadai — and that also 
within the same decade Germany would take the 
Kameruns and Adamawa, reaching from the Gulf of 
Guinea also to Lake Chad. 


The first movement was indeed hastened, and to 
a large extent made possible by the latter development. 
For centuries the fiercest warriors of the Crescent were 
held back, and prevented from occupying the southern 
districts, partly by the nature of the country, but princi- 
pally by the virility and fighting qualities of the pagan 
nations inhabiting those districts. These nations, as- 
sisted by the mountainous character of their own country, 
were able to maintain a warfare that the warriors of the 
deserts and the plains could not wage successfully. 

After the establishment of European control through- 
out the lands of the Niger and the Nile, new forces came 
into play ; forces that, unfortunately for the Christian 
church, have facilitated the advance of Islam as a propa- 
ganda. The Pax Britannica in British territories put a 
stop to native warfare, and compelled the tribes to submit 
to the peaceful penetration of the emissaries of Moham- 
med under the guise of traders and government servants. 
A similar state of affairs is, to a large extent, taking place 
in French and German territory. 

Notwithstanding a century's work, the Christian 
Church on the West Coast of Africa had, up to recent 
years, only touched the fringe of the Continent. Although 
the West Coast had been effectively reached, the Hinter- 
land remained open to the unimpeded advance of Islam, 
till at the present day old-established centres like Sierra 
Leone and the Gold Coast, and even the Lagos districts, 
are being over-run by Islam. 

In Senegambia, we are told, there is a discouraging 
outlook for Christianity, and even the French Roman 
Catholic Missions are waning. The Mohammedans, on 
the contrary, are very aggressive. The Rev. J. A. 
Mesnard, of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
«ays : — 

" For one Moslem converted to Roman Catholicism, the followers 
of the Prophet boast of fifty Moslem adherents, who were once the 
•children of the Church. The Uttle island of Goree — the entrepdt of 
French commerce on the coast of Senegambia — was a few years ago a 
stronghold of the Roman Chm'ch. The greater part of the shops are 
now managed by Mohammedans. There is a touch of guileful romance 
in the story of the establishment of Islam in Goree. The first Moham- 
medan missionary who entered the place concealed his faith for some 


time until he married there, and then obliged his wife to forsake her 
Christianity. In this way the wedge of Islam was inserted. Now 
Moslems are so numerous in Goree that I sold more than a score of 
copies of Arabic Scriptures in the Island. 

" The French Evangelicals maintain a solitary mission station at 
St. Louis, the capital of Senegambia, but their work is Umited to that 
town and its neighbourhood. Even in towns where Roman Missions 
have been at work for centuries, there is a general, and usually ill- 
grounded, hatred of the Roman CathoUc Church. A Roman mis- 
sionary said to me, with bitterness, ' We leave the Mohammedans 
aside,' as if he despised them. When, however, Christians do not 
attempt to convert Moslems, these are not slow to convert Christians. 
In Senegambia and in part of the Sudan I have sold more than 1,800 
copies of the Scriptures to Mohammedans. 

" When I first visited Medine, a holy town for Mohammedans in the 
Western Sudan, I offered my books to a Jolof trader. He bought a 
copy of St. John. I tried to impress upon him that he ought also ta 
buy another Gospel, St. Matthew or St. Luke, if he wanted thoroughly 
to understand his copy of St. John. I argued a good deal with thia 
man, but without success. Finally he admitted with a triumphant 
smile, ' I possess the Injil of Matthew and of Luke. My son bought 
them from you at St. Louis. So now I want the Injil of John only.' 
A poor heathen belonging to the Sierra Leone tribe said to me, ' The 
only book for us heathen Sereres is the gin-bottle, but there is a 
Mohammedan missionary in our village. Your books are cheap. I 
will buy a copy and present it to him.' " 

In a little over 100 years Mohammedanism has spread 
all over the Protectorate of Sierra Leone, and is advancing 
rapidly. Fifty years ago there were less than 3,000 
Mohammedans in the colony : to-day, there are 10,000 
in Freetown alone. 

It is brought out in the report on the Sierra Leone 
census that the Creoles, or descendents of liberated 
Africans, who were brought into the colony under the 
Slave Trade Abolition Acts, are decreasing seriously in 
numbers. The explanation appears to be that more 
vigorous races, at any rate for the purpose of agricultural 
labour, are coming into the colony, which is a com- 
paratively small area, from the protectorate, and dis- 
placing the older inhabitants. One effect of the change 
has been to stop the strides made by Christianity ; the 
Christian denominations show declines, while Moham- 
medanism has greatly increased. 

In Liberia, notwithstanding the presence of quite a 
number of small Missionary Societies, and with possibly 


limited membership, Christianity has made very httle 
progress, but Islam is gradually absorbing the hinterland. 
On the Gold Coast similar conditions exist, though 
perhaps to a lesser extent, owing to the stronger hold 
of the earlier Missionary Societies, not only in the coast 
towns but in Ashanti and districts beyond. The situa- 
tion, however, demands serious attention ; the Moslem 
traders already overflow the coast regions. 

Special investigations were made in a recent expedi- 
tion by Rev. Mr. Griffiths, of the W.M.S., with a view 
to the extension of missionary effort in the unoccupied 
territories. The forward movement has resulted in the 
opening of two stations 400 miles inland. 

In the French districts of the Ivory Coast and Western 
Sudan, Islam has no competitor, and if Christian Missions 
are not soon established there will soon be few pagan 
tribes left to evangelize. 

For centuries Islam has been dominant in the upper 
bend of the Niger, and across the fertile tracks south of 
the Sahara, as far as the Nile. 

In Southern Nigeria, for many years. Christian Mis- 
sions had no competitor in Islam, the barriers to 
missionary effort being the chmate, and the degrading 
superstitions of the natives in the forest regions. This 
has now passed, and Moslem activities are evident in 
nearly all districts. 

In the cluster of townships formmg the important 
town of Ibadan, in Southern Nigeria, there is a Moham- 
medan Young Men's Society, the members of which wear 
a distinctive dress, and are keenly on the look-out for 
recruits. Around Emii, in the Niger district, Moslem 
traders are to be found in almost every village. 

In the Jebu country, when Christian work was first 
started, there were no Mohammedans at all ; but now 
they number thousands. The Muezzin can be heard in 
practically every little village ; while in the town of 
I jebu Ode itself there is a Mosque in almost every street ► 

Little but the outward form of Islam is adopted in 
p.agan Africa : the people who embrace it are not ex- 
pect 3d to give up their charms, and they are still 
permitted to take part in heathen rites and customs. 


About two years ago I passed through Lagos, and saw 
the progress that was being made with the erection of a 
large central mosque, which has now been completed 
at a cost of more than £12,000. I was told that it 
had been largely erected with " gin-money," notwith- 
standing the supposed temperance principles of Islam. 
"The headmaster of the government school for Moham- 
medans delivered a remarkable address on the occasion 
of its opening, in the course of which he expressed his 
gratitude for the assistance Islam and Moslems had 
received from the Government by the establishment of 
the school over which he presided, and in various other 
ways. He referred to the beginnings of Islam at Lagos 
a,s follows : — 

" At the latter part of the eighteenth century, about the time of 
King Oshilokun, the fate of Islam was indeed hard. The unfortunate 
Hausa bondsmen who, in their tearful journey in slavery to this place, 
had brought with them the seeds of Islam, found here but barren soil, 
^nd everywhere they turned their lot was hard. To avoid a grievous 
fate they were obliged to hide their heads and say their prayers in the 
strictest privacy — alone in secluded chambers, and often in dreary 
attics. As time passed by, in spite of persecution, the worshippers of 
the true God increased in numbers. 

" The British Government was the star in the heavens which guided 
Islam to the shores of liberty. With the safety of life and property 
conferred by British protection, peace reigned, industries flourished, 
and adherents of Islamic faith increased in numbers by thousands and 
thousands with miraculous rapidity. The chief mosque then in 
existence soon became inconvenient, and the need for a more spacious 
central or cathedral mosque in the centre of the town was keenlv 

" About the year 1864 a Crown grant was given us for the site on 
which this mosque now stands, then about three-fourths of the present 
size, and a mosque of mud wall and thatched roof was erected thereon. 

" The fact that our religion sprang up under such unpropitious 
<5ircumstances, with no organised mission or endowment, whose 
adherents enjoyed little or no prestige, and can boast to-day of adher- 
ents forty-nine per cent, of the whole population, or twenty per cent, 
greater in number than the Christian faith, and twenty-seven per cent, 
than Paganism, is quite sufficient to convince us that Almighty God 
is Lord of all religions, and is a lover of righteousness more than 
ceremonial forms." 

Definite evidence of the spread of Islam is given by 
the census returns. The figures relate to the Lagos 
municipal area only, ^.e. — Lagos and Ebute Metta. 


CENSUS RETURNS~1891, 1901, 1911. 

Year. Christians. Mohammedans. Pagans. Totals. 

1891 8,996 14,295 9,217 32,508 

1901 10,636 22,080 9,131 41,847 

1911 21,155 36,018 16,593 73,766 

Proportion to Population. 
1891 28 p.c. 44 p.c. 28 p.c. 

1901 25| p.c. 521 p.c. 22 p.c. 

1911 29 p.c. 49 p.c. 22 p.c. 

It is manifest that the increase in population is largely 
due to immigration. This is very evident from the re- 
turns relating to the pagan population, which has risen 
from 9,131 in 1901 to 16,593 in 1911. It is not possible, 
therefore, to discover to what extent the increase in the 
number of Christians and Mohammedans is due to 
conversion. It is satisfactory to note, however, that 
whilst the Mohammedans have increased from 22,080 
to 36,018 in the last decade, the percentage to population 
has dropped from 52| per cent, to 49 per cent. On the 
other hand, the Christians have increased from 10,636 
to 21,155, -whilst the percentage has risen from 25| per 
cent, to 29 per cent. In the Yoruba District, with a 
population of about 2,000,000, the Christian adherents 
returned last year numbered 38,000, and there are 
indications of a widespread revival. It would seem 
Christianity is making the more rapid progress, but 
there is much danger in places where missionary effort 
is not well established of Islam taking the lead. Heathen- 
ism is doomed. In man}?- villages the Church, in others 
the Mosque, is taking the place of the idol groves. Arch- 
deacon Melville Jones says : "In the next decade or 
two the question will be settled whether the Cross or the 
Crescent, Christ or Mahommed, is to be in possession of 
this country. If the Christian Church is only sufficiently 
alive, she will win the spoils for her Master — if not, Islam 
will take the lead." " Give us sufficient missionaries, 
help us to train sufficient teachers, and we may be able 
to seize the opportunity that a strong and living Church 
may be the outcome of the present moment." 

In Calabar and the districts east of the Niger, the 
forerunners of Islam seem just to be making their appear- 


ance. Owing to the settled state of the country they are 
beginning to pass from the Northern Hausa States to the 
coast regions along the old trade routes, where a few 
years ago there was no evidence of their presence. Now 
many towns contain the mud and grass hut that repre- 
sents a Mosque. 

The existing railway from Lagos to Kano appears 
to be a ready means for their access to the coast, and it 
is feared the new railway that is being commenced from 
Port Harcourt to join this in the Bauchi highlands will 
give similar facilities. 

In Northern Nigeria, the southern provinces are only 
just being reached by Islam, although the Northern have 
for generations been subject to its power. Throughout 
this Protectorate new roads, and bridges over rivers, are 
taking the place of the old native tracks winding in and 
out amongst the trees. The old towns that were pro- 
tected by strong mud walls are giving place to new 
villages, open to all comers. Under British rule, law is 
replacing lawlessness. But along the new wide roads 
comes the Moslem trader, protected by British justice, 
^stopping to pray in the villages, selling his charms, 
influencing chiefs, securing the erection of a grass hut 
that he styles a mosque, and throwing the glamour of his 
mingled religion and superstition over the submissive 
minds of the pagans. The extent of the territory that is 
falling a ready victim may be judged from the following : 
Northern Nigeria is 255,000 square miles in extent, and 
is divided into thirteen provinces. Of these provinces, 
Sokoto, the most considerable in point of area, is nearly as 
large as Scotland and Wales ; Bornu is the size of Ireland ; 
Kano is almost as large as Scotland ; Kontagora-Borgu is 
slightly larger than, and Bauchi and Muri the size of, 
Oreece ; the Niger province is as large as Servia ; Yola is 
as large as Denmark ; and Nassarawa exceeds the area 
of Switzerland. 

It is said in Southern Nigeria that the pioneer mission- 
ary in his advance into unoccupied territory, finds the 
evidence of so-called civilisation ahead of him in the 
shape of gin-bottles. The Christian missionary in 
Northern Nigeria has not the same enemy to meet, but 


possibly a more subtle one in the Moslem trader. When 
passing through that country recently I was particularly 
struck with the rapid strides of Islam, and the consequent 
increase of difficulties to Christian missionaries. I also 
saw the readiness of the pagan chiefs to welcome the 
Christian teacher if he came in time. I passed through 
fever-stricken Dampar, a town on the Benue, originally 
occupied, but temporarily closed owing to the invaliding 
home of those who had commenced the work there. In 
the afternoon of the day of our arrival, the chief came 
with his elders to pay his compliments to the white men. 
Sitting on the ruined verandah of the missionary's old 
home, he talked of the days when the white missionary 
was living in Dampar, and told how grieved they were 
that he and his wife had been compelled to leave. The 
old chief asked when another white missionary was coming 
and said how he and his people longed for one. Who 
was to teach them of the way of God, if the missionary 
did not come ? Could not one be spared them ? Sadly 
we had to admit that there was no immediate hope, 
explaining that because the missionaries were so few in 
number, they had to go to the more healthy places first. 
How one's heart ached as the sad admission had to be 
made. The old man sat on. Again and again he re- 
turned to the one topic that was so evidently on his 
heart. In the gathering dusk v/e still sat on and talked, 
the chief in a deck chair and his people around him on 
the verandah floor. The sun was setting in a golden 
glow. Again the chief asked for teachers ; again we had 
to tell him there were none available. The sun set. He 
arose and bade farewell, passing out into the darkness 
followed by his people. As he and his elders disappeared 
in the gloom an inexpressible sadness came over the 
travellers. Here was a man, apparently so earnest and 
eager on behalf of his people, going out into a great 
spiritual darkness, not wilfully, as, alas ! so many at 
home in Christian England do, but going out for lack of 
a Christian teacher. 

Dampar is isolated by a waterless (in the dry season), 
uninhabited bush of about fifty miles from the great 
Mohammedan city of Wase. As we emerged from this 


forest and approached the Mohammedan centre, we 
reaHsed the contrast in the attitude of the people. The 
eagerness of the pagan to welcome the white men was in 
striking contrast to the formality and apparent suspicion 
of the Mohammedan. That bush at present is the 
barrier between the pagan town and Islam, but how long 
will it remain so ? 

A few days later when passing through the Murchison 
Mountains, in whose wild recesses so many virile pagan 
tribes still exist, as they have done for centuries, un- 
touched by Islam, we saw their hatred to the Moslem, 
their old time persecutors and slave-raiders. This was 
strongly indicated when arriving one evening at dusk on 
the banks of a river that we were unable to cross. It was 
a wet night, and the cold of these higher regions was 
trying to our carriers — Hausas from the plain districts. 
They thought they would take shelter for the night in a 
village a short distance back. When they reached that 
village the men, practically devoid of clothing, but 
each carrying a double-edged knife nearly two feet long, 
met them. The welcome these Hausas received was not 
according to expectation. In a body these villagers came 
out with their drawn knives and chased them away. It 
was a token of the old bitterness between the pagan and 
the Moslem. In this connection, the following incident 
with regard to the penetration of pagan states by Moham- 
medans is given by Dr. Barkley McCuUough, Superin- 
tendent of the Freed Slaves' Home, Rumasha — (Sudan 
United Mission) : — 

" These Bassa people around us have not yet been Islamised, and 
not only so, they are bitterly opposed to the Mohammedans coming 
into their country. A short time ago rumours reached us here that 
disturbances were occurring on the other side ; and these were confirm- 
ed later by the noise of guns, and by a number of fugitives crossing 
the river, and passing through our compound. In conversation with a 
Bassa who had come from the other side for medical treatment, we 
learned that some Hausa traders had been robbed, and one or two 
murdered. He further informed us that they had been given the 
choice by the Government of surrendering the murderers and the 
stolen property, or of going to war, and that they had chosen the 
former alternative. The people were bitterly opposed to paying their 
taxes through Hausa Mohammedan officials who robbed and ^vronged 
them, but that they were quite willing to pay directly to the white man.'' 


As one who has seen Islam in Egypt, as well as in 
the Western Sudan, I have found that there is not the 
same bitterness and intensity of feeling in the latter as 
in the former towards the Christian missionary. This 
in itself is hopeful, and indicates a greater readiness to 
hear the Christian teacher in the districts more recently 
occupied by Islam, than one finds in the old Moslem lands. 
In these outlying districts many a pagan with a heavy 
heart has sought, honestly and sincerely, to find in Islam 
that which his own animism and superstitions failed to 
give. A fine, tall, intelligent young fellow in conversation 
with the missionary at Donga stated that he had thrown 
in his lot with the Mohammedans, and was wearing their 
charms and attending their " Sallat." He was asked why 
he followed the prophet. He said, " What could I do ? 
I wanted something, and no one else came to tell me, so 
I believed Islam." For such, if the Christian missionary 
only comes into heart touch in time, there is still hope. 
He has not descended to the depths of Moslem fanaticism, 
and has a heart yearning for something better. 

In the town of Ibi a Mohammedan discussing religious 
problems with a missionary in a very free and open 
manner, as many will, closed the argument by stating, 
*' It behoves you missionaries to he more in earnest,'''' Such 
criticism is apt, in view of the enormous difficulties of 
the work and the extensive character of the land to be 
reached by the messengers of the Cross. 

In view of the fact that Africa will be dominated 
in the future by the three European powers — Germany, 
France, and Great Britain, if Germany reahses the dream 
with which she is credited, of a vast equatorial depend- 
ency at the expense of France, Belgium and Portugal, 
it will be well to consider the attitude of the respective 
governments towards Islam. 

The Moslem problem must be faced by the great 
European nations. Their interests in Africa compel 
attention. They have paved the way for, and even 
sometimes encouraged, the Moslem fanatic, and if they 
do not realise the power of his influence in time they 
may come to disaster, and the dark days of the Eastern 
Sudan be repeated elsewhere. 


Germany at the present time seems to be facing the 
future in a most earnest and conscientious manner. The 
German Colonial Conference that was held in October, 
1910, was conspicuous by its friendly attitude towards 
Christian Missions, and thorough dealing with the Moslem 
problem. Papers were read on that subject with the 
result that the Congress unanimously adopted the 
following resolution : — 

" In view of the fact that from the spreading of Islam serious 
dangers menace the development of our Colonies, the Colonial Con- 
ference advises careful consideration and thorough study of this 
movement. Though in principle impartial in matters of rehgion, 
they think it necessary that all who are engaged in the opening up of 
the Colonies should diligently avoid what may tend towards the 
furtherance of the spread of Islam, and towards restraining or pre- 
judicing Christianity, and recommend missionary work of civilisation, 
especially in the sphere of education, and hygiene to be effectively 
supported also by the Colonial Government. They also recognise in 
the Moslem peril an urgent appeal to the German Christian Church to 
occupy without delay those parts of the Colonies that are not yet 
overspread by Islam." 

Meanwhile, Northern Togoland has been opened to 
Mission work, and the Basel Mission has established a 
first station at Yendi. There, and in other chief trading- 
places, Islam already has its sway. It was time, indeed, 
for the missions to enter. As the western part of Togo- 
land is reserved for the Basel Mission, so is the eastern 
for the Roman Catholic Mission. In South Togoland the 
Bremen Mission has set apart a missionary for work 
among the numerous Hausa population. With regard 
to the northern parts of the Kameruns, the German 
Government seems to be still hesitating. In the southern 
the Basel Mission has one or two stations in direct touch 
with Islam. 

French policy in the Sudan seems to be divided 
according to the circumstances of the two main districts. 
In the extreme west in Senegal, Islam is prevailing. The 
Government has encouraged the establishment of schools 
where the Koran is taught, and the present policy would 
seem to indicate open doors to Islam, but closed ones to 
Christian missions. However, it seems to be dawning 
on France that she has gone too far in this direction. 

In the Shari Chad Protectorate, however, a different 


state of things exists. There the pagans are largely 
holding out against Islam, and it appears that the 
Government would welcome Christian missions, and even 
encourage them. At present there is no missionary 
effort in these immense districts, with a population of 
about five millions. 

Great Britain seems to have no fixed " policy," but is 
guided rather by " expediency," tempered by fear of the 
Moslem power. This expediency gives the appearance of 
vacillation and want of religious conviction. In the eyes 
of reHgious Mohammedans this is to be despised. It is 
unfortunate for a Christian nation. The policy adopted 
by Lord Kitchener after the battle of Omdurman in 
volunteering to the Mohammedan chiefs that surrendered, 
a promise that no Christian missions should be allowed 
north of the 10th parallel, was unhappily endorsed by 
Lord Cromer, and Joseph Chamberlain, as the then 
Colonial Secretary, thus establishing a pro-Islamic policy 
that was not even asked for by the Egyptian authorities 

The spirit of this policy seems largely to animate 
British Government authorities in the Western Sudan, 
and while posing as impartial in religious matters, they 
have allowed the impression to get abroad that it is 
better to be a Moslem rather than a Christian to obtain 
favour with the Government. The Government endeav- 
ours to prohibit the Christian missionary from entering 
Moslem areas, but takes no steps to prevent the Moslem 
entering pagan, or Christian, districts. 

When discussing this question in reference to the 
opening up of certain stations for missionary effort with 
a (now) ex-Governor of N. Nigeria, I asked the direct 
question : "If Christian missions are established in cer- 
tain districts under discussion, and in a few years the 
Moslems entered the neighbourhood in sufficient numbers 
for the Government to proclaim it a Moslem district, 
would the Christian station have to be given up ? " He 
said, " Certainly, the more virile religion should prevail ! " 
When questions like these have to be dealt with by men 
who have no spiritual insight into Christian truth, the 
glamour of Mohammedanism seems to appeal to them. 


Political expediency and fear of the Moslem seem to be 
the chief considerations. 

The following statement by Dr. A. P. Stirrett, of the 
Sudan Interior Mission, bears on this matter : — 

" I stayed over Sunday in a small town at which I halted two years 
ago, and was pained to see that Moslem customs have gained a stronger 
hold there. Later, the reason for this became evident. The next 
place I stayed at was a large Mohammedan centre. After looking 
about the city, I interviewed the British Resident as to the prospects 
of starting a mission there. He was quite decisive in his answer that 
he did not wish a missionary there, although he thought that in other 
parts of his jurisdiction there would be no objection whatever. In 
fact, he said his influence on that city was that of making the people 
more Mohammedan. He seemed to fear that the advent of Christianity 
would complicate matters in the administration of the law. Now, 
since smaller towns are usually tributary to the larger ones, and since 
in the latter Mohammedanism is encomaged, one can easily see the 
effect upon the smaller. Further, note that the turban, worn almost 
universally by the Moslem, is a distinguishing mark of his religion. 
Now, when a chief in a semi-pagan district is crowned king, the official 
ceremony usually consists in giving him a turban to put on, although 
he may be a pagan. Must not the effect upon the pagan and semi- 
pagan, of this ceremony, be to incline them to think that British rulers 
are Mohammedan ? Indeed, I have heard it given out by a Moslem 
that if people dared to become Christian they would at once be dis- 
ciplined by British authority." 

A further striking commentary on the attitude of 
British authorities is furnished in the recent Report of 
the B. & F.B.S. Concerning his recent journey down the 
Niger, Mr. Mesnard remarks : — 

"It is most disheartening to come from a Latin colony, where 
every facility was given me, into a British colony and be politely 

In French West Africa the authorities welcomed the 
Society's agent, and extolled his work as being conducive 
to the best interests of the people ; but in British West 
Africa the agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
was compelled to hurry out of the country as if he were 
a political criminal. 

Expelled from Northern Nigeria, Mr. Mesnard made 
his way towards the coast, seeking the friendly hospi- 
tality of the French colony of Dahomey. 

Sir John Lawrence, one of the great men in the earlier 
Government of India, stated in 1859 : — '' Christian things 


done in a Christian way will never alienate the Hindus 
... It is when un-Christian things are done in the name 
of Christianity, or when Christian things are done in an 
un-Christian way, that mischief and danger are occa- 
sioned." The contention that a pronounced Christian 
attitude on the part of the Government would drive the 
people of India into revolt, and would especially embitter 
Mohammedans, was repeated ad nauseam before and after 
the Mutiny, but the facts pointed to a different conclusion. 
In S. India, where Christian missions were numerous and 
had been long established, there was no revolt. 

The Rev. J. P. Haythornthwaite says : — " In the 
Punjab, where more than half the population consisted 
of fanatical Mohammedans, but where the Government 
was composed of statesmen who made a most pronounced 
profession of Christianity, there was not only a total 
absence of dissatisfaction among a people who had been 
very recently called upon to submit to British rule, but 
the Government relying on the absolute loyalty of its 
troops, was able to send regiment after regiment to the 
relief of Delhi, and it was largely due to the loyalty 
inspired by Christian officers that the Mutiny was 
brought to an end, and British supremacy re-established." 
It seems clear that it was only where the Government 
had pursued a timid policy, and where the influence of 
Christian missions was weak, that rebellion and hatred 
of the British were most in evidence. Dr. Julius Richter, 
in his " History of Missions in India," writes, " With the 
solitary exception of Oudli, which at that time was 
wholly unevangelised, the Mutiny was confined almost 
entirely to the Sepoy Army, and its soldiers were pre- 
cisely those whom the East Indian Company, with the 
most pathetic care, had always kept hermetically sealed 
from every kind of missionary influence." There can be 
no doubt as to the respect which Christianity, if lived out 
fearlessly and whole-heartedly, always engenders in the 
minds of devout Indians. A Hindu once remarked of 
Sir Donald McLeod, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, 
*' If there were many Christians like McLeod, there would 
be no Hindus and Mohammedans." 

It is well to recognise that, in the British Colonies at 


any rate, many men are better than the official poHcy 
they have to carry out. Where such is the case the 
example is far-reaching. 

The challenge of Islamic advance to Christian missions 
in the northern equatorial regions of the Dark Con- 
tinent is being responded to by many societies. In 
France the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society is seri- 
ously considering the day when they will be able to do 
more in the immense district under its own Government 
in the Western Sudan. 

In the British sphere of North Nigeria, the C.M.S. are 
looking forward to extending their work at Zaria, and 
re-entering Kano, the heart of the Mohammedan Hausa 
States. The Sudan Interior Missioh are extending up 
to Miango in the Bauchi Plateau. The Cambridge Uni- 
versity Missionary Party anticipate opening up work 
further east from their present stations amongst the 
Angas and Sura tribes, and possibly entering the Tangale 

The Sudan United Mission are planning to enter the 
unoccupied province of Bornu west of Lake Chad, and 
their Danish branch is now commencing in the province 
of Yola, the most easterly province of Northern Nigeria. 
This society has also in hand proposals for entering other 
districts of the vast unreached Sudan. This mission was 
founded in 1904, as a union effort to carry the gospel 
to the unreached tribes of the Sudan, before the advent 
of Islam. It has a staff of about sixty, and has opened 
eleven stations. There are open doors and urgent calls 
in many directions. 

In the Nile district of the Sudan, the C.M.S. are 
extending northward from Uganda and south from 
Malek, with a view to Joining hands, and have occupied 
Yambio in the Azandi country. 

The American Presbyterians have branched out from 
their old station at Dolaib Hill and are occupying Nasser 
on the Abyssinian border. From their old station on the 
Sobat right up to Khartum there has hitherto been no 
Protestant mission station. The restriction by the 
Government of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan prohibiting 
missionary work north of the 10th parallel, made it 


impossible to occupy any station in that district. Re- 
cently, however, permission was given to the Roman 
Catholics to re-enter their old station at Dilling, among 
the Nuba tribe. Subsequently the district to the east 
of the Nile, which still remained open, was offered to the 
Sudan United Mission, as no other society at the time 
was able to enter it, and it has now a pioneer party 
at Melut on the Nile, 450 miles south of Khartum. 
" Twice a week there is held at night a Moslem Zikr in an open space 
in the village. Thirty or forty Moslems, men and boys, are ranged 
round some Hghted candles and a large paper lamp. They listen to a 
reiteration of parts of the Koran, they then chant in unison, and break 
out into the chorus, ' Um, um, um, um, Allah, Allah,' many hundreds 
of times. As we sit in the shelter of a mosquito room at the rest 
house, the chorus comes to us, rising and falhng in the breeze, like the 
sound of a great challenge, to make know^i to them, and to the Dinkas, 
the true meaning of worship and character of God. All these choruses 
and prayers of the Moslems have a great effect on the pagan , Dinkas, 
who are attracted by anything spectacular. Meanwhile we have to sit 
patiently by, waiting till we can speak to these people in their own 
tongue — patiently, but not inactive, for we are healing their bodies, 
and preparing the waj^ for the healing which we hope to bring to their 

From the foregoing it will be seen that there is a series 
of stations gradually converging on the Sudan sphere 
from the west to the east through its southern terri- 
tories, though at present these stations are widely 

And thus the various societies bordering on the 
strategic field of the dark continent in particular, and the 
world in general, are seeking to respond to the calls of 
the Edinburgh and Lucknow Conferences. 

At Edinburgh, in 1910, we were told : " The absorp- 
tion of the native races into Islam is proceeding rapidly 
and continuously in practically all parts of the Continent. 
The Commission has had convincing evidence of this fact 
brought to its attention by missionaries along the Nile, 
in East Central Africa, on different parts of the West 
Coast, in Northern Nigeria, in the Sudan, in different 
parts of the Congo Basin, in the parts lying south of the 
Congo, and even in South Africa." The Chairman of 
Commission I. concluded his address by saying, " The 
very first thing that requires to be done, if Africa is to 


be won for Christ, is to carry a strong missionary force 
right across the centre of Africa to bar the advance of 
the Moslem." 

The Lucknow Conference, following, decided that 
*' concerted action among Missionary Boards and organi- 
sations is necessary in order thoroughly to co-ordinate 
the forces now at work in Africa, and to regulate their 
distribution in such a manner as to provide a strong 
chain of mission stations across Africa, the strongest 
link of which shall be at those points where Moslem 
advance is most active." 

Belfast, Ireland. Wm. J. W. Roome. 




L Russia. 

With regard to Moslem " colonies " Russia finds herself 
in an altogether exceptional situation as compared -with 
any of the other European powers. In fact, she has none. 
Her primeval Russian stock centre — Kieff, Moscow, 
Vladimir — is surrounded on every side by her " colonies," 
Oukraine, Poland, the Baltic provinces, Finland, Crimea, 
Caucasus, Siberia, Central Asia, which are joined to her 
and form one Empire, undivided and without " colonies." 
The adding of Mohammedan populations and lands 
began under Ivan the Terrible, in the middle of the 
sixteenth century, when Kazan was taken, the Ural 
crossed, and East Siberia subjugated by Emelian Yer- 
makoff. Peter the Great's ambition went southward, 
he coveted the khanates of Khiva and Bokhara and North 
Persia, in order to have a free commercial route into 
India ; but all his expeditions to this end failed. In the 
end of the eighteenth century, the Crimea, then a wholly 
Mohammedan Tartar khanate, was added to Russia ; 
in the middle of the nineteenth century the Caucasus, 
whose Mohammedan mountaineers resisted heroically 
and found immortal fame under the leadership of Murid 
Shamil, was ultimately subjugated ; then after 1878, the 
Trans-Caucasus with Kars and Erzeroum were joined to 
Russia. We find the Moslem provinces of European 
Russia lying like a crescent round her eastern, south- 
eastern and southern frontiers, beginning at Kazan and 
the adjoining provinces of Saratov, Simbirsk and Samara, 
sweeping in a curve eastward to Tobolsk, Ufa and 
Orenburg, south eastwards through the Ural and Turgai 
Steppes over the Caucasus and ending in the Crimea. 


But the^ dreams of Peter the Great were not forgotten ; 
the road to India was a question of too great importance 
for Russian commerce ; the Kirghiz Steppes, infested by 
these nomad robbers, the khanates of Khiva, Bokhara 
and Khokan had to be taken, and were at last taken one 
by one during something hke 30-35 years of war. They 
were amalgamated into what we know now as Russian 
Central Asia, Bokhara and Khiva retaining some sort of 
sham authority. A decade ago the Pamirs were taken 
from Afghanistan, and Russia found herself at last as 
near to India as she can ever expect to go, touching 
on her southern frontier, Chinese Turkistan, Kafiristan, 
Afghanistan and North Persia. Thus we see that Russia 
and her Moslem colonies form one whole, no sea divides 
them, the train goes directly from Russia's adminis- 
trative centre and brain — St. Petersburg, through her 
heart — Moscow, right through her Moslem populated 
European and Asiatic dominions, through the Kirghiz 
Steppes and Ferghana to Andijeane, where the caravan 
route to Kashgar begins, west through the province of 
Samarkand, then Bokhara, Merv, Askhabad to the 
Caspian Sea and the Persian frontier, and a branch rail- 
road turns south and climbs the mountains of the Afghan 
frontier and stops inside the white-walled fortress of 
Koushka. Thus we see that for facility of access for 
administration, civilization, and Christianizing of her 
Moslem " colonies," no other power can compare with 
Russia. About twenty milHon Moslem subjects are 
under her rule and enter more or less into her political, 
social, and commercial life. 

Our next question is. What is the attitude of the 
Government towards Islam as a problem ? 

Here we must distinguish between the ancient 
European Moslem provinces, which have formed part 
of the Russian Empire for a hundred years and more, 
and her dominions in Central Asia. In former centuries 
those Tartar provinces on the Volga and on the slopes 
of the Ural do not appear to have ever been con- 
sidered a problem. Liberty was left to them to continue 
their own public, social, commercial and religious life^ 
and only some sporadic missionary efforts to evangelize^ 


or rather to orthodoxize, the Tartars, en masse, were 
undertaken by one or other of the more zealous bishops ; 
but as there was no pastoral care taken of newly-baptized 
converts most of them relapsed into Islam again. It is 
only in the middle of the nineteenth century that we see 
in the person of Professor Ilminsky a man whose genius 
seemed to foresee a problem and felt it to be a responsi- 
bility. He gave his life to the introduction of the vernac- 
ular into the schools in Moslem and heathen provinces. 
A network of schools and seminaries was created. The 
instruction, the text-books, the Gospel, were all in the 
vernacular, and as the result of his efforts and those of his 
successors the problem of assimilating millions of Moslems,. 
Russian subjects, into the Imperial system of public 
instruction is being solved. In the last decades the 
Tartars of European Russia (though enjoying more free- 
dom than some of the other " colonies " of Russia !) 
have nevertheless been attacked more vigorously by 
the " Russificators," who have obtained more and more 
the upper hand in governrnxcnt circles. 

A real " problem " seemed to loom up when pan- 
Islamism and pan-Turkism appeared. Then the reins 
were grasped more tightly. The supervision of schools was 
enforced. The Russian language was introduced. Ac- 
count of money given by and spent for Moslems had ta 
be given. Daily and monthly papers felt the hand of the 
censor, and not a few were stopped. How far the ideas 
of pan-Islamism, perhaps rather of pan-Turkism, have 
spread and are cherished, it is not possible for me to say. 
But it seems likely that reasonable liberty being accorded 
them for their own national and religious life, the clever, 
practical, matter-of-fact Tartars, for all their undeniable 
religious fanaticism, though lacking the deep soul-fire of 
the Iranic race, will prefer to be assimilated into the 
Russian Empire, with whose traditions and interests of 
all kinds they are united, rather than with a problematic 
pan-Turkish Empire. The Tartars need not be con- 
sidered a " problem " by the Russian government ; it 
will be more far-sighted and statesmanlike and cease to 
alienate those nationalities whose fate it has been to be 
incorporated into the Empire, as has been and is still 


the case with the whole wreath of colonies on her south- 
western, western, and north-western frontier. 

The Moslems of Central Asia present some different 
aspects, and here we may speak indeed of a " problem, 
and the Government does reckon with one. Of course, 
no one expects it to develop into a real danger, but rather 
into annoyances and disturbances. The problem is at 
once political and religious. Political in so far as the 
sphere of influence of Great Britain is so very near 
Russian Central Asia, and this influence is taken into 
account and feared. Afghanistan is, if under any, under 
English influence, and this might spread beyond the 
Hindoo Kush ! Foreigners are, therefore, seldom allowed 
to settle in Turkistan, and they even pass through it 
under certain restrictions. I heard at Bokhara of Afghans 
being compelled to leave it by the Russian Government, 
being considered emissaries of the Ameer of Afghanistan, 
and for Russian officials his name spells Great Britain. 
The Moslems of Central Asia are at heart not friendly 
disposed towards Russia, and this last year even less so 
than before. They do not as a matter of fact see much 
of the blessings confered on their land by a government 
which is conspicuous for its lack of initiative and talent 
for organization. Take only the question of life and 
death for Central Asia, the question of water-supply by 
irrigation ! And they do see much of Russian coarseness 
and licentiousness ; no reason for love, certainly. 

Then, as to the religious problem, it also is acknow- 
ledged to exist, but as the government does not want, 
or does not know how, to tackle it, full liberty is given 
in religious matters. " No interference, no pressure, no 
influencing," seems to be the dictum. One hears of the 
possibility of a Jihad, though I am sure the Moslems do 
not think of one. Neither do the Russians themselves 
believe in it. The school question is also considered a 
problem ; one party of Russian official pedagogues 
standing for absolute freedom for Moslems to develop 
their educational system as they think best, others 
urging the necessity for bringing all schools under the 
control of the State Ministry of Public Instruction, treat- 
ing Central Asian Moslems exactly like all other Russian 



subjects. But so far no definite policy has been adopted, 
and in all these questions one finds divergency of opinion 
and divergency of action. 

How far is the government helpful towards evangeli- 
zation by schools and hospitals ? 

Again we must distinguish between the European 
Moslem provinces and Central Asia. In the European 
provinces, since Ilminsky, a splendid work has been 
carried on by means of schools, seminaries, etc., and 
there, indeed, the work of the Government is helpful 
toward evangelization, as for these same schools the Gos- 
pel has been translated into the vernacular of the Moslem 
and heathen population. I have read also of brother- 
hoods and sisterhoods having sprung up, something like 
Christian Endeavour Societies. But all this is in the 
hands of Russian officials, Russian priests, amongst 
whom without doubt there are and will be truly spiritual 
pastors. Nevertheless they are State officials, who are 
expected to work for the State Church and for the State, 
and to do a work of " Russification." I lately saw it 
stated in the " Mir Islama," that, of course, the aim of 
all we do in school work for and amongst Moslems is their 
" Russification." Now, we Protestant evangelical mis- 
sionaries could not take this view. We must bear in 
mind that Russification is very far from evangelization. 
It even hinders it, as we have seen only too often in the 
recent history of Russian evangelical Christianity. 

What is done by the government in the domain of 
medical help I cannot specify. Much, however, remains 
to be done in the Tartar provinces of European Russia ; 
and the awful need of medical help in times of famine 
and epidemics, which occur so often in the Volga and Ural 
provinces, shows that medical help is in no way adequate 
to the need. Again, where there are hospitals, and they 
open the way for reaching the sick Moslems with the 
message of Christ, it would be again through the medium 
of the orthodox priest. 

In Central Asia the Government has lately begun to 
establish so-called " Russian aboriginal schools." These 
find favour Avith the Moslems, and they in part support 
them. The children are taught half in the Tartar 


language, half in Russian. They leave these schools 
with a fair knowledge of Russian and arithmetic which 
helps them in business and as clerks. But these schools, 
of which there are about 170 with 5-6,000 pupils (against 
5,000 meletabs with 100,000 pupils !) are in no way a 
help toward evangelization. They are strictly secular 
and neutral. No one speaks a word about religion to the 
children. The Russian teacher, who has for the most 
part graduated at the Teachers' Seminary at Taschkent, 
js a State official, and is expected to keep along official 
lines in religious questions, and in these the watchword 
is : " Leave them alone, it is not our business." 

Medical help is given to the Moslem population of 
Central Asia in a way which promises to develop into a 
net work of hospitals and " medical points " all over the 
country. Every town in Central Asia has one or more 
hospitals or dispensaries, specially for Moslems, often 
only for women. Here the staff consists exclusively of 
ladies. We find also lady doctors, sometimes even 
Moslem ladies, located in some of the medical points in 
the country, mostly at the great bazar villages. The work 
which is done through these agencies is a real help to the 
population, and is appreciated by them. So in one of 
the two hospitals for Moslems, which both the reigning 
Ameer of Bokhara and his predecessor have maintained 
in that town, the number of out-patients only (and only 
women and children) amounted to 23,000 in one year ! 
But again I must say, as in the case of the schools, these 
hospitals are not helpful towards evangelization, being 
government institutions, managed on government busi- 
ness lines. Of course, if the doctors or nurses were 
Christians, real living Christians, they would have a 
splendid opportunity for opening up the land for the 
Gospel, but for the time being, professing zealous disciples 
of our Lord would not be tolerated on the staff of these 
hospitals. I speak from experience. 

Lastly, we consider the question : What societies are 
undertaking evangelization in Russian Moslem colonies ? 

In the Moslem districts on the Volga and in the 
Ural, and over into Siberia and the north fringe of the 
great Kirghiz Steppes, there is an orthodox missionary 


society at work which was founded some thirty years ago. 
It used to be successful, but since the revolution and the 
granting of liberty of conscience, a growing estrangement 
from the church has swept over Russia, and more out- 
ward than spiritual success has ceased. The Orthodox 
Church has lost in the last decade about 50,000 souls, 
which have returned to Islam. Such a mass movement 
hack has, I believe, never been witnessed in any other 
mission field, and is sufficient to prove the shallowness of 
the foundation laid and the lack of spirituality in the 
society's methods and aims ! No other missionary society 
works in that vast field ; the Lutheran Church in Russia 
having lost the missionary spirit, and the smaller 
evangeUcal communities not yet having developed it. 
But the one faithful witness, whose zeal never slackens, 
whose salt does not lose its power, which cannot be killed 
or silenced — the "Word of God" — is on the field! 
The Gospel, translated into the vernacular of all or nearly 
all the Moslem tribes of European and Asiatic Russia, is 
within the reach of the Moslems, either in the missionary 
schools (in European Russia) or offered by the colporteurs 
of the Russian, but particularly of the British and Foreign 
Bible Societies. And, thank God, the number of copies 
sold or given to Moslems shows a steady increase. Whilst 
this agent is at work, the Word of God itself, let us not 
despair of Moslems in Russia finding the way to Him, 
who is Truth and Life ! In Central Asia some work also 
is being done by the one colporteur of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, but he finds himself there subjected 
to restrictions, and can only travel along the railroad, 
not having permission to circulate in every town. As for 
missionary work of any kind, none is tolerated amongst 
Moslems ; not by their prohibition but by that of the 
government. Only here and there some individuals live 
and pray and work quietly, having been called and sent 
out by the Lord Himself for some special errand in one 
or other part of this vast land, a dry and thirsty land 
indeed, in which there is no water ! I know of about 
ten to twelve persons who are living witnesses and 
workers for Christ among Moslems of Central Asia. No 
need to name them ; the Lord knows them. But they 


are an earnest of the army of workers that is to come^ 
that will come, in God's good time ! The Russian 
Orthodox church does not do any work of any kind for or 
amongst the Moslems of Central Asia. This immense fields 
with its millions of people, lies waste. And as we see 
the need, as we hear of schools, of hospitals, of bible 
societies, of individuals, who all would or could be 
used for the evangelization of Moslems in Russia, we 
realize that all is made useless, fruitless, all is left barren 
and dry, because the government of the Empire neither 
allows missionary work to be done by others, nor does it 
itself. Do not the words of our Lord to the Pharisees 
come to our mind — " Woe unto you ! Ye enter not 
the Kingdom of God yourselves, neither suffer ye them 
that are entering in to enter ! " 

For the moment we can only strengthen by believing 
prayer the hands of those who here and there sow in hope 
and dig wells in that far-off valley of Baca. 

Djeddah, Jenny von Mayer. 




It was pointed out at the Lucknow Conference, 1911, 
that the total population of the Moslem world is still a 
matter of conjecture rather than of actual statistics. 
The discrepancies in the different statistical surveys 
attempted by various authorities are as disconcerting as 
they are surprising. Most of the estimates have been 
made by Western writers, although we have one or two 
insta.nces of an attempted census by the Moslems them- 
selves. In El Moayyad (Cairo) for November 9th, 1909, 
the total population of the Moslem world is given at 
270,000,000 ; but it is evident that the figures are 
largely guess work, as the numbers in China are put at 
40,000,000, in Africa at 70,000,000, and in Russia as 
high as 24,000,000. In another case, to which Dr. H. H. 
Jessup called attention, the Sublime Porte, under the 
Hamidian regime, carefully copied a survey of the 
Moslem world published in the Missionary Review of the 
World in 1898, and gave it as an accurate census taken 
under the supervision of the Sultan and at his expense ! 
The following table gives the totals of the Moslem 
world population from various sources : — 

Brockhcaus, " Konvers.-Lexikon," 1894 . . . . 175,000,000 

Hubert Jansen, " Verbreitung des Islams," 1897 259,680,672 
S. M. Zwemer (Missionary Review of the World), 

1898 196,491,842 

Allgemeine Missions Zeitschrift, 1902 

H. Wichmann in Justus Perthes' " Atlas," 1903 240,000,000 

Encyclopedia of Missions, 1904 . . 

" The Mohammedan World of To-day ' 

Conference, 1908) 

Martin Hartmann, 1910 . . 

C. H. Becker, in Baedecker's " Egypt 

German edition) 
Lucknow Conference Report, 1911 



. . 193,550,000 


. . 232,996,170 

. . 223,985,780 

' (last 

. . 260,000,000 

. . 200,000,000 


The most detailed statistics can be found in Jannsen, 
but they are not rehable and are generally over-estimated, 
especially in regard to Africa. Hartmann's statistics are 
excessive in regard to Siam, China, and the Phillipine 
Islands, as well as the German Colonies in Africa, and 
Abyssinia, where he finds no less than 800,000 Moham- 
medans ! Generally speaking, the population of countries 
such as Morocco, Persia, Arabia, and Northern Equatorial 
Africa, where there are large desert tracts, has been es- 
timated too high. 

In regard to two large areas of the Moslem world, we 
are able to speak with much greater accuracy than has 
hitherto been the case. Miss Jenny Von Mayer and 
Madame Bobrovnikoff have published careful surveys of 
the extent and character of Islam in the Russian Empire, 
based on Government documents, and Mr. Marshall 
Broomhall, in his " Islam in China," shows that the total 
Moslem population in the Chinese Republic, instead of 
being twenty or thirty million, lies somewhere between 
the minimum and maximum figures of five and ten 
millions. With the lowest figure the careful estimate 
given by the French Mission, under Commandant 
D'OUone, practically agrees (Recherches sur les Musul- 
mans Chinois, Paris, 1911) ; although some of the 
missionaries believe that both of these estimates are 
alike too low. In the case of India and Malaysia we have 
later statistics, based on the new census, which were not 
available previously. The careful investigations made 
by Professor D. Westermann, of Berlin, and others, con- 
cerning Islam and its propagandism in Africa, enable us 
now to reduce the exaggerated figures hitherto accepted 
for some portions of the dark continent. 

All this makes it possible to give our readers a better 
estimate, we believe, than has yet been presented. The 
accompanying tables give in every case our authorities 
and references. Professor Westermann is responsible 
for Africa, and the writer for the rest of the world. 
Where no definite authority is given and only an estimate 
is made, it is always conservative and based in every case 
on considerable correspondence with those who are 
authorities on the subject. 


The total of the whole world, according to this new 
estimate, is 201,296,696. Of these, 90,478,111 are under 
British rule or protection, and 76,596,219 under other 
Western or Christian Governments in possession of 
colonies, a total of 167,074,330, equal to 83 per cent., 
and distributed as indicated : — 

Under British Rule or Occupation. 

In Africa 22,606,344 

In Asia 67,871,767 


. . 90,478,111 

Other Western or Christian Governments 

In Africa : — 







Italy .1 




Spain . . 


Abyssinia and Liberia 



In Asia : — 

United States (Moros.) 



. 35,308,996 



Russia (Asia and Europe) 

. 20,000,000 


Europe (outside Turkey) 





This leaves only 34,222,366 Mohammedans not under 
Western governments. Of this number only 13,278,800 
are under the Caliphate in the Ottoman Empire, or 
only six and a half per cent, of the whole Moslem 
world population. 

Another fact deserves notice. Professor Margoliouth 
states (" Mohammedanism," p. 14) that " Islam in the 
main is a religion of the heat belt, the part of the earth's 
surface which lies between 30 degrees N. latitude and 30 
degrees S. latitude, with a mean temperature of 68 F," and 
quotes jV'Ir. AUeyne Ireland as saying : '' During the past five 
hundred years the people of this belt have added nothing 
whatever to human advancement. Those natives of the 
tropics and sub-tropics who have not been under direct 



European influence have not during that time made a 
single contribution of the first importance to art, liter- 
ature, science, manufacture, or invention ; they have 
not produced an engineer or a chemist or a biologist or 
a historian or a painter or a musician of the first rank." 
But a study of our statistics shows that such generali- 
zations are rash, for Islam has extended far to the north 
and south of this heat belt, and has, outside of this area, 
a population of no less than 66,208,796. These are 
distributed as follows : — 


3,100,000 . . 


1,660,000 . . 

2,398,320 . . 

5,500,000 . . 
20,000,000 . . 

6,315,000 . . 

5,000,000 . . 
12,278,800 . . 

3,400,000 . . 

2,373,676 . . 
8,000 . . 

In Morocco. 
,, Algeria. 
,, Tunis. 
,, Kashmir 

,, Half of the Punjab. 
„ Russia. 

,, Three-quarters of China. 
,, Afghanistan. 
,, Turkey in Asia. 
„ Threequarters of Persia. 
,, Europe. 
„ America. 

A much more important division of the Moslem world 
population than that of climate, or even according to 
government, is the classification of Moslems according 
to the character of their beliefs and practices. Snouck 
Hurgronje, Warneck and Simon have conclusively shown 
that the Mohammedans of Malaysia are of animistic type 
and have little in common with Moslems as we know 
them in North Africa or Arabia. Of the total number 
who call themselves Moslems we must reckon, therefore, 
that 60,000,000 in Africa, Mala3^sia, and parts of India 
belong to this animistic type, or, in the words of Gottfried 
Simon, are really " heathen Mohammedans." The Shiah 
sect in Persia and India is also a distinct group but does 
not count more than 10,000,000. Perhaps from two to 
four millions of the Moslem world population in Persia, 
Turkey, India and Egypt have so far adopted Western 
education and broken away from the old Islamic stand- 
ards of the orthodox tradition that they should be 
separately classified also a-s New School Moslems. This 


would leave about 126,000,000 orthodox Moslems who 
follow the Sunna of the Prophet, and are themselves 
cognizant of the existence and the distinctions of the 
four great schools — Hanifi, Maliki, Shafi, Hanbali. The 
Hanifi are in the great majority and number perhaps 
85 millions, chiefly in Turkey, India, Russia, and Central 
Asia. The Maliki school is predominant in Upper Egypt 
and North Africa and numbers about 16 millions. The 
Shafts are found chiefly in lower Egypt, Southern India 
and Mala3^sia, numbering about 24 millions, while the 
Hanbali are found mostly in Central and Eastern Arabia 
and do not number over one million. 

We now present the tables of population, beginning 
with Africa : — 


1 . Abbreviations : — 

A. F. == Annuaire du Gouvernement General de TAfrique Frangaise, 

Paris, 1912. 
A. J. = Die deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika und der Siidsee. 

Amtliche Jahresberichte, Berlin. 
Census 1911 = Census 1911. Annexures to General Report. Part 

VI., Religions of the People, Pretoria, 1912. 
C. 0. L. = Colonial Office List. London, 1913. 
Del. = M. Delafosse, in Revue du Monde Musulman, tome ii. (1910), 

p. 41 if. 
H. = Otto Hiibner's Geographisch-Statistische Tabellen, Frankfort 

a Main, 1913. 
R. G. G. = Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Tubingen, 

1909 If. 

2. The information given under C. Janssen (of Brussels, formerly 
Governor-General of the Congo State), B. Struck (of Dresden), Dr. 
Karstedt (of Berlin), P. Regard (of Paris), are personal communi- 
cations, for which I have to express my sincere thanks. Mr. Struck 
besides has given me several valuable suggestions. 

3. Fairly accurate data as to the number of Mohammedans are 
obtainable — (a) where census returns or official estimates are available 
— e.g., in North Africa and the Union of South Africa ; (6) where the 
population of a country is entirely or almost entirely Mohammedan ; 
(c) where whole particular peoples, such as the Haussa and Fula, have 
accepted Islam, or the great majority of a population has done so, 
ajs in the case of the Wolof or Mandingo, and their numbers are knowi:\. 
For the rest, the statistics here given are based upon the Avriter's 
estimates, which have been founded on recent literature on the subject 
or derived by comparison with the population of neighbouring countries 
for which accurate statistics are available. 

It should be noted that in many of the border marches of Islam 
the boundaries between heathenism and Islam are completely lost ; 
the estimates are, therefore, in some cases, arbitrary, and even experts 
differ greatly in their estimates. 

4. Earlier estimates without exception run into higher figures 




Name of 



Belgian Possessions 

Belgian Congo 15 to 20,000,000 60,000 

Sources (a) for Total Popu- 
lation, (i) for Mohammedan 
Population ; and other 

(a) Le Mouvement Geo- 
graphique, 1912. H. 

(6) C. Janssen : Pro- 
vince Orientale et 
Uelle, 11,000; B. 
Struck (whole Belg. 
Congo), 57,000. 


Portuguese Possessions 



S. Thome and 
Principe . , 
East Africa . . 

69,000 — 
. . 4,200,000 — 
. . 3,120,000 130,000 

Spanish Possessions 




Rio de Oro . . 

173,846 — 
130,000 130,000 

Independent Countries 


Abyssinia . . 

. . 8,000,000 500,000 


200,000 (a) H. : 820,000. 

(6) Fula and Mandingo 
are Mohammedans. 








; Estimate prob- 
ably too high. 

(6) J. Richter in War- 
neck's Missions- 

Remark: 333,000. 

H. Johnston, Liberia, 
London, 1906. 

Italian Possessions 


690,000 {a) H. 
275,000 (a) B. 
400,000 H. 


than those here given ; even the most recent pubhcations (by Becker, 
Hartmann, MargoUouth, Richter) vary, between a total of 53 and 
76 miUions. This over-estimate is due for the most part to the fact 
that the population of many parts of Africa was set at too high a figure 
{e.g., Morocco, 6-10 millions instead of 3,200,000 ; Darfur, 3,500,000 
instead of about 600,000 ; Wadai 2-3,500,000 instead of 1,000,000). 

5. Estimates that disagree with mine as to the number of Moham- 
medans in individual countries I have only given when they are new, 
and their accuracy bears a special semblance of probability, or when 
they are specially worthy of attention. 

6. In most countries, where the population is still partly heathen, 
Islam is gaining ground. 



French Possessions 

Name of 

Le Senegal 



Haut Senegal 



Mauritanie . . 225,000 

Cote dlvoire .. 1,205,000 
Dahomey.. .. 878,000 

Afrique Equa- 7 to 9,000,000 

toriale Fran- 

Somali .. .. 20S,000 

Madagascar . . 3,104,000 

Reunion . . 
Com^ores . . 
Morocco . . 







Guinee rran9aise 1,935,000 1,000,000 












Sources (a) for Total Popu- 
lation, (h) for Mohammedan 
Population ; and other 

(a) A.F. (6) Purely 
Moh. : Fula 79,000, 
Toucouleur 158,000, 
almost purely Moh. : 
Wolof 407,000.— Del.: 
500,000 Moh. 
{a) A.F. ; (6) purely 
Moh.: Fula 650,000; 
rest of pop. predom- 
inantly heathen, but 
Islam rapidly increas- 
ing. Del. 250,000 Moh. 
(a) A.F. ; (b) Del. 
844,450; and Terri- 
toire Militaire du 
Niger 600,000. 
A.F. ; H. Del. : 

(a) A.F. ; H. 
(6) Del. 250,000. 
(a) A.F. ; H. 
(6) Del. 50,000 ; 
Pegard: 100,000. 
(a) H. (6) Pegard 
1,000,000 in Territoire 
Mihtaire du Tchad. 

{a) H. (6) The Moslem 
World, July, 1913, p. 
261, Remark. Pe- 
gard : 1700. 
(a) H. 
{a) H. 

[a) Koloniale Rund- 
schau, Oct., 1913, p. 
624, from Bulletin du 
Comite de FAfrique 
Fran^aise 1913, and 
La Quinzaine Colon- 
iale 1913. (6) from 
about 70-100,000 Jews, 
5-10,000 Cln:istians,R. 
G. G. 300,000 Jews, 
10,000 Christians, 
(a) H. (6) H. 
(a) H. (6) H. 



German Possessions 

Name of 


Kamerun . 













Sources («) for Total Popu 
lation, (b) for Mohammedan 
Population ; and other 
(a) A.J., 1909-10, etc 
(6) A.J., 1910-11 : 
14,000 indigenous (im 
Schutzgebiet heim- 
isclie) Moll. 
(a) A.J., 1909-10, etc. 
(6) Passarge in Das 
Deutsche Kolonial- 
reich, Tome I., p. 511. 

(a) A.J. (6) A.J., 1911- 
12, 300,000; Kar- 
stedt, IJ millions. 



British Possessions and Countries under British 

Gambia . . 



{a) C.O.L., 1913. 

Sierra Leone . . 



{a) C.O.L., 1913. 

Gold Coast . . 



{a) C.O.L., 1913. 

{h) T. P. Rodger in 
Journal of the African 
Society, 1909-1910, 


page 14 gives 100,000. 

Nigeria 8 to 9,000,000 


(a) C.O.L., 1913. 

Southern Nigeria 



(a) C.O.L., 1913. 
(6) Cf. African Mail, 
29. 8. 1913. 




(a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 

B. East Africa 3 to 4,000,000 


(a) C.O.L., 1913 : H. 

Uganda . . 



(a) C.O.L., 1913. 




{a) C.O.L., 1913. 

Zanzibar, Pemba 



(a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 

Mauritius and 



(a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 

Seychelles . . 

(6) H. 

Cape Province . . 



(a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 

(b) Idem, and Census 

Natal . . . . 



{a) C.O.L., 1913. 
(6) Census 1911. 




(a) C.O.L., 1913. 
(6) Census 1911. 

Transvaal . . 



{a) C.O.L., 1913. 
(6) Census 1911. 



(a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 

Bechuana . . 



(a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 
(a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 

Rhodesia . . 


{a) C.O.L., 1913 ; H. 

Egypt . . . . 



(a) H. (6) H. 



Name of 




Total for Africa. . 




Sources (a) for Total Popu- 
lation, (b) for Mohammedan 
Population ; and other 
(a) " The Anglo Egyp- 
tian Sudan." 
(6) J. Richter in War- 
neck's Missionsge- 
schichte 1910, p. 336, 
Remark: 1,000,000. 



A. Under Foreign Rule. 

British Empire. 
Aden, Perim, Sokotra, 

Kuria Muria, etc. . . 58,165 

Bahrein Islands . . 90,000 

British Borneo . . . . 208,183 

Ceylon 4,105,535 

Maldive Islands . . . . 50,000 
India & Dependencies : — 

Not including Aden. 

Ajmer-Merwara . . . . 501,395 

Andamans & Nicobars 26,459 

Baluchistan 414^412 

Bengal 52,668,269 

Bombay Presidency . . 19,626,477 

Burma 12,115,217 

Central Provinces and 

Berar 13,916,308 

Coorg 174,976 

E. Bengal and Assam . . 34,018,527 

Madras 41,405,404 

North-West Frontier 
Province (Districts & 
Administered Terri- 
tories) 2,196,933 






















Total populations as given by the Statesman's Year Book, 1913 

{S. Y. B.), unless otherwise stated. 
R. M. M.— Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris. 
Official Stat. — Jaarcijfers voor de Kolonien : The Hague, 1912. 
Enc. of Islam. — Encvclopedia of Islam. 
M. W.— The Moslem*^ World. 
C. C. Report. — Cairo Conference Report, " The Mohammedan World 

of To-day." 
Broomhall. — " Islam in China," by Marshall Broomhall : London. 
Kampffmeyer. — " Die Welt des Islams." Vol. i. 1. 
Hartmann. — " Der Islam," by Martin Hartmami : Leipzig, 1909. 
Est. — Estimated from correspondence. 



Country. Poputtlou. 

Punjab 19,974,956 

United Provinces of Agra 

and Oudh 47,182,044 

Baluchistan States . . 396,432 

Baroda State 2,032,798 

Bengal States . . . . 4,538,161 

Bombay States . . . . 7,411,675 

Centraf India Agency .. 9,356,980 

Cent. Provinces States. . 2,117,002 

E. Bengal & Assam States 575,835 

Hyderabad State . . . . 13,374,676 

Kashmir State . . . . 3,158,126 

Madras State . . . . 4,811,841 

Mysore State . . . . 5,806,193 
North-West Frontier 

Province (Agencies & 

Tribal Areas) . . . . 13,538 

Punjab States . . . . 4,212,794 

Rajputana Agency . . 10,530,432 

Sikkim 87,920 

United Provinces States 832,036 
























Federated Malay States 



East & West, 
July, 1913. 

Straits Settlements 



>5 >> 



Dutch East Indies. 

Java and Madura 



Official Stat., 
The Hague. 




R.M.M., VoL 
vii. 112. 




>> >) 




Enc.of Islam, 
p. 830 (est.) 

Banka & Dependencies 



Enc. of Islam > 
p. 649. 

Riou and Dependencies 



R.M.M., voL 
\di. 112. 




j> >j 

Amboine & Dependencies 



>> >> 

Ternate, New Guinea and 



>> j> 

Dependencies . . 


Timor and Dependencies 



)} j> 

Bali and Lombok 



>5 J» 

Total .. .. .. 


American Colonies. 

Philippine Islands . . 



R.M.M., VoL 
iv. 24. 




statistics of total population from Official Statistics.— The Hague, 1912. 


country. p„p^tio„. Pop^Sn. ^"«'»"*^ 
French Possessions. 
Aiinain, Cambodia, Coch- 

in-China, Tonking. 16,317,000 232,000 R.M.M., voL 

Laos, Pondicherr3' 277,000 i. 28. 


liiissia in Asia ami 

Including Bokhara 
(1,250,000), and Khiva 

(800,000) 167,003,400 20,000,000 M.W., Vol. i., 

p. 20. 
Turkey in Asia. 

Asia Minor 10,509.200 7,179,1X)0 S.Y.B. 

Armenia & Kurdistan . . 2,470,900 1,795,800 S.Y.B. 

Mesopotamia 2,000,000 1,200,000 C.C.R. (est.). 

Syria 3,675,100 1,053,100 C.C.R. (est.). 

Arabia (Hejaz, Yemen) 1,050,000 1,050,000 S.Y.B. 

Total 19,705,200 12,278,800 

B. Independent Countries. 

Arabia 2,500.000 2,500,000 Est. of 


Afghanistan 5,900,000 5,000,000 S.Y.B. and 

M.W., voL 

Chinese Empire : — ii. 133. 

Kansu 10,385,376 3,500,000 

Shensi .. 8,450,182 500,000 

Shansi 12,200,456 25,000 

Chihli 20,937,000 1,000,000 

Shangtung 38,247,900 200,000 

Honan 35,316,800 250,000 

Kiangsu 13,980,235 250,000 

Szechwan 68,724,890 250,000 

Kweichow 7,650,282 20,000 

Yunnan 12,324,574 1,000,000 

Hupeh 35,280,685 10,000 

Kiangsi 26,532,125 2,500 

Anhwei 23,670,314 40,000 

Chekiang 11,580,692 7,500 

Hunan 22,169,673 20,000 

Kwangtung 31,865,251 25,000 

Kwangsi 5,142,330 20,000 

Fukien 22,876,540 1,000 

Manchuria 16,000,000 200,000 

Mongolia 2,600,000 100,000 

Sinkiang (Chinese Turk- 
estan, etc.) . . . . 1,200,000 1,000,000 

Total 427,135,305 8,421,000 Broomhall,* 

p. 215. 

Tibet 6,500,000 28,500 Broomhall, 


* For Sinkiang a lower figure is adox^ted, see p. 214. 




Japan and Formosa 






Total for Asia 



Austria Hungary, includ- 
ing Bosnia and Herze- 
govina 51,140,560 613,587 

Bulgaria 4,337,516 603,867 

Crete 342,151 27,852 

Greece 2,666,000 24,000 

Great Britain 45,369,090 1,000 

Islands of the Aegean .. 296,800 27,000 

France 39,601,509 2,600 

Montenegro 250,000 14,000 

Kumania 7,248,061 43,470 

Russia (statistics included under Asia). 

Servia 2,911,701 14,300 

Turkey 2,000,000 1,000,000 

The rest of Europe .. — 2,000 

Total for Europe. . ' 2,373,676 


North America .... — 8,000 

Total — 8,000 

JSouth and Central 


Argentine 7,171,910 7,520 

Brazil 23,070,969 100,600 

Cuba 2,220,278 2,500 

Ouiana, British . . 296,000 21,300 

Guiana, Dutch . . . . 86,233 10,584 

Guiana, French . . . . 49,009 1,570 

Jamaica 831,383 3,000 

Mexico 15,063,207 1,050 

Trinidad 340,000 10,499 

Scattered — 7,438 

Total 166,061 


Total Moslem population 19,500 

Total for the whole world 201,296,696 


Miss. est. 





R.M.M., iii. 
S.Y.B. [132. 

S.Y.B. (est.). 

Jannsen (est.) 

R.M.M., vi. 
» [314. 


R.M.M., ii. 






*' The Sufis are the true pioneers on the path of God ; there is 
nothing more beautiful than their Hfe, nor more praiseworthy than 
their rule of conduct, nor purer than their morality." — Al Ghazzali. 

Mysticism, it is hoped, will provide the missionary with 
a point of contact whereby he may read the Moslem 
heart. And to-day a study of Mysticism is being advo- 
cated, because it is thought that it will solve many of 
the problems that stand in the way of approach. There 
is no doubt that much is to be found that is common in 
the mystical thought of all ages and creeds. And it is 
known that Christian, like Islamic mysticism, owes a 
good deal to the mj^stical and philosophical thought of 
paganism. There is a good deal of difference, however, 
in the development of the two schools of thought. 
Christianity has purified the mysticism of the West from 
errors that still exist in that of the East. A character- 
istic of Mysticism, in all its phases, is that it tends to 
Pantheism. This tendency in Christian thought has been 
controlled and held in check ; but Sufiism is essentially 
pantheistic, although the Islamic conception of the 
Infinite is deistical. The Christian mystic is satisfied 
when he attains to union with God, which he describes 
under the symbolism of marriage. The result of this 
union is a life of intense activity on behalf of unenlight- 
ened men. The Sufi mystic yearns for absorption in the 
Infinite, when his own personality is destroyed by being 
merged in the Divine. Thus, unlike the Christian, he 
becomes an impracticable visionary. Real mysticism 
involves an acceptance of the two great aspects of God — 
the transcendental and the immanental. The Sufi's 
error is that he neglects the first aspect for the second ; 
his quest for Reality tends to become purely a^subjective 
process. In his system there seems to be no possibility 


of approach in order to bring him into touch with the 
claims of Christ ; for, in his contemplation, he rises above 
the need for any intermediary (and in so far as this is 
true, as will be seen, he cannot be a true Moslem) ; he 
reaches a certain stage in the mystic way when prophet 
and book alike are unnecessary. One of the Sufi poets 
says, " Love is the object of my worship. What need 
have I of Islam ? " And an authoritative writer on the 
subject declares, " The Pantheism, Idealism, and Quiet- 
ism, which are the body of the Sufiistic doctrine, are 
rather the outcome of his own spiritual tendencies than 
the result of the teaching of Islam." 

Although it is true that in order to cultivate the 
essential contemplation all mystics are agreed that 
meditation upon one " point " or aspect of Reality is 
necessary, this does not provide a point of contact. 
The Sufi, proud of his unitarian pantheism, will take as 
his point of meditation one of the attributes of God 
described in the many names of the Moslem system ; and 
from this point will rise stage by stage until he is able to 
say, " There is no God save L" Let the Christian mis- 
sionary approach such an one, even as he enters upon the 
preliminary stages of his onward career ; certain of the 
hope that lies before him, the Sufi will scorn the idea of 
a mediator ; for his exercises seem to provide a deadly 
satisfaction for the yearmng of his soul. 

The Sufi mystic is not alone in his needlessness of an 
intermediary ; for it is an accusation levelled at the 
mystic of the Christian faith, who, in his quest for God, 
is said to minimise the place of the historic Christ. Like 
some philosophical schools, many mystics seem to have 
regarded the facts of incarnation as merely a manifes- 
tation of a " cosmic process." The practical value of 
the atonement is obscured in the strange symbolism he 
adopts. This accusation has been questioned by a well- 
known preacher in a recent address on mysticism. He 
says, " The great accusation levelled at the mystic is 
that he has no room for Jesus Christ. Alone with the 
Infinite, in secret rapture, the figure of the historic Jesus 
vanishes. But it has always seemed to me that this 
objection might equally be urged against the grace of 



prayer ; for I question if anybody, when he prays to 
God, is actually conscious of the historic Christ. We 
do not go back in thought, when we are praying, to Him 
who walked among the fields of Galilee. We lift up our 
hearts, without a thought of Galilee, to the Infinite and 
Eternal God. Yet in so doing we glorify Christ Jesus, 
for all that we seek, and all that we find in God is what 
we have been taught to seek and find in the life and the 
words of Christ." One wonders how it is possible to lose 
sight of the historic Christ in prayer if we ask all things 
in His name, according to His promise ! The speaker 
then went on, " A pagan (or Moslem) mystic withdraws 
into the silence, alone, unbefriended, unaccompanied. 
But a Christian mystic ' (the true mystic) ' withdraws 
into the silence with all that he has learned in Jesus 
Christ of a God Who has a father's heart, and who knows 
the yearning of a father's love." 

Against this argument are the words of a well-known 
writer on mysticism who declares that the first part of 
" Introversion," which is the beginning of the mystic 
way, is " to clear away the rubbish heaps of his surface 
interests that he may meet God without intermediary." 
While another writer says, " The defect inseparable from 
mysticism, in all its history, is that it will not accept as 
sufficient the revelation of God that comes in the ordinary 
experience of human life, but demands a revelation apart 
from and above these." 

The more deeply the subject is studied the wider does 
the gap between Sufiism and Christian mysticism seem 
to be. On the one side we have a materialistic pantheism, 
and on the other a transcendental theism. And the gulf 
that yawns between is the difterence between the phil- 
osophic East and the practical West. E. G. Browne 
describes this divergence as follows, " Here (in the West) 
it is the ideas of faith and righteousness (in different 
proportions it is true) which are regarded as the essentials 
of religion ; there (in the East) it is knowledge and 
mystery. Here religion is regarded as a rule by which 
to live, and a hope wherein to die ; there as a key to 
unlock the spiritual and material universe. Here it is 
associated with work and charity ; there with rest and 


wisdom. Here a creed is admired for its simplicity ; 
there for its complexity." 

The contemplation of the Sufi is a hedge through 
which the missionary cannot penetrate, while the more 
degraded violent manifestations, such as we see in the 
various forms of the Zikr, permit of no approach but to 
those who are initiated. 

Even if a missionary were a believer in the general 
doctrine of mysticism, it is doubtful whether he would 
possess a point of contact ; there certainly does not seem 
to be a place of honour in this doctrine for the Redeemer 
of mankind. It is declared to be " a doctrine that God 
is to be sought and found in the secret places of the soul. 
Not in the outward world, however beautiful, is the true 
vision of God to be attained. Sunrise and sunset, and 
the evening star — these are but the outskirts of His wa^^s. 
It is in the soul within us — in the hidden sanctuary — in 
the silence and secret of the human heart that the union 
which is true blessedness is won, and the vision is granted, 
which is peace." With this beautiful but subtle doctrine 
the mystic must learn the spiritual method of detach- 
ment, the closing up of all avenues of sense that the 
Infinite may be attained through the habit of contem- 
plation. This is the clearing away of the surface interests 
before spoken of ; and that strange unearthly quiet that 
follows enables the contemplative to revel in unspeakable 
ecstasy. This " Quiet " has been described as a transi- 
tional state which introduces the self into new activities ; 
and although all superficial activity seems to have 
ceased, it depends, so the mystics say, upon deep, urgent 
action. It is contrasted with the passivity of the Sufis ; 
for it is claimed to be a " deep and vital movement of 
the whole self which is too deeply absorbed for self- 
consciousness, which movement is set over against the 
fussy surface energies." It is part of the self's effort 
towards union with the absolute life and love — the 
outcome of the intense activity of the search for God. 
Quietism, which is closely akin to the passivity of the 
Sufi, is considered to be a base imitation of the true 
** Quiet," and may be produced by mental trickery. The 
confusion between these two processes is what has brought 


mysticism into disrepute. But even in the true " Quiet " 
the sanest of the mystics have recognized a subtle danger, 
and many have raised voices of warning to those desirous 
of treading the mystic way. There is a vacant placidity 
and distracted mental idleness which the modern Sufi, 
and the would-be transcendentalist fondly rest in, 
deceiving themselves that they are enjoying the peace 
of union with the Infinite. 

It is not surprising, if Christian mysticism with 
all its corrective influences is so prone to error, that 
Sufiism without rectifying power has become so gross 
and unreal. 

The early Sufis were undoubtedly worthy men, their 
sincerity enabled them to endure considerable perse- 
cution at the hands of the orthodox Moslems ; but in 
the end their steadfastness and real piety won for them 
a place of respect, and even led some authorities to accept 
them as true sons of Islam. They inspired much of the 
best Persian literature, and their ethical standard was 
high. The best of them renoimced the world, its wealth 
and pleasures, and spent their lives seeking after God. 
Abu Said, a Sufi poet, said Sufiism was " laying aside 
what thou hast in thy head (its prejudices, fancies, and 
preconceived ideas), giving away what thou hast in thy 
hand, and not flinching from ought that may befall 
thee." In spite of its lofty ideals, and no doubt due to 
its fundamental errors, Sufiism, as Sell has pointed out, 
has not brought to bear any really regenerative influence 
in Islam ; but in itself, so far as the lower classes are 
concerned, has become degraded and degrading. Men 
of the baser sort may become dervishes, and under cover 
of ostentatious profession are able to live lives of prof- 
ligacy and shame." Degradation must be expected where 
the claims and needs of humanity are ignored in order 
that individuals may be free to attain divinity. Where 
personal existence is regarded as a mere illusion of the 
world of appearance, and where evil, too, is looked upon 
as a manifestations of the changeless essence of reality. 
Joy and sorrow, good and evil, pleasure and pain, are all 
alike but manifestations of the one great all. Evil is an 
illusion which is necessary to the manifestation of God. 


And the soul united to God can do no evil, and is con- 
sequently above and beyond all religious and legal 
restraint. Rumi, another Sufi writer, says : " There is 
no absolute evil in the universe, recognize the fact that 
evil is but relative." Put in syllogistic form their teach- 
ing may be summed up as follows : " Things can be 
known only by their opposites. God desires to be known 
and He is good ; therefore He can be known only by the 
appearance of evil." 

Set over against this teaching the views of Christian 
mysticism which, in spite of much that may be said 
against it, has, through periods of intellectual and spirit- 
ual darkness, kept the true light shining ; and which, 
as Lindsay has pointed out, did much to prepare the 
way for the liberty of its great Reformation. In the 
process known as the " purgative way," the Christian 
mystic recognizes its contradictory emotions, and the 
strife between good and evil, not merely appearances, 
but the evidence of a mighty struggle that is going on 
between right and wrong wherein he is being purged 
and made fit for union with inefifable love. And the 
best of them have not risen above their earthly obliga- 
tions, but have, after their lofty ecstatic experiences, 
remained obedient not only to their religious obligations, 
but even to the minor regulations of their ecclesiastical life. 

The popular forms of Sufiism, such as we find to-day 
in the antics of the howling dervishes, and the more 
common Zikrs, are rather forms of magic than activities 
of the mystic way ; and are evidences of the degradation 
of Sufiism in its influence over the masses. 

Although the system is apparently associated with 
an outward profession of Islam, it regards all religions 
as more or less perfect or imperfect, shadowings forth of 
the great central truth which it seeks fully to comprehend, 
and consequently recognizes all of them as good in 
proportion to the measure of truth which they contain." 
A Sufi writer says, *' The ways unto God are as the num- 
ber of the breaths of the sons of men," 

Contrast the saying with the utterances of the Eternal 
Son of Man, "I am the way, the truth, and the Hf e ; 
no man cometh unto the Father but by me." 


This way, the Sufi, while he is a Sufi, cannot come, 
even though he be true to the highest ideals of his system, 
and the only way he can be approached is by the way of 
the cross, which can be preached only by those who have 
passed through those mystical experiences described by 
the terms Regeneration, Justification, Consecration, and 
Sanctification. He who preaches faithfully in the name 
of Him who has said, " I, if I be lifted up, will draw all 
men unto me," will find that his words will not be uttered 
in vain ; but those words must be explained by the life 
and must be sealed by holiness in deed and thought. 
As a recent writer has said, " The world will believe in 
the efficacy of Jesus' death when it sees His followers 
living in the spirit of the cross." 

With regard to the unworthiness of the lives of the 
mystics of to-day. Lane says that he was told that many 
of those who are desirous of attaining the office of Wali 
(dervish leader) in order to substantiate their claims have 
secretly poisoned or defiled food, and then have pretended 
to discover that it was poisoned by supernatural reve- 

Gardner, in Faiths of the World, says : " This class of 
superstitious devotees has succeeded in acquiring a 
strong hold over the minds and hearts of the lower class 
of Moslems. This influence they strive by all means to 
maintain and increase. They persuade the people that 
the descent of the dervishes is to be traced to Aly, and 
even to Abu Bakr, the first of the four immediate suc- 
cessors of Mohammed. They profess to work miracles, 
and have recourse to all kinds of juggleries and im- 
position, with the view of exalting themselves in popular 
estimation. Though some of them are far from being 
correct in their moral conduct, yet the ignorant and 
superstitious among the people actually believe that the 
souls of these pretended saints are already purified and 
united with God, and, therefore, are in no way con- 
taminated by the deeds of the body." 

A writer in the Dictionary of Islayn says, " While 
there are doubtless many amongst the Sufis who are 
earnest seekers after truth, it is well-known that some 
of them make their mystical creed a cloak for gross 


sensual gratification. A sect of Sufis called the Muhabi- 
yah or ' Revered/ maintain the doctrine of communityl 
of property and women, and the sect known as the 
Malamatiyah, or ' Reproached,' maintain the doctrine of 
necessity, and confound all virtue with vice. Many 
such do not hold themselves in the least responsible for 
sins committed by the body, which they regard only as 
the miserable robe of humanity, which encircles the pure 
spirit." The same writer points out that some of the 
vSufi poetry is most objectionable and gross. While a 
quotation is made from the testimony of the Rev. Dr. 
Imadu'd-din, a convert from Islam, who before his 
conversion sought satisfaction for the yearning of his 
soul in Sufiism. He performed faithfully and earnestly 
all the prescribed exercises until he was exhausted by 
physical weakness ; and his craving was intensified and 
aggravated rather than satisfied ; and at last realizing 
the mockery and emptiness of the Sufi system, he was 
led into peace through Christ. Osborne also speaks 
of the vicious tendency of Islamic mysticism. He 
says, " The logical result of Pantheism is the destruc- 
tion of a moral law. If God be all in all, and man's 
apparent individuality a delusion of the perceptive 
faculty, there exists no will which can act, no conscience 
which can reprove or applaud. The individual is but a 
momentary seeming ; he comes and goes like the snow- 
flake on the river ; a moment seen, then gone for ever. 
To reproach such an ephemeral creature for being the 
slave of its passions, is to chide the thistledown for 
yielding to the violence of the wind. Mohammedans 
have not been slow to discover these consequences. 
Thousands of reckless and profligate spirits have entered 
the orders of the dervishes to enjoy the license thereby 
obtained. Their affectation of piety is simply a cloak 
for the practice of sensuality ; their emancipation from 
the ritual of Islam involves a liberation also from its 
moral restraints." Herbert E. E. Hayes. 

Belbeis, Egypt, 



As far as the writer has been able to learn, no definite 
statement has as yet been made as to tlio number of 
Mohammedans in Peking, nor has the known number of 
their mosques been at all certain. It, therefore, may be 
of some interest to know that there need be no more 
uncertainty on the matter of the mosques. Unfortun- 
ately it is not as easy to count heads as it is to count 
mosques, so we must still be somewhat in doubt as to the 
actual Mohammedan population of Peking until a careful 
census is taken. 

It has been the writer's privilege of late to visit all the 
mosques in and about Peking, to chat with nearly all the 
Ahongs, to meet a great many worshippers and watch 
them at their services, and to verify statements made, 
by asking a great many people the same questions. If 
there are any mosques which the writer has not seen, 
^' surely it is because there is no light in them." 

The result of these investigations is as follows : — 
There are altogether in the southern (or Chinese) city 
and in the northern (or Tartar) city inside and outside 
the walls thirty-two mosques. With one exception they 
all have an Ahong, or mullah, able at least to read the 
Koran in Arabic. That one exception is the smallest 
place of all in Chien Tzu Hsiang, where the so-called 
Ahong is really only the gate-keeper. 

By careful questioning at each place, the number of 
Moslem families in Peking was found to be 5,949. Of 
<jourse this number is approximate as the detailed figures 
will show, yet it is as exact as it can be made at present. 
According to the old Chinese rule, eight mouths was the 
average for one family, but in the case of the Mussali- 
manni, as they are sometimes called by the Chinese, the 



average is about five. This seems rather surprising in 
view of the fact that each man is allowed four wives, but^ 
as a matter of fact, the repressing hand of poverty is fully 
as heavy on the Mohammedans as it is on the Chinese, 
and very few have more than one wife. In some families 
there are as many as eighteen children, while in other 
families there are only two. The consensus of opinion 
was that five is a correct average. On this basis, there- 
fore, there are not over 30,000 Mohammedans in Peking. 
According to Williams (" The Middle Kingdom," vol. ii., 
p. 269) there were 200,000 Moslems in Peking during 
the rebellion in Kansuh (1860-73), while Professor 
Vasil'ev states (cf., " Islam in China," by Marshall 
Broomhall, p. 195) that in 1867 Peking had 13 mosques 
and 20,000 families, and it is also stated in the same place 
that " with this statement M. de Thiersant agrees." 
How the number of mosques could have increased to 32 
since 1867, and the population decreased from 20,000 
families to 6,000, is difficult to understand. But to show 
that the writer's figures are correct, the details are 
herewith presented in tabulated form. 


Near Shun Ghih Men (the gate which leads into the northern city) 

Mu Chieh 2,000 famiUes. 

Chiao Tzu Hu t'ung 1,200 

Near Ch'ien Men (gate leading into northern city) 

T'iao Chou Hu t'ung . . . . . . 40 famihes. 

Near Ha Ta Men (gate leading into northern city) 

Hua Shih Ta Chieh 

T'ang Tzu Hu t'ung 

T'ang Ta Hu t'ung 


Near Shun Chih Men 

Niu Jou Hu t'ung 

Shou Pei Hu t'ung 

Tan P'ai Lou 

Fen Tzu Hu t'ung 

Hui Tzu Ying 

Near P'ing Tzu Men (Outside the city) 

Chieh Pei 

San Li Ho (one EngUsh mile out) 
Near PHng Tzu Men (Inside the city) 

Chin Shih Feng Chieh . . 
Near Hsi Ghih Men (Outside the city) 

Shih Tao Pieh 

800 families. 

160 famiUes 









Near Hsi Chih Men (Inside the city) 

Nan Kou Yen 60 

Near Te Sheng Men (Outside the city) 

Ta Kuan 200 

Ma Tien 200 

Near An Ting Men (Outside the city) 

An Ting Men Kuan 20 „ 

Near An Ting Men (Inside the city) 

Erh T'iao Hu t'ung 200 

Near Tung Chih Men (Outside the city) 

Erh Li Chuang (| Enghsh mile) .. 40 „ 

Near Tung Chih Men (Inside the city) 

Nan Hsiao Chieh 30 „ 

Near Ch'i Hua Men (Outside the city) 

Chung Chieh . . . . . . . . ) noiCi 

Hsia P'o . . ( ^^^ 

Pa Li Chuang (2 J English miles) . . 40 „ 

Near Ch'i Hua Men (Inside the city) 

Tou Ya Ts'ai Hu t'ung . . . . 100 

Lu M Ts'ang Hu t'ung . . . . 80 

Near Ha Ta Men (Inside the cit}^) 

Su Chou Hu t'ung . . . . . . 13 „ 

Ha Ta Men Ta Chieh 

Chien Tzu Hsiang . . . . . . 7 „ 

Tung Ssu P'ai Lou 100 

Near Tung Hua Men 

Ting Tzu Chieh 14 „ 

Near Hou Men 

Nan Hai Yen 100 

The mosques are all in good repair inwardly, and with 
a few exceptions their outward appearance is quite 
respectable. They are all equipped with bathrooms, 
which are kept clean. Lately, the mosque at Ma Tien 
has had a new bath-house erected, which is not very 
dissimilar to the bathrooms at home in connection with 
our g3^mnasiums. 

Prayers are offered by the Ahong every day at 5.0 
a.m., 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 p.m., at which time all 
are invited to attend after taking a " Hsiao Ching," or 
small bath. This consists in washing the head, hands 
and feet. On our Friday at 2.0 p.m., the large weekly 
service is held, before which all must take a " Ta Ching " 
or large bath, and change their clothes. At the large 
weekly service the average attendance in the 32 mosques 
is 843, while on ordinary days, in about half the mosques, 
a few persons appear, and in the other half none but the 
Ahong. The reason for this small attendance is business. 


Most of the people are poor and have to work hard to 
" pass their days." 

Any young man, who is wiUing to be a disciple for 
ten years in order to learn Arabic and the duties of the 
office, may become an Ahong. After passing his exami- 
nation he is ready for a situation, provided there is a 
vacancy. The Ahong is called by the congregation he 
is to serve. An old Ahong, who, I am told, has a 
propensity for quarreling, called on the writer and asked 
for help, as he was not wanted by anyone as Ahong. 
The Ahongs are given free quarters in connection with 
the mosques and a small monthly salary, according to 
the ability of the congregation. Except in the cases of 
the larger congregations, five taels ( $3.50 gold) is probably 
an average monthly salary. As most of the Ahongs are 
from other places, they have no families with them. 

Their knowledge of Arabic is undoubtedly, in the 
majority of cases, limited to the Koran, which they are 
able to read, but many of the Ahongs seem to be quite 
fluent in that tongue. The two best-known Ahongs in 
Peking are Wang Hao Jan at Niu Chieh and Chang 
Ch'ing Ytin at Chiao Tzu Hu t'ung. Both have been 
to Mecca, the latter having made two visits. In addition 
he also visited Constantinople, Jerusalem, Moscow, St. 
Petersburg and other important centres. The former is 
well-known among the Chinese in Peking. In connection 
with the mosque of which Wang Hao Jan is Ahong, is, 
as far as I can learn, the only strictly Mohammedan school 
in Peking. This is conducted by Ali Riza Effendi (cf., 
" Islam in China," p. 292), who is to be assisted by a new 
arrival from Constantinople.* It is only for boys, and 
they are given a mixed Arabic and Chinese education. 
As a rule the Mohammedan children go to the Chinese 

The Mohammedan women in China, while more 
fortunate than their sisters in other lands in that they 
do not veil their faces, yet have no opportunity to worship 
in the mosques. They may worship at home if they 
choose, or stand outside the door of the mosque and listen 
to the chanting, but as there are no screens, such as one 

* This teacher has lately arrived in Peking. 


sees in other Moslem lands, behind which the women 
may worship, they are totally excluded from the mosque. 

Occasionally the Ahong preaches in Chinese. There 
seems to be no certain custom in this matter. According 
to some reports there are two Chinese sermons a year. 
According to others, there is a short sermon every week. 
This sermon usually consists of exhortation to live a 
good life, explanation of the Koran and general advice. 
A Chinese friend, who is now a Christian, informs me that 
he occasionally visited a Mohammedan mosque with a 
friend before becoming a Christian, and was greatly 
impressed with the simplicity of the service and the 
sincerity of the sermons, so much so that had not Chris- 
tian influences reached him at that time, he would un- 
doubtedly have become a Mohammedan. 

One feature of Mohammedanism which is common 
in other lands is noticeable by its absence in China, and 
that is the custom of calling the faithful to prayer from 
the minaret. In the first place the ordinary Chinese 
mosque is not furnished with a minaret ; and in the 
second place, the scarcity of the Mohammedan population 
in the vicinity of most of the mosques rather discourages 
the Ahong from adding to his other duties that of the 
muezzin. Another reason is without doubt a wish to 
avoid having any trouble with Chinese, to whom the call 
to prayer might be objectionable. At certain times, 
however, the call to prayer is given in places where the 
entire population is Mohammedan. This is the case in 
the little village of San Li Ho outside the west city gate. 

Five of the mosques are worthy of special mention 
from the fact that they were either built or repaired by 
Chinese emperors. The oldest mosque is that at Niu 
Chieh, which was built some time during the Sung 
dynasty (960-1278 A.D.), at which time the Moham- 
medans first entered Peking as residents. During the 
Ming dynasty (1368-1628 A.D.) the emperor (name 
uncertain) repaired it at his own expense, and called it 
the " Li Pai Ssu," or Temple of Worship. This is the 
common name for all mosques, to be sure, but the above 
term has special significance only in the case of Niu 
Chieh. Ching T'ai (1450-1458 A.D.) either built or 


repaired the mosque at the Tung Ssu P'ai Lou, and called 
it the " Ch^ing Chen Ssu," or The Pure and True Temple. 
This title appears almost universally over the front doors 
or gates of the mosque grounds, but its special significance 
concerns only the above-mentioned place. Later on the 
emperor, Wan Li (1573-1620) either built or repaired the 
mosque in Erh T'iao Hu t'ung, calling it the " Fa Ming 
Ssu," or Temple of Law and Brightness, and the mosque 
in Chin Shih Feng Chieh, calling it the '' P*u Shou Ssu," 
or Temple of Prosperity and Longevity. These four 
mosques are regarded by the Hui Hui* as their great 
mosques, although at present the last three are not great 
in any sense except in name. The last of the five re- 
ferred to above is the Hui Tzu Ying, which was built by 
the emperor, Ch*ien Lung (1736-96 A.D.) for his Moham- 
medan concubine. (Cf., " Islam in China," p. 92ff). 
The tower on it was made to enable " The Captive 
Maiden," or, as she has been characterized by Dr. W. A. P. 
Martin in a short poem, " Almanna, the Maid of the 
West," to look from her palace in the imperial city across 
the road to the mosque which would remind her of home, 
and thus make her more content to dwell where she was. 
The sentiment regarding " The Captive Maiden " is not 
very strong among the Chinese, for her former dwelling- 
place, which was given the name of the " Home View 
Pavilion," is now being put to good use by the republican 
government. That whole district in the neighbourhood 
of the Hui Tzu Ying, which was once populous with 
Turkish Mohammedans, has changed considerably since 
Ch^ien Lung's day, and now not more than a few score 
of families remain, as can be seen by referring to the table 
of statistics. 

As to the general character of the Moslems, there 
seems to be nothing special to discredit them. They have 
the name of being thieves, to be sure, but in this they are 
not different from their neighbours. They are very 
friendly, and the lesser educated ones are continually 
claiming that there is no difference between their " tao 
li " (doctrine) and that of the Christians. They, there- 
fore, make common cause with the Christians against 

* The usual name applied to Mohajnmedans by the Chinese. 



the Buddhists and other idol worshippers. Inasmuch 
as they all speak Chinese like natives, it would not be at 
all necessary, in Peking at least, to know one word of 
Arabic in order to work among them. Their intercourse 
with the Chinese about them is somewhat restricted by 
their habits. They are cleaner than their neighbours, and 
because they do not eat pork it is extremely difficult for 
the Chinese to entertain them. Among the better classes 
this objection could be easily overcome, but among the 
ordinary people whose means are limited, unless their 
neighbours are willing to take what is offered, the Chinese 
prefer not to have much social intercourse. 

While there are some Mohammedans in Peking who 
have money shops and large stores, and others who run 
dairies, by far the greater majority are camel, donkey, 
or cart drivers, retail dealers in mutton and other meats, 
and coolies. 

There is at present, so the writer has been informed, 
a society of Moslems comprising the whole of China — i,e,, 
in an organized form. It is called the Ch'ing Ching Hui 
Chiao, and a man named Ma Cheng Wu is the presidents 
Although his home is in the province of Honan, he is now 
in the province of Shansi, superintending school work 
there. The vice-president of the society is Wang Hao 
Jan of Peking. According to the statement made by the 
Aheng's assistant in the " Fa Ming Ssu," there was a 
general conference last year in Peking, to which over one 
hundred representatives came from all parts of China. 
This was the first conference of its kind and bespeaks 
awakened interest. 

What the Mohammedans have is infinitely superior 
to much that is about them in the way of religion. For 
this reason they are more or less satisfied with it and are 
not in search of something better. Many of the more 
exaggerated evils that result from the Mohammedan 
religion in other lands are avoided in China by differences 
in customs and modifications of belief. For this reason 
there is less cause for discontent than there might be. 
What they have will continue to be enough until they 
know something better. At present the way is open for 
the followers of Christ to influence these people. It can 



be done by a friendly propagation of Christian truth in 
connection, possibly, with some social work. The 
illusion on the part of the ordinary follower of the Prophet 
that Mohammedanism and Christianity are the same is 
our opportunity to lead these people into a fuller hght. 
Nothing so far has been attempted in any special way 
for the Moslems in Peking. 

Charles L. Ogilvie. 
American Presbyterian Mission, 
Peking, China, 

WAQF 173 



The silence of the Koran upon the subject of waqf is 
one of the most remarkable facts in relation to Moham- 
medan Law. In these modern times waqf has become^ 
without exception, the most important problem for all 
Moslems, whether the subject be considered from the 
purely legal point of view, or as an economic problem 
striking at the root of all schemes for the development 
of the Dar el Islam. The following references will help 
to show that this statement is in no sense exaggerated. 
D'Ohsson,* writing a hundred years ago of the Ottoman 
Empire, said, " Les wakfs embrassent une grande partie 
des terres, des immeubles, des richesses de F Empire." 
Gatteschif in 1869 wrote, " Wakf properties constitute a 
very great portion of the lands and buildings of the 
Ottoman Empire " ; and he quotes HeuschlingJ as saying 
that " three-fourths of the real property in Turkey is 
wakf, to the great loss of the treasury, of the collateral 
heirs, and of the creditors of the holder " ; and even at 
the present time, according to Young§, waqf includes 
three-fourths of the building and agricultural land in 
Turkey. Claveljl states that the waqf property in Tunis 
amounts to a third, and that when the French assumed 
the direction of Algeria, fifty per cent, of the immovable 
property was subject to waqf. Such being the case, we 
readily agree with Syed Ameer Ali** that " the law 

* D'Ohsson. " Tableau general de I'Empire Ottoman." 8 vols. 
Paris, 1778. 

t Gatteschi. " Etude sur la propriety fonciere, les hypotheques 
et les Wakfs." Alexandria, 1869. 

% Heuschling. " L'Empire de Turquie," p. 105. 

§ Young. " Corps de Droit Ottoman," 7 vols. Oxford, 1906, 
vol. vi., p. 113. 

II Clavel. " Le Wakf ou Habous." Cairo, 1896, p. 3, quoting 
Bonnard, " Etude sur le Habous en Tunisie," and Zey's " Droit 
Mussulman Algerien," vol. ii., p. 181. 

** Syed Ameer Ali. " Mahommedan Law. Calcutta, 1892, vol. i., 
p. 152. 


relating to wakf is by far the most important branch ofi 
Mohammedan Law." 

Waqf means '* a stopping," " a standing still," an 
its essence is "immobility." The definition of waqf, 
given by the disciples of Abu Hanifa is — " the appro- 
priation of a particular article, in such a manner as 
subjects it to the rules of divine property, whence the 
appropriator's right in it is extinguished, and it becomes 
a property of God by the advantage of it resulting to 
his creatures."* Waqf, in its strict sense, is inahenable, 
and it is this essential inalienabihty of waqf property 
which raises an economic problem of the gravest import- 
ance. If real estate in Moslem countries could only be 
freed from the shackles of waqf, which render it inalien- 
able, very great advantage would follow both from the 
point of view of agriculture and credit. The problem is 
similar to that faced in Europe in reference to Mortmain, 
and as drastic remedies would appear to be necessary. 
This economic " inertia " must be remedied at all costs. 

The institution known as waqf finds its origin and 
justification in a hadith or tradition reported by el 
Bukharit (A.H. 194-256). 'Umar, it is recorded, asked 
Mohammed how he ought to dispose of his property in 
Khaibar in order that it might be pleasing to God. The 
Prophet replied, " Immobolize it in such a way that it 
cannot be sold or made the subject of gift or inheritance, 
and distribute the revenues among the poor." Ameer 
Ali quotes the description of this scene as related in the 
"Ghayat el-Bay an "J (A.H. 747). "The validity of 
waqfs is founded on the rule laid down by the Prophet 

* Hamilton's Hedaya. London, 1870. Book XV., p. 231. 

t Morand, " Droit Musulman Algerien " (Algiers, 1910, p. 249) is 
of opinion that waqf was already in existence in Medina before the 
time of the Prophet, and Dr. Nauphar " La Propri^te," p. 131, appears 
to hold a similar view. 

} The " Ghait el Bayan " is a gloss of the Hedaya in much repute 
in India ; see Ameer Ah, op. cit., vol. i., p. 18. It is interesting to 
note that this account differs from that given by Bokhari, as it includes 
*' children and kindred " among the beneficiaries ; thus giving effect 
to the additions introduced by Abu Yussif and later jurists. See also 
Hedaya, loc. cit. ; Morand, op. cit., p. 240, disputes the authenticity 
of this Hadith. 

WAQF 175 

liimself under the following circumstances, and handed 
down in succession by Ibn 'Auf, Nafi' and Ibn *Umar, 
as stated in the Jamin' of Tirmizi. 'Umar had acquired 
a piece of land in Khaibar, and proceeded to the Prophet 
and sought his counsel, to make the most pious use of 
it, whereupon the Prophet declared, ' tie up the property 
and devote the usufruct to human beings, and it is not 
to be sold or made the subject of gift or inheritance ; 
devote its produce to your children, your kindred, and 
the poor in the way of God.' In accordance with this 
rule *Umar dedicated the property in question, and the 
waqf continued in existence for several centuries until 
the land became waste." 

The waqf here referred to, and it is important to note 
this, is the waqf " shar'i," or " khairi," the " canonical " 
or *' charitable " waqf. It is this waqf shar'i which is 
referred to in the definition quoted from the Hedaj^a ; 
but the waqf, which is so universal at the present day, 
is of a very different nature. This second form of waqf 
has no true justification in the Shari'a, but is the in- 
vention of the Moslem jurists of the second century of the 
Hijra sanctioned by custom, in consequence it is called 
the waqf 'adi or ahli, " customary " or " family " waqf. 
So completely has it superseded the original form of waqf 
that Morand* says that in Algeria it is the only one in 
practice. The development of this waqf 'adi offers one 
of the best examples of the development of Mohammedan 
Law by tradition and the " interpretatio " of the jurists. 

At the outset of our study we are thus met by a 
distinction of the greatest importance. Waqf is of two 
classes. The first, waqf shar'i, has for its object either 
the promotion of religion, or some charitable purpose ; 
and the legal justification of this institution is the hadith 
of Bukhari already quoted. The second class of waqf 
is an extension of the original, an invention pure and 
simple of certain jurists, and, as we shall see, it has 
completely changed the essentially charitable nature of 
the original, and given it a purely material purpose. The 
hadith itself, at least when considered from the jurist's 

* Morand, op. cit., p. 258. M. Morand is Dean of the Faculty 
of Law of Algiers, and Lecturer in Mohammedan Law. 


point of view, appears but a flimsy basis for such a far 
reaching institution. " Dispose of thy land in such 
way that it cannot be sold or made the subject of gift or 
inheritance, and distribute the revenues among the poor.'^ 
Does it not sound like some counsel of perfection such as 
that addressed by Christ to His would-be disciple ? 
*' Sell all that thou hast, and distribute unto the poor." 

Abu Hanifa, like the other Imams, refers to waqf ; 
but he deals with it in a very incomplete and summary 
manner. It is reported of him that at first he did not 
admit of its legality,* whether this is so or not, he appears 
later to have approved of waqf, but only subject to two 
important conditions : first, that there should be an 
immediate and absolute dispossession on the part of the 
founder in favour of some charitable object, and secondly 
that the transaction should receive the sanction of the 
Kadi. In other words, he either did not know of, or 
did not approve of the waqf 'adi. The true founder of 
the Customary Waqf was Abu Yusuf (A.H. 113-182), 
the greatest of the Hanifa's disciples. Unshackled by 
any binding statement of the Koran, and having as their 
only authority a vague statement of the Prophet recom- 
mending charity, the jurists were able to give their 
constructive faculties full scope. The result is a maze 
of conflicting authorities. Not only was school opposed 
to school ; but also within the same school we find the 
same conflict upon many important details. Among the 
Hanafites the two disciples, Abu Yusuf and Mohammed, 
continually criticised their master ; while Mohammed, 
the moderate liberal, vainly tried to restrain the radical 
tendencies of Abu Yusuf. 

It would almost appear as if the latter' s aim was to 
compel people to make waqf, for he casts aside every 
hindrance to the expansion of the institution. The first 
condition upon which the Hanifa, his master, laid 
particular stress was, that the founder should imme- 
diately and absolutely dispossess himself of his rights 
over the property to be given in waqf. But Abu Yusuf 

* Morand, quoting Burhan ed Dm Ibrahim et Tarabulusi, trans- 
lated by Benoit Adda et Ghaliourgui " Le Wakf ou Immobilisation 
d'apres les principes du rite hamefite," p. 3. 

WAQF 177 

allowed the founder to retain a life interest in his property, 
which enabled him to continue to enjoy its revenues 
until his death, and after to secure this enjoyment in 
his heirs. This extraordinary innovation was not brought 
about by one stroke. First a very liberal interpretation 
was given to the " charitable or pious intention,"* which 
was the essential element of the waqf shar'i. It was 
allowed to include works of social utility, not necessarily 
associated with the poor, such as hospitals, schools, wells, 
fountains, aqueducts, etc.f Then it was considered to be 
sufficiently " pious " if special provision was made for 
the founder's children or kindred. The waqf might be 
made in the name of a Mosque but the revenues would 
be paid to the beneficiaries named by the founder, and 
in this way he could entail his estate to a long hne of 
persons. Later still it was admitted that he might 
appoint himself as the first beneficiary. According to 
the system developed by Abu Yusuf, the founder, pos- 
sessed an absolute freedom of disposition in regard to his 
revenues so long as there existed some '' universitas " as 
ultimate beneficiary. What he decided, that was the 
law. J 

The second condition insisted upon by Abu Hanifa 
was that the foundation to be valid should receive the 

* " Sadaga means, properly speaking, a pious act . . . Probably, 
the only word by which it can be construed is the word ' charity,' as 
explained by St. Paul ... In Mohammedan Law it means an ojffering 
or gift made with the object of obtaining the approval of the Almighty, 
or a reward in the next world ... To give to one's child or wife is a 
Sadaga according to the Prophet's precept reported by Sa'd Ibu Abi 
Waggas." Ameer Ah, op. cit., vol. i., pp. 171-2. Cf. Alu Yusuf as 
quoted in the Hedaya : "A man giving subsistence to himself is 
giving alms ! " 

t " Every good purpose (wajjah el Khair) which God approves, 
or by which approach (gurba) is attained to the Deity, is a fitting 
purpose for a valid and lawful waqf or dedication." Ameer Ah, op. 
cit., vol. i., p. 216. 

t " In the chapter on waqf in the ' Imam ul Mufti asco Jawab ul 
Mustafi,' it is laid down that the observance of the rules laid down by 
the waqf are obligatory, for the jurists hold such rules to be equivalent 
to the Nass, viz. : laid down by the lawgiver." " Surat ul Fatarava, 
p. 420, quoted by Ameer Ah, op. cit., vol. i., p. 338. This might be 
summed up in the rule of the Twelve Tables of Roman Law. " Uti 
legassit, ita jus esto." 



approval of the Kadi, till that approbation was given 
there was no waqf. But according to Abu Yusuf this 
was unnecessary, so long as the founder's intentions were 
clear the waqf was in accordance with the law and took 
immediate effect. This appears to be the view accepted 
in India to-day. And in Algiers, according to Clavel,* 
in nine cases out of ten the existence of a waqf is estab- 
lished by the evidence of witnesses and is not subject 
to the approval of the Kadi. In Egypt the approval of 
the Kadi is still considered essential. 

Mohammed was utterly opposed to these innovations 
of his fellow disciple ; and in this he appears to have 
had the support of the majority of the jurists of his 
time. They would all seem to have approved of some 
extension of the Shar'i waqf, but they were unanimous 
in their opposition to the extreme views of Abu Yusuf. 
Public opinion, however, was against them. The new 
waqf 'adi was far too useful an institution to permit of 
its being strangled thus early in its career. In what lay 
the utility of the new institution ? And what are the 
causes of its extraordinary development ? 

In the first place it is to be noted that the waqf shar'i 
had already assumed considerable proportions. The 
author of the " Fath ul Qadir," quoted by Ameer Ali,f 
gives examples of waqf founded by the immediate suc- 
cessors of the Prophet, some of which were still in exist- 
ence when the author wrote. Although it may be 
permissible to doubt the absolute authenticity of this 
evidence seeing that the author, Kamal ul Din al Siwasi, 
wrote eight hundred years after the Prophet, yet it is 
only natural to suppose that an institution such as waqf 
should be widely practised. The teaching of Islam 
imposes charity as a duty upon all the faithful, and it is 
a natural phenomenon among all peoples that individuals 

* Clavel, op. cit., vol. v., Hedaya : " Judging from the opinion of 
Mahommed, it is unlawful ; and such is the opinion of Hilal Kazen 
and Shafi'i respecting it." 

t Op. cit., vol. i., p. 152. The " Fath ul Qadir " was a collection of 
opinions and decisions of the highest Judges and Mufti, explaining the 
Hamafi Law. It was written by Mamal el Din el Siwasi, who died 
A.H. 861. 

WAQF 179 

should be led by instincts of piety to dispoil themselves 
of large portions of their possessions and devote them 
to the services of God and for the development of religion. 
It is also natural that those, who have been entrusted 
with the special duty of declaring the Word of God, and 
of interpreting the precepts of His prophets and apostles, 
should make every effort to encourage these sentiments, 
and do all in their power to inspire like acts of generosity 
in the interests of their common faith. Further, it is 
only too true that these acts of generosity are frequently 
the result of some passing impulse of religious fervour ; 
means have, therefore, to be found to insure the gift 
against any subsequent change of mind resulting from a 
falling off in zeal on the part of the founder. The Moslem 
Imams had as their inspiration the hadith already quoted, 
and the waqf shar'i became in their hands a powerful 
instrument in the service of religion and charity. But 
what of the waqf 'adi ? 

The principal reason for the popularity of the waqf 
'adi was the repugnance which the earlier Moslems 
evinced towards the new laws of succession devised by 
Mohammed and incorporated in the Koran. Women, 
who had been previously excluded from rights of suc- 
cession, were now admitted and could not be disinherited 
of their " part." The Imams, with the assistance of 
sunna, completed this reform by decreeing that a testator 
could not defeat the rights of his lawful heirs by making 
a will in favour of a stranger, his powers of disposition 
in this regard being limited to a third of his estate. The 
head of a family could, however, dispose of his whole 
property by gift, provided it took effect during his life- 
time and that he divested himself of all proprietory rights 
in the object given. The waqf 'adi of Abu Yusuf was 
admirably suited to defeat the unpopular restrictions 
of the new laws of succession, and the people were not 
slow to discover its utility or to make use of it in giving 
effect to their wishes. It was this very fact that waqf 
might be used to defeat the laws of succession which led 
to the opposition of the canon lawyers, and several held 
that a waqf would not be lawful if it over-ruled the laws 
of succession. By the new device female heirs might be 


excluded and the whole estate be given to some favoured 
heir ; or entailed upon a series of heirs ; or all the lawful 
heirs might be disinherited and the property bequeathed 
to an outsider. Nor need the founder Euffer, since he 
might declare himself to be the first beneficiary and so 
enjoy a life-interest in his property. Moreover, he had 
full power to alter his original foundation at any time 
before his death, adding new, or excluding original, 
beneficiaries. He might even revoke the waqf itself by 
reserving to himself in the original foundation the right 
to sell the property which was made subject to the waqf. 
In the developed waqf 'adi the rule appears to have been 
absolute that the will of the founder should prevail : 
" Uti legassit, ita jus esto." 

There were two other uses to which the waqf 'adi was 
frequently put, and they undoubtedly had a potent 
influence in popularising the institution. The head of a 
family, who feared that the family estates might be 
dissipated by his successors, might secure them against 
the prodigality of his descendants by founding a waqf. 
Each beneficiary was entitled to succeed and to enjoy 
the revenues during his lifetime, but he was obliged to 
pass on the estate intact at his death to the next bene- 
ficiary. Or the family estates might be formed into a 
waqf in the name of some charity, the revenues being 
entailed on the family, and in this manner there was a 
chance that they might be secured against the greed of 
the sovereign. 

There was much discussion among the jurists as to 
what became of the right of ownership of the property 
given in waqf. On the one hand Abu Hanifa says " it 
becomes a property of God," and this opinion is confirmed 
by ei Halabi (A.H. 956). '^ On the other it has been argued 
right that the founder retains some form of reversionary 
for himself or his heirs ; thus, according to Abu Yusuf, 
if a building is waqf and it be demolished and there are 

* Sheikh Ibrahim ibn Mahommed el Hababi, of Aleppo, who 
flourished under Solyman the Magnificent, and died A.H. 956. '' The 
declaration of waqf . . . extinguishes the title of the donor, vesting 
it in the Almighty (whatever the object to which it is dedicated), and 
makes it irrevocably inalienable and non-inheritable." Ameer Ali, 
loc. cit. Vol. i., p. 185. 

WAQF 181 

no funds to repair it, the debris belongs to the founder 
or his heirs ; but the views of Mohammed, on this point, 
are more in conformity with the original conception of 
waqf, since he considers that if the original object of the 
waqf ceases to serve its purpose, the Kadi should have 
it sold and the funds should be invested in some other 
object more likely to fulfil the charitable purpose of the 
founder. There seems to be no support for the theory 
that the full right of ownership passes to the charitable 

Waqf is usually practised in reference to real estate, 
or immovable property, but the Hanbalis and Shaf'is 
consider it lawful to create a waqf of movable property, 
and the Malikis approve of this in a general manner. 
Abu Hanifa, according to the Hidaya, declared that waqf 
of movable property was void. In this matter Abu 
Yusuf is on the side of the conservatives, as he only 
approved of the waqf of movables in reference to war- 
horses and movables which are accessories to immovables : 
Mohammed, on the other hand, is much more liberal and 
allows it with but few exceptions ; while Zafar allows 
it generally. 

Modern lawyers are at great pains to discover the 
juristic principle on which waqf is based. The Hedaya 
likens it to loan, which is undoubtedly incorrect : more 
generally it is referred to as a gift of the usufruct of the 
object. The Egyptian Codes refer to it as if it were 
something in the nature of a will. Certainly there are 
certain points of resemblance between waqf and either 
gifts or wills, but it differs from both in a number of 
points. It resembles a gift in that it is a liberality 
practised in the lifetime of the founder ; but it is, ac- 
cording to the stricter law, an irrevocable act, and gifts 
in Hanafite Law are not always irrevocable. In any 
case, it is not the gift of the full right of ownership but 
only of a right of usufruct. Waqf resembles a will since 
it may regulate the disposal of the revenues of the 
property in the future ; but unless the founder appoints 
himself as first beneficiary, the right passes at once to 
the beneficiary, and he has not to wait till the death of 
the founder. Further, as we have seen, one of the 


commonest uses of waqf was as a means of defeating the 
rightful heirs, and in this waqf was directly opposed to 
the shar'ia laws of succession.* 

The Roman jurists invented a system called Fidei- 
commissa, or trusts, in virtue of which a testator might 
appoint an heir and oblige him to pass on the property 
on his death to another person named by the testator. 
Or there might be a series of heirs appointed. There is 
certainly a resemblance in this to waqf, but the point of 
essential difference is that in waqf we have two classes of 
beneficiaries, the one enjoying the revenues and the other 
possessing the " nuda proprietas.'' 

Gatteschi considers that waqf shar'i was borrowed 
from those peoples who were, or had been, under the rule 
of Rome, and who in consequence were familiar with 
Roman Law, and he finds a resemblance between waqf 
shar'i and the res sacrae of Roman Law which could not 
be disposed of, and which in consequence were considered 
to belong to no one.f The aedes sacrae, he says, are 
exactly similar to the Moslem Mosques, which are the 
most strictly legal of all forms of waqf. Further, he 
considers the waqf 'adi to be similar to the Roman 
" emphyteusis." J All these discussions, however, are 
not of much practical utility. Waqf, as developed by 
the Moslem jurists, differs from all other known legal 
institutions. It is not impossible that the jurists of 
Islam may have been frequently influenced by the rules 
of Roman Law, which without doubt were known to 
them ; but it is obvious that alongside of certain super- 
ficial resemblances there are very important divergencies 
in detail between waqf and any of those institutions 

* Cf ., Digest 35, 2, 95, for " A husband is left sole heir, and charged 
to surrender, on his death, ten-twelfths to his son, and two-twelfths 
to a grandson." 

t " Nullius autem sunt res sacrae et religiosae et sanctae quod 
enim divini juris est id nullius in bonis est. Res sacrae sunt quae rite 
et per Pontifices Deo consecratae sunt, veluti aedes sacrae et dona 
quae rite ad ministerium Dei dedicatae sunt, quae etiam per nostram 
constitutionem ahenari et obhgari prohibuimus, except a causa re- 
demptionis captivorum." Justinian, Institutes II., 1. 7, 8. 

X Emphyteusis is bilateral and onerous, whereas waqf is unilateral 
and gratuitous. 

WAQF 183 

which we have mentioned, and it is these essential differ- 
ences which give to waqf its unique legal individuality.* 

According to Ameer AK,t " there is no essential for- 
mality or the use of any express phrase or term requisite 
for the constitution of waqf. The law looks to the 
intention of the donor alone. When a dedication is 
intended the law will give effect to it, in whatever lan- 
guage it ma}^ be expressed or in whatever terms the wish 
may be formulated. And a waqf may be made either 
verbally or in writing." The founder must have full legal 
capacity to dispose of his property, and the subject- 
matter must be his property. Any person of whatever 
creed may create a waqf,f but as divine approbation is 
essential, the object for which the foundation is made 
must be lawful both according to the laws of Islam 
and of the creed of the founder. There seems to be a 
difference of opinion as to the validity of a waqf made 
by an apostate.§ The rights possessed b}^ creditors 
over the property before the creation of the waqf cannot 
be defeated, but creditors acquiring rights subsequent to 
the creation of the waqf cannot oppose it.|| "If the waqf 
is in favour of an object recognised as lawful by the 
Mohammedan Law and religion, the waqf is irrevocable, 
absolute, and beyond question. This is emphatically 
the Mussulman Law according to the sects and schools." 

A Mutawalli or Nazir** must be appointed to admm- 
ister the waqf, and the founder has complete discretion 
in regard to this appointment. This director is bound 
to bestow the greatest attention in the administration 

* Clavel, op. cit., p. 32. See also Morand, op. cit., pp. 250-252, for 
examples of resemblances between the rules of waqf and Roman Law. 

t Op. cit., vol. i., p. 174. See also the " Fatawa i Kazi Khan," a 
collection of decisions of Imam Fakha el Din Hasan Mansur el Uzjandi 
el Farghani, A.H. 692. 

X Ameer AH, op. cit., vol. i., p. 160. See also an article in " I'Egypte 
Contemporaine," vol. i., 1910, by F. Laloe — " Un Europeen peut-il 
constituer un Wakf en Egypte ? " 

§ Ameer Ali, op. cit., vol. i., p. 161. 

II Ameer AH, op. cit., vol. i., pp. 341, etc. ; in this sense also " Radd 
el Muhtar," by Mahommed Anim. 

** Ameer Ali, op. cit., vol. i., pp. 346 £f. 


of the waqf, and must scrupulously observe the instruc- 
tions of the founder, especially in regard to the disposal 
of the revenue. He may not divert the revenues to any 
other purpose than that designed by the founder, nor 
may he himself dwell in a house forming part of the waqf 
estate without paying the proper rent for it. If the 
director fails in his duties he may be removed by the 
Kadi, who has also power to fill any vacancy which may 
arise for any cause. The office of Mutawally ought to 
be gratuitous, as it is considered to be exercised for the 
love of God, but it is usual for the founder to fix a salary 
to be paid out of the revenues. But in practice it is 
common for the director to retain for himself a con- 
siderable portion of the income of the waqf. The 
position of mutawally is in consequence considered to 
be a lucrative one, and this is one of the reasons why a 
founder frequentl^^ appoints his children, or relations, 
or friends, as directors of his waqf.* 

Inalienability was one of the chief characteristics of 
waqf, and it is one of the conditions mentioned in the 
hadith ; but it is now recognised that the founder may 
reserve a power of sale. In the absence of this reserve 
the Kadi, if he deems it expedient, may authorise the 
sale of the waqf property and re-investment of the pro- 
ceeds in any shape conducive to the proper maintenance 
of the waqf.f An exchange is also permissible so long 
as it is advantageous. Leases of waqf property are 
permissible, but the term is usually a short one, such as 
three years. But the Kadi may authorise the grant of 
a lease for any term which he may consider advantageous 
to the waqf. 

Waqf, germinating from so small a seed so casually 
sown, has in these times assumed an extraordinary 
growth covering the greater part of the Dar el Islam. 

* Young, op. cit., vol. vi., p. 112 footnote, quoting the " Akkiam- 
il-Evkaf," by Omar Hilmi, 1890, says that " two persons are respon- 
sible for each waqf, the administrator (mutawalli) and the inspector 
(nazir), who are both appointed by the founder." Gatteschi, op. cit., 
is in the same sense ; but in India and Egypt it appears that only one 
official is appointed. In India he is generally called '' MutwalU," while 
in Egypt " nazir " is the more usual title. 

t Ameer Ali, op. cit., vol. i., pp. 341, etc. 

WAQF 185 

Undoubtedly it has borne much good fruit, since a con- 
siderable proportion of waqf is still charitable, and even 
the waqf 'adi has played a useful part, especially in times 
of tyranny and oppression. But with the years the weeds 
have increased, and it is often difficult to trace any 
likeness between this modern growth and the parent 
plant. Grapes may not grow on thorns, but unless 
there is careful cultivation the grapes will deteriorate 
and the thorns will become so rank as to strangle the 
parent vine. The abuses which had grown up around 
waqf in the Ottoman Empire were so manifold that they 
could not be overlooked by the reforms of the Tanzimat : 
and in Egypt the reforming instincts of Mohammed AH 
were in like manner directed towards the administration 
of waqf. 

The Sultans of Turkey, in 1591, placed the charitable 
waqfs under the supervision of the chief of the Eunuchs, 
who was given the title of Administrator General of the 
Waqfs of the Holy Places. The first reforms of the 
nineteenth centmy created an Imperial Administration 
of waqf, which was transformed into a Ministry in 1840. 
The Minister of Waqfs had a seat in the Council of 
Ministers, and had under his orders 2,000 officials whose 
salaries were paid out of the waqf revenues.* The abuses, 
anomalies and anachronisms of waqf led to many at- 
tempts at reform, and " In 1867 an Irada ordered the 
consideration of the measures necessary for the complete 
suppression of waqf ; but the influence of the civil law 
(i.e,, the Qanun), even at this period of its apogee, was 
not sufficiently strong to deprive the Shari'a of so vast 
and wealthy an estate. However, the reform succeeded 
in introducing certain modifications in the regime of 
customary or 'adi waqf, these being within the compet- 
ence of the civil law."t 

In Egypt J in 1835 Mohammed Ah created an Ad- 
ministration of Waqf. It was suppressed in 1838, but 

* Young, op. cit., vol. vi., p. 112. 

t Young, op. cit., vol. vi., p. 113. 

t See the Report of Shafik Pasha, Director General of Waqf, Cairo, 
14th May, 1911, pp. 4, etc. 


by a decision of the Privy Council of 1851, approved by 
the viceroy Abbas I., the administration was re-organized 
and re-estabhshed. The decision of the Privy Council 
may be summarised as follows : — Every Nazir of a waqf 
was obliged to make an inventory of the waqf property 
under his direction, and render accounts of his revenues 
and expenditure, the Nazir being held responsible for 
any losses. Every failure on the part of a Nazir to carry 
out the wishes of the founder was to be brought before 
the Mahkama, which had the power to dismiss him. All 
the expenses of the Administration to be paid by the 
Ministry of Finance, the waqf property not being liable 
for any other expenses than those charged against it 
by the founder. 

In 1878 the Khedive Ismail appointed his first 
Council of Ministers, and the Administration of Waqf 
was raised to the dignity of a Ministry ; but by a Decree 
of 23rd January, 1884, the Khedive Tewfik ordained 
that as the administration of waqf was so closely related 
to the Shari'a, it was not appropriate that it should be 
connected with Ministries which were chiefly occupied 
with questions of administration and politics ; in conse- 
quence an independent Administration was created 
which should be directly under his control. But in the 
autumn of 1913, after the approval of the Khallf had 
been obtained, the Waqf Administration was once more 
transformed into a Ministry. The waqfs, which were 
under the control of the Administration, included — all 
charitable waqf which had not been bestowed upon any 
particular individual ; all waqf, the beneficiaries of 
which were unknown ; and waqf placed under the con- 
trol of the Administration by an order of the Mahkama, 
or by the consent of their Nazir and beneficiaries. The 
control of the Administration extended to the dismissal 
and appointment of the Nazir, the supervision of the 
accounts, the grant of leases, the making of sales or 
exchanges, and, in fact, to all questions of administration. 
The Ministry of Finance also possessed a certain power 
of control in reference to the Budget of the Adminis- 

* Report of Shafik Pasha. From 1905 to 1910 the Administration 

WAQF 187 

For centuries it has been considered that waqf came 
exclusively within the sphere of the Shari'a, but 
remarkable transformation is now taking place. We 
have already referred to Mr. Young's account of the 
encroachments of the Kanoun (Qantin) into the sacred 
domains of the Shari'a, the same phenomenon is to be 
observed in all Moslem countries which have come under 
European control. In Algiers and Tunis French influence 
is supreme, and the Cour de Cassation of Paris has been 
called on to decide knotty points of law relating to waqf. 
In India for many j^ears Judges of alien faith have 
decided cases of Mohammedan Law, and not the least 
important of these have related to waqf. In Egypt 
cases of waqf have come before the foreign Judges of the 
Mixed Courts, and not infrequently conflicts of juris- 
diction in regard to waqf have arisen between the 
Mahkama and the Judges of the Native Courts, some of 
whom are English. And it is possible that a law may 
be necessary to decide these conflicts by declaring that 
while the Mahkama retains its exclusive jurisdiction in 
regard to Shari'a waqf, all cases relating to family waqf 
shall be within the competence of the Native Courts. 
Nor is this all. Throughout all these countries the 
influence of a new generation of Moslem lawyers and 
administrators, trained under European influence,* is 
making itself felt to such an extent that we may confi- 
dently look forward to yet further developments in the 
laws relating to waqf. " Jurist." 

controlled 14,886 waqfs of which 8,339 were charitable and 6,574 were 
private waqfs (in Egypt a waqf, in which the beneficiary is a charit- 
able institution, is called Waqf Khari, other waqf is called family 
waqf or waqf ahli. 

* Shafik Pasha received his legal education in Paris, and recently , 
when the Director General of Waqf wished to reform the legal depart- 
ment of the administration, he sent a mission to study the methods 
adopted by the Government Departments in Paris and London. 



The publication of a revised and enlarged edition of 
Professor Arnold's " Preaching of Islam "* brings before 
us not a few subjects which are of importance alike from 
a religious and from a political point of view. The book 
is a learned and valuable contribution to the history of 
the propagation of the Moslem faith from its first promul- 
gation to the present time. Henceforth, no one who 
deals with the subject will be able to dispense with this 
volume. Its value is enhanced by the many references 
which it contains to authorities of all kinds bearing 
upon the history of Islam. 

Yet, though the author by no means endeavours to 
conceal altogether certain very unpleasant facts, he 
nevertheless guards against obtruding them upon the 
attention of his readers. We might go further and say 
that he deliberately omits much that throws a lurid light 
upon the manner in which in early days, and sometimes 
in much more recent times, the faith of Mohammed has 
been spread by other than " peaceful persuasion." It 
is true that Professor Arnold in his Preface and also in 
his Introduction warns us that his book is " a record of 
missionary efforts and not a history of persecutions," 
and that " it does not aim at chronicling the instances 
of forced conversions which may be found scattered up 
and down the pages of Mohammedan histories." But 
when one undertakes to record the method in which the 
Moslem faith, — that of " the Prophet with the sword " — 
has been spread, it is hardly fair to omit the history of 
these persecutions, unless it can be proved that they took 
place in opposition to the principles and the example of 
Mohammed himself. The Professor seems to imply that 
this was the case by compiling a list of Koranic passages 

* T. W. Arnold. " The Preaching of Islam : a history of the 
Propagation of the Muslim Faith." 2nd ed., revised and enlarged, 
pp. xvi. 467. Constable & Co., London. 1913. 


of a contrary tendency, and by omitting nearly everything 
in Mohammed's own conduct which savoured of com- 
pulsion. In all seriousness, when enquiring into the 
manner in which Islam was first propagated, it is not fair 
to omit such precepts as these : " Fight* ye against those 
who believe not in God nor in the last Day, nor forbid 
what God and His Apostle have forbidden, nor profess 
the Religion of Truth, from among the People of the 
Book, until they give the tribute (jizyah) out of hand 
and be brought low (or and are little)." " Whenf the 
Sacred months shall be passed, then slay the Polytheists 
wherever ye find them, and seize them and besiege them, 
and lie in ambush for them with every ambuscade." 
This latter verse goes on to say that they are to be 
spared only " if they repent and raise the Prayer {Soldi) 
and bring the fixed alms (zakdt),'' — i,e., if the}^ become 
Moslems. These are the principles laid down by Moham- 
med, as from God, for the guidance of his followers until 
the subjugation of the world should be complete, the 
first quotation shewing what treatment should be given 
to the " People of the Book," and the second that to 
which idolaters should be subjected. If Moslem propa- 
gandists have acted in a more humane manner under 
circumstances which prevented them from wielding the 
sword, that should not blind us to Mohammed's o^^n 
teaching on the subject, for that undoubtedly has not 
only sanctioned but caused the steady, relentless, crush-^ 
ing oppression which Jews and Christians have for many 
generations suffered in Moslem lands. This has been far 
worse because more continuous than any of the old 
Roman persecutions during the first three centuries of 
our era. A Nero, a Domitian, a Diocletian, might rage 
for a few years and massacre Christians, but milder and 
more humane rulers relaxed their policy of persecution. 
Nothing similar has ever, to any real extent, alleviated 
the unhappy lot of Christians subjected to Moslem rule. 
The only variety to which they could look forward was 
one of those massacres, with their aftermath of forcible 

* Surah ix, 29. 
t Surah ix, 5, etc. 


"conversions," of which those in Armenia and at Adana 
in recent years are but niild examples. Professor Arnold 
himself gives us occasional instances of this, such as the 
following : " It* especially irked the Moslems that any 
•of the Arabs should remain true to the Christian faith. 
The majority of the Banu Tanukh had become Moslem 
in the year A.H. 12, when with other Christian Arab 
tribes they submitted to Khalid b. al-Walid, but some 
of them appear to have remained true to their old faith 
for nearly a century and a half, since the caliph al-Mahdi 
(A.H. 158-169) is said to have seen a number of them 
who dwelt in the neighbourhood of Aleppo, and, learning 
that they were Christians, in anger ordered them to accept 
Islam — which they did to the number of 5,000, and one 
of them suffered martyrdom rather than apostatise." 
Such conduct on the Khalifah's part could easily be 
justified by Mohammed's own example. For instance, 
Ibn Ishaq tells us that many of the Jews Hving in and 
near Medinah in Mohammed's time " assumed the out- 
ward appearance of having accepted Islam " and that 
" they accepted it as a protection againstf slaughter." 
That this fear of massacre was not without foundation is 
proved by the fate of their brethren, the Banu Quraizah, 
the Banu Qainuqa , and the Banu Nadhir. When Abu 
SufyanJ was brought prisoner before Mohammed, he was 
asked whether he acknowledged the latter to be God's 
Prophet. On his replying that he still entertained some 
doubt on the subject, al' Abbas said to him, '' Woe to 
thee ! Become a Moslem and testify that there is no god 
but God, and that Mohammed is God's Apostle, before 
thy head is cut off." Convinced by this forcible and 
logical argument, Abu Sufyan and his two companions 
at once repeated the Kalimah, We have sought in vain 
for any mention of these and similar facts in Professor 
Arnold's account of Mohammed's OAvn missionary zeal. 
The omission of all mention of Mohammed's distinct 
sanction of forcible conversion and of war for the spread 

* P. 50. 

t SiratuW Rasul, vol. i., p. 183. 

{ Op. cit.f vol. ii., p. 215 : Ibn Athir, vol. ii., p. 93. 


of the faith is a very serious blot upon the book. The 
matter is made worse by the comparison instituted 
between the few instances which the Professor gives of 
Moslems' use of the sword as a proof of their religion and 
similar conduct on the part of Charlemagne,* Cnut, and 
other misguided men who spread Christianity by the 
same means. Everyone can perceive that in the latter 
case the conduct referred to was contrary to both the 
example and the precepts of Christ, while in the former 
it accorded to the full with Mohammed's teaching and 
practice. The difference is fundamental, and no amount 
of special pleading or suppressio veri can alter this fact. 
No one who is properly acquainted with the history of 
the treatment of the dhimmis under Moslem rule will 
agree with our author's comment on certain cases of cruel 
persecution which he mentions in passing : " Suchf 
oppression was contrary to the tolerant spirit of Islam." 
The Professor does scant justice to the steadfastness 
of the Persian Armenians, descendants of those brought 
as captives to Isfahan by Shah 'Abbas (1587-1629), 
when he says, on Tavernier's authority, that most of 
them " appearf to have passed over to Islam in the 
second generation." On the contrary, they are very 
numerous in the neighbourhood of Isfahan to the present 
day, and have spread thence to India and the Malay 
Archipelago. They still preserve their Christian faith 
in spite of " the tolerant spirit of Islam." The latter was 
manifested for centuries in the law that, if any member 
of a Christian family became a Moslem, all the property 
of the whole family at once became his. A Christian 
who slew a Moslem in defence of his own life or the honour 
of his wife or daughter must die at the executioner's 
hands, unless he embraced Islam. If a Christian at- 
tempted to spread his faith, he was put to death. He 
had no right to appeal to the law for redress, under any 
circumstances. He must not ride a horse, and must not 
even enter the city of Isfahan on a rainy day. Similar 

* P. 7. 

t P. 77. 
t P. 176. 


tender and tolerant rules have been in force for many 
centuries in other parts of the Moslem world. The won- 
der is not that the number of Christians under Moslem 
rule has steadily diminished, but rather that any still 
cling to their faith. The writer of the present article 
has himself lived in an Armenian Christian village in 
Persia at the time when the " tolerant " Moslems were 
murdering and outraging the hapless Christians in Asiatic 
Turkey. He has a vivid recollection of seeing groups of 
Armenian men, forbidden to possess arms, standing 
about trying to cheer and encourage one another amid 
the snows of January, while the armed Persians were 
urging one another to emulate the glorious zeal of their 
" Turkish brothers " by massacring the Christians and 
seizing their property. It was pathetic to see the terror 
of the hapless women and children. In visiting an Ar- 
menian house, repeated knocking was required before 
from within the barred door a timid little child's voice 
was heard asking in Armenian, " Who is there ? " If 
the answer were given in Persian, nothing would induce 
those in the house to open the door. On such occasions, 
— and they have been frequent in every land under 
Moslem rule for many centuries past, — the condition 
of the hapless Christians has been such as no words but 
those of Holy Writ can depict. " Thy* life shall hang 
in doubt before thee ; and thou shalt fear night and 
day, and shalt have none assurance of thy life. In the 
morning thou shalt say, ' Would God it were even ! ' and 
at even thou shalt say, ' Would God it were morning ! ' 
for the fear of thine heart which thou shalt fear, and for 
the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see." Yet when, 
after centuries of such miseries, people have yielded to 
the inevitable and accepted Islam, an English writer 
gravely assures us that such conversion " wasf not due 
to force," but to the '* superior morality of the Moslem 

All kinds of methods have been employed, in various 
countries and at different times, in order to spread 

* Deut. xxviii. 66, ff. 

t Lo.nguage of this kind is often used in the book. 


Islam. Here is one instance of Mohammedan zeal shewn 
in Chinese Turkistan and related by a Moslem writer 
with approval. " Mohammed* Khan was a wealthy 
prince and a good Musalman, He persisted in following 
the road of justice and equity, and was so unremitting in 
his exertions that during his blessed reign most of the 
tribes of the Mongols became Musalmans. It is well- 
known what severe measures he had recourse to in 
bringing the Mongols to be believers in Islam. If, for 
instance, a Mongol did not wear a turban, a horseshoe 
nail was driven into his head ; and treatment of this kind 
was common. May God recompense him with good ! " 

Another method, and one frequently employed, is 
that described as practised in Malabar. " Theref is an 
association entitled Minnat al-Islam Sabha, where con- 
verts are instructed in the tenets of their new faith and 
rtiaterial assistance rendered to those under instruction." 

An Isma'ili missionary introduced among the Hindus, 
whose conversion he sought to achieve, a ''J book entitled 
Dasavatdr, in which 'Ali was made out to be the tenth 
Avatar or incarnation of Visnu : this book has been from 
the beginning the accepted scripture of the Khojah sect." 
So in the Malay Archipelago, the Moslem teachers 
" knew § how to accommodate their teachings to the 
existing beliefs of the Bataks and their deep-rooted 
superstitions." In a recent book. Pastor Simon has ably 
shewn what the result of this has been on the Batak 

Professor Arnold has taught us not a few most useful 
lessons. He has shewn that, in the once " Christian " 
lands of Asia, the ignorance of their own faith, worship 
in a dead language, the quarrels of contending sects, 
the corruption of Christianity into a form of polytheism, 
the worship of dead saints, and the neglect of the clergy, 
all contributed to render professing Christians an easy 
prey to victorious Moslem hosts and made the progress 
of Islam possible. This should be a warning to those 
who at the present day depart from the simplicity of 
the Gospel. He points out the fact that in our own 
day Islam is making great steps in advance in Africa 

* P. 238. t P- 269. { P. 274. § P. 370. 


and elsewhere, owing to the zeal of Mosle.m merchants 
and the employment of native converts as missionaries, 
to say nothing of its direct encouragement by certain 
European Powers who employ Moslem soldiers and 
officials in preference to all others. The part played in 
this propaganda by the polygamy of the Moslem teachers, 
whose heathen wives readily accept Islam, is noteworthy 
in Africa, as in other lands. To this may be added the 
fact that no spiritual change on the part of the convert 
is considered necessary, and that Islam is " the broad 
way, in which there is room enough for a man and his 
sins, whereas Christianity is a narrow path, in which a 
man must leave his sins behind him if he enters it " (as 
a Moslem once said to the present writer). 

The perusal of this book should shew Christians some- 
thing of the true nature of the Moslem peril, and should 
encourage us to multiply a hundredfold our efforts to 
stay the progress of Islam in Africa, by training native 
workers to meet the foe, and by preaching the simple 
Gospel of Christ, which alone has power to help men to 
break loose from their sins and enjoy " the liberty of the 
glory of the children of God." 

W. St. Clair Tisdall. 



The recent profession of Islam by an Irish peer has 
called attention to the existence of an organized en- 
deavour to carry on a Moslem Mission in England. In 
view of the wild and self -contradictory reports that have 
appeared in the daily and weekly press, it is the object 
of this article to state briefly the facts of the case, but 
first it may be well to glance at attempts which have 
preceded the present effort. 

It is twenty-four years since certain vernacular 
papers in the Punjab announced that several hundred 
Englishmen, with a Bishop at their head, had embraced 
Islam at Liverpool, and a challenge was issued to a 
leading Punjab missionary in connection therewith by 
a prominent Indian Mohammedan. It was necessary to 
track down very carefully the authors and the statements 
of this challenge, and in 1 89 1 I personally visited 
Liverpool to see the " mosque," and to inquire into 
the condition of the alleged Moslem community. After 
my return to India these enquiries were continued with 
great care by Dr. H. Martin Clark, of the C.M.S., with 
the help of a shorthand writer, and the results are set 
forth in a pamphlet entitled " Moslems in Liverpool " 
{Calcutta Methodist Publishing House), by James Monro, 
Esq., C.B. The publication of these enquiries led the 
leaders of the Moslem community in India to print a 
manifesto disavowing the Liverpool movement as being 
no true representation of Islam. The reasons for this 
will be clear if I mention some of its characteristics. 

A Liverpool solicitor, Mr. W. H. Quilliam, having 
first adopted Deism and then Islam, had rented a house 
in the West Derby Road, in the ground floor rooms of 
which he arranged a sort of Mohammedan worship. One 
service was held on Fridays, and two at eleven and seven 


(not Moslem hours of prayer) on Sundays. The room 
was furnished with chairs, the Koran was read in EngHsh, 
and hymns were sung to a harmonium ; in fact, the whole 
was a farrago of Moslem and Christian elements. Nothing 
was done to erect a real mosque, though many Moham- 
medan seamen and traders visit Liverpool. In 1891 Mr. 
Quilliam claimed thirty English adherents, including 
children ; but since his repudiation by Indian leaders, 
little has been heard of his " mosque " in Liverpool ; 
and, if we may give credence to a recent correspondent 
in the Daily Sketch, it has disappeared. 

Meanwhile, the first real mosque was erected in 
England by the late Dr. Leitner, formerly Principal of 
the Oriental College, Lahore. On his retirement from the 
Indian Educational Service, Dr. Leitner, who possessed 
much influence with Indian chiefs and rulers, was enabled 
by their help to acquire an estate at Woking, on which 
was situated the so-called Dramatic College. This he 
fitted up as a Hostel for Indian students, and, in order 
to secure a religious atmosphere, he provided a Hindu 
Temple and a Mosque. Unfortunately, Woking turned 
out to be too far from London for the purpose of students, 
who, moreover, did not entirely relish the necessary 
discipline, and the scheme fell through. After Dr. 
Leitner' s somewhat sudden death, the property reverted 
to his heirs, one of whom, however, renounced his rights 
to the portion of the estate containing the Mosque and 
a house adjoining in favour of the Moslem communit3^ 
For sometime, however, these were rarel}^ used, and 
latterly a scheme was developed among Moslems resident 
in London for the erection of a suitable place for worship 
in the capital, though nothing definite has yet been 
done. Some two years ago, Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, 
B.A., a Pleader of the Chief Court of Lahore, while on a 
visit to England, conceived the idea of starting a mission 
to Christians in this country, primarily with the view of 
combating what he regarded as the misrepresentations 
to which Islam was exposed in the West. Mr. Kamal- 
ud-Din is a member of the Indian Sect of Mohammedans, 
known as Ahmadiyya, the tenets of which are set forth 
in a paper by Dr. Griswold, of Lahore, published in the 


Proceedings of the Victoria Institute for the 15th May, 
1905. The founder of this sect, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, 
of Qadian, in the Punjab, claimed to be the Mahdi, and 
the Messiah returned to earth, in one person. There is 
good reason to beheve that the impulse of his mission 
arose from concern at the conversion of Moslems to 
Christianity in the Punjab, and his sect has been dis- 
tinguished by considerable proselytising fervour. 

Beyond acknowledgment of the founder as a special 
inspired messenger from God, the peculiar tenets of this 
sect are somewhat undefined. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad 
claimed to be not only Christus redivivus for Christians 
and Mahdi for Moslems, but also a new avatar or incar- 
nation for Hindus. Hence he insists on the peacefulness 
of Islam as a religion, and interprets the duty of Jihad 
as striving for the spread of the faith by persuasion. 
Loyalty to the existing government is inculcated. Per- 
haps the most prominent point in their teaching is their 
advocacy of the " swoon theory " of our Saviour's 
Crucifixion. He is supposed to have been taken down 
insensible from the Cross, and to have been revived by 
an ointment brought by Joseph of Arimathea (this being 
the interpretation given of the spices mentioned in the 
Gospel). Jesus then escapes from Palestine and wanders 
away to Kashmir, where it is pretended that His tomb 
has been identified in the city of Srinagar. Mirza Ghulam 
Ahmad claimed to work miracles, and taught that those 
who believed in his message would be protected from 
pestilence. His own death by cholera was a great shock 
to many of his followers, but the sect remains and has a 
considerable number of adherents, especially in North 
India. It may be regarded as an attempt to mediate 
between the extreme rationalism of the School of Sayyad 
Ahmad, and the more conservative theology of Indian 
Islam, the futility of which, in its polemic against Christi- 
anity, was recognized by the Mirza. 

The headquarters of the new Mohammedan Mission 
were at first established at Richmond, but in August last 
the missionary and his helpers migrated to the house at 
Woking, hard by the Mosque already spoken of. The 
Mosque is a neat square building of moderate size, sur- 


mounted by a dome. It is well-carpeted, and warmed 
and lighted by electricity, and there is a bench along the 
left-hand wall for the accommodation of non-Moslem 
visitors. The reservoir in front was empty when I saw 
it, purification during inclement weather being attended 
to in the house, where the Khwaja was busily working in 
an office with his assistants. He was formerly a student 
for some years at the Form an Christian College at Lahore, 
and I am told that he has left his son under the care of 
the Principal, Dr. Ewing, towards whom, as .towards some 
other missionaries, he entertains friendly feelings, though 
he believes himself misrepresented by those who have 
taken up an attitude of opposition to his propaganda. 

The principal means by which this propaganda is 
carried on is a monthly magazine, entitled Muslim India 
and Islamic Review, which is said to have a circulation, 
largely gratis, of about three thousand copies in India 
and England. From time to time, as occasion offers, 
meetings are held at various places ; for instance, at 
Cambridge a debate was conducted on Polygamy in 
January, 1913, in which the missionary stated : "As 
to the death of Christ, the Book of God says they did not 
kill him, and they did not crucify him ; ... it denies 
that Jesus was put to death by the Jews ... Is not 
Lord Jesus indebted to Lord Mohammed ? " And adds, 
" Even God was pleased to take birth in the housi^e of a 
polygamist, as the blessed Virgin was the second wife of 
Joseph, the father of the Lord . . . Therefore, I say, if 
man has shown inclination by nature to be polygamous 
. . . you cannot dispense with it. You have to frame 
laws under which the institution under discussion may 
remain within its legitimate bounds. Islam has done 
so." Herein he varies from the ordinary reforming 
Moslem, who maintains that properly interpreted the 
Koran forbids polygamy, because it enjoins the man who 
has more wives than one to act with perfect justice 
towards them all, which is an impossibility. At the same 
time the Khwaja lays stress upon the fact that monogamy 
is a general rule among Indian Moslems. How it could 
well be otherwise, seeing that the numbers of the sexes 
are approximately equal, he does not debate. 



Another meeting took place at the " Lyceum Club," 
at which the position of women under Judaism, Christi- 
anity and Islam was treated with a good deal of forensic 
ability, and the report of it is followed by an article on 
" Our Moslem Sisters," attacking the position taken in 
that report of the Lucknow Conference ; and this is 
followed up by another entitled, " Did Christianity 
civilise Europe ? " endeavouring to show that the process 
of amelioration took place in spite of Christianity, or at 
least in conflict with Christian leaders and teachers. 

Another address is reported as given in the Theosophic 
Society at Folkestone, but chief attention is concentrated 
on the International Congress on Religious Progress at 
Paris in July last, at which Professor Monitet, of Geneva, 
read a paper on " Our duty towards the Mussalmans," 
in which he pleaded for appreciation of their position 
and considerate and respectful treatment of it. The 
Khwaja himself was invited to address the Congress on 
the subject of Islam, and reports a cordial reception. He 
makes this Congress the basis of a fervent appeal, pub- 
lished in an Urdu pamphlet for circulation in India. In 
this he tells his Indian Moslem brethren that the work 
of destroying the supernatural pretentions of Christianity 
has already been done for them by the Paris Congress, 
and now it only remains for them to step in and set forth 
Islam as the one rational and practical religion of the 
world. For this purpose he urges that a new English 
translation of the Koran should be published to remove 
the false impression which he believes to have been 
produced by the existing translations. The work, he 
says, is being done by a colleague at Qadian, who is 
learned both in Arabic and English, and funds are needed 
to have the book well-printed in England and widely 
circulated. This translation, if it sees the light, should 
teach us some lessons about Scripture translations made 
by a foreigner. Certainly in this, as other matters, the 
Khwaja, to say nothing of other Mohammedan and Hindu 
missionaries, has paid Christian missions the compliment 
of imitation. 

The articles in Muslim India are, to a considerable 
extent, political, naturally dealing with the Balkan 


situation as a vantage ground for polemic against the 
tolerance of Christianity, and with the political attitude 
of Indian Moslems. The December number concludes 
with an appeal to the community by Sayyad Wazeer 
Hassan to join the Hindus in their national aspirations, 
though he disclaims any hostile intentions towards the 
British Government. Another department of the maga- 
zine is entitled " Problems for Evangelists," in which 
objections and arguments are furnished much in the 
manner that we are familiar with in certain Mohammedan 
publications in India, though an effort is made to bring 
these more up-to-date. Mohammedan apologetic takes 
up some space : each number contains quotations of select 
passages from the Koran on certain topics, and there 
are frequent brief articles regarding sayings of Mohammed 
or passages in his life exalting his character and virtues. 
An article is devoted to the Koran and Astronomy, 
claiming that it anticipates modern discoveries. Other 
articles deal with such topics as " The Gospel of Hope," 
to show that the Moslem idea of the future life is superior 
to the Christian, or the " Moslem Lord's Prayer," a 
running exposition of the Sura Fatiha after the manner 
of Christian teachers, and we frequently find the Christian 
idea of the Fatherhood of God and other like conceptions 

The last two numbers of 1913 are naturally much 
occupied with Lord Headley's profession of Islam, and 
he contributes several articles. In these he enlarges on 
what he is pleased to consider the tolerance of Islam 
and the absence of mysterious dogmas, which, he says, 
irritated him in the Christian religion. He had long been 
a Deist, and when he met with a clear exposition of the 
faith of Islam, he felt that this satisfied his religious 
requirements. The intolerance of Christianity was the 
result of clerical influence, which had its origin in the 
Middle Ages, " say, between the third and fifth centuries 
and later," when warlike chieftains of the age had to 
employ clerks or clerics, who were the only possessors of 
learning, and craftily evolved dogmas regarding hell and 
heaven. Hence " the birth of sacerdotalism and the 
determined bids for temporal authority right up to the 


present date." Over against this, the simpHcity of the 
Mohammedan rehgion is emphasised, and we are told 
that " there is a great smilarity between the characters 
of the leaders, as anyone will find out after enquiring into 
Mohammed's life ; also the study of the Koran will 
reveal the fact that there is nothing antagonistic to 
previous revelations." In another connection, however. 
Lord Headley quotes from a speech delivered by the 
Khwaja, in Lahore : " It is the blessing of this very 
Government that I am freely unfolding my ideas, other- 
wise in Afghanistan [where Islam absolutely regulates 
the Government], if a Hindu make bold to say, even by 
way of prayer, that his Majesty the Amir may turn Hindu, 
he is sure to be stoned to death." It is sufficiently 
obvious that a nominally Christian Deist who is ready to 
swallow the historical contradictions of Islam, has but 
a very short step to take in order to become a Moslem ; 
and having already emptied the Christian faith of its 
specific content, he may regard himself, as Lord Headley 
professes, to be still a Christian after he has embraced 

In all these quasi rationalist attempts at argumen- 
tation, there is no trace of a real grasp either of the 
historical or the philosophical problems at issue : " The 
Moslem is bound by his religion to believe what explodes 
his religion." The Koran, by attesting the inspiration 
and veracity of earlier Scriptures, undermines its own 
contradictions of their statements and its claims to 
supercede them, nor is any contribution here offered 
towards the solution of this fatal antinomy. On the other 
hand, the childish eagerness with which any attack on 
historical Christianity is welcomed is pathetic, ignoring, 
as it does, the fact that such attacks tell equally against 
the historical foundations which Islam shares with 
Christianity. And as for the great problems of modern 
thought in relation to religion — creation and evolution 
— revelation and psychology — knowledge and faith 
— the Moslem messenger who comes to England does 
not even approach them. He can only applaud the 
followers of Voltaire and Strauss, imagining that they are 
paving the way for Islam. We notice with much regret 


the tone of the editor's remarks on Zenana Missions in 
the last number of the review. Surely no plea for religion 
is strengthened by scurrility. 

It is no new thing to find among nominal Christians 
unsettled minds who are ready to receive what, to them, 
is new teaching from the East, whether theosophic, or 
Buddhist, or Moslem. But the fact that an Indian 
Moslem is formally carrying on a mission in England, 
may serve to remind us of the practical concern which 
English Christendom has with Islam. It is no mere 
matter of theorising or comparative study of religion. 
The Mohammedan rightly does his best to propagate 
what he believes to be the true religion ; if it be true, it 
should be believed ; if it be right, it should be followed. 
If the Christian Church believes in her Saviour and 
desires that the benefits which He has brought should be 
preserved and extended to all mankind, she must evang- 
elise the Moslem ; but in no spirit of bitterness or con- 
troversy. He, too, feels the impact and disintegrating 
power of modern civilization and thought on his religious 
belief ; and in offering him the Gospel of Christ in its 
pure form, we are helping him to save the foundations 
of the faith of Abraham and Moses, while eliminating 
errors which the illiterate prophet of the seventh century 
ignorantly proclaimed. Moreover, the fact that religious 
toleration and Divine Fatherhood and inculcation of 
monogamy are proclaimed by modern followers of Islam^ 
shows that certain elements of Christ's Gospel have 
already won their acceptance, and is an earnest of more 
that may be hoped for, if the Church is at once faithful 
and charitable in her attitude to Islam. 

H. U. Weitbrecht. 



Educated Moslem Women. 

There is a real call for spiritually minded women with university 
education to give themselves to Uterarj^ work in Moslem lands. Mr. 
Arthur T. Upson calls attention to what Moslem women can do, in 
reviewing a book which appeared sometime ago in Cairo. He says : — 

" The Eastern woman being so much kept in the background, 
it is not generally known whether she is really capable or not. It is, 
of course, quite misleading and unfair to say that, because the ' fellah ' 
woman is stupid and ignorant, therefore the Moslem woman, as a 
whole, is incapable. One does not need to be a Pierre Loti, or even 
one of his admirers, to discover, after a certain amount of residence in 
the East, that many of our Eastern sisters have very great capacity 
for learning. 

" Readers of M. Loti's book will have become aware of the degree 
of culture reached by the Turkish lady, but this is, to a large extent, 
within the harem, whereas there are some in other lands whose deeds 
require a wider sphere to display them. 

" Among these is the talented daughter of the Inspector of Arabic 
in the Egyptian ISIinistry of Education, who has, for some years, 
written under a well-known nom-de -plume. 

" Another one is the editor of the book which hes before us. It is 
a thick quarto volume of 550 pages, entitled Ad-Durr al-Manthur. 
It was pubhshed nineteen years ago, and seems to have been written 
two years before that time. It was brought out at the Government 
Press at Bulac, Cairo. 

" The authoress, who styles herself a Syrian by birth, but an 
Egyptian by long residence, has given a most remarkable series of 
sketches of famous women. We have here something like 500 short 
biographies. It might have been thought she would write only of her 
own people. It were far more likely that she would do as many do, 
that is, would become so enamoured of the West as to forget the East 
altogether. Not so, Sayida Zainab Fawaz, the talented authoress, 
has treated of women in all ages and in all lands ; but although she 
ranges from Hagar, the mother of Ishmael (the reason for whose 
inclusion is obvious) to Mary, Queen of Scots, and then from the 
Queen of Sheba to Florence Nightingale, and from A'isha, the wife of 
Mohammed, to Queens Elizabeth and Victoria — yet she has them all 
clearly classified under their initial letters. 

" It would open the eyes of many students of Arabic literature to 
read pages 294 to 306. Another A'isha wrote a Qasida (Arabic poem), 
so arranged that every hne contains a different specimen of the chief 
rules in rhetoric." 

We need in every great intellectual centre of Islam those who will 
study the whole question of literature in its relation to Moslem woman- 
hood : both what has been prepared by them and what should be 
prepared for them at the present time of intellectual awakening. 


Carlyle on Islam. 

For nearly three decades the educated Moslems of India have used 
Carlyle's Essay on the Hero as Prophet to help them to " whitewash " 
Mohammed's character. Now when they learn by accident the other 
and complementary statements of Thomas Carlyle, they are straight- 
way offended. One of them, a student, writes to The Comrade of 
Calcutta : — 

" It seems that the Senate of the Pan jab University does not 
take the trouble of going through the books that it prescribes as the 
courses of instruction. ' The Hero as a Poet,' by Carlyle — a chapter 
in ' The Selected English Essays,' by Peacock, a course for the Degree 
examination for 1914 and 1915, shows that the book was not read at 
all, at least by the Moslem members of the Senate, who must have 
given their consent before the book was prescribed. 

" The following few lines will be sufficient to clear my point. 
' Selected Enghsh Essays,' by W. Peacock. Pages 392, 393. ' He 
did not feel, like Mahomet, because he saw into those internal splend- 
ours, that he specially was the " Prophet of God " : and was he not 
greater than Mahomet in that ? Greater, and also, if we compute 
strictly, as we did in Dante's case, more successful. It was intrinsically 
an error, that notion of Mahomet, of his supreme prophethood : and 
has come down to us inextricably involved in error to this day, dragging 
along with it such a coil of fables, impurities, intolerances, as makes it 
a questionable step for me here and now to say, as I have done, that 
Mahomet was a true speaker at all, and not rather an ambitious 
charlatan ; perversity and simulacrum ; no speaker but a Babbler ! 
Even in Arabia, as I compute, Mahomet will have exhausted himself 
and become obsolete while this Shakspeare . . . for unlimited periods 
to come.' 

" At another place. ' But as for Mahomet, I think it had been 
better for him not to be conscious ! Alas, poor Mahomet ! all that he 
was conscious of was a mere error ; a futility and triviality — as indeed, 
such ever is. The truly great in him, too, was the unconscious : that 
he was a wild Arab lion of the desert, and did speak out with that 
thunder voice of his, not by words which he thought to be great, but 
by actions, by feelings, by a history which were great ! His Koran 
has become a stupid piece of prolix absurdity . . . inarticulate deep.' 

"It is needless to say that no Moslem can tolerate such a book. 
It is a pity that such books should be prescribed as contain nothing 
but the production of prejudice and bias. 

" Through your columns. Sir, I appeal to the Panjab University 
authorities to withdraw this odious book from the courses of study." 

Washing the Kaaba. 

Most of our readers have access to Burton, Burckhardt and other 
writers who have described the pilgrimage to Mecca, but we think 
that the following interesting account of the washing of the Kaaba 
will be new to many. It appeared in a series of articles on the Pil- 
grimage in The Egyptian Gazette, and is apparently written by one 
who knows Mecca thoroughly. 

" On the 20th Moharrem the Kaaba is opened for the purpose of 
washing it, which is an operation of the greatest solemnity, performed 
in the presence of the Sherif, the Governor-General, and the notables 
of the town. The Sherif enters first and is followed by the rest of his 


party ; and after having offered up a short prayer, two buckets of 
water from the Zamzam well are brought to him with which, and with 
small brooms, he washes the floor. When this is done he again washes 
it, but this time with rose water ; then the floor and the walls as far as 
the arms can reach are anointed with essence of roses, musk and other 
perfumes, incense being all the time burned. When all these operations 
have been performed, the Sherif stands at the door of the Kaaba and 
throws to the immense crowds assembled outside the brooms used in 
washing it. The fight to obtain these brooms, which are considered 
by the natives as among the most precious things in the world, is be- 
yond description. Some of the 7nutauwifin or guides, however, sell 
to pilgrims brooms they soak in water which they pretend have been 
used in washing the Kaaba. The price of such brooms is at the lowest 
piastres 10. The threshold of the Kaaba is of silver and the two leaves 
of the door are made of sheet iron covered with gilt silver. The door, 
which is two metres above the ground, is reached by means of a wooden 
ladder overlaid with silver. The roof of the Kaaba is ornamented with 
precious stones presented by the different Caliphs. On the 27th of 
the month of Zul Kida the Kaaba is covered with white calico, which 
operation is called the ihrdm of the Kaaba, but in reality it is because 
the man in charge of it takes away this part of the Kiswa with the 
object of selling it." 

Moslem University at Mecca. 

The Bombay Guardian says : " Moulvi Shibli Noamani has come 
forward with another Mohammedan university scheme, which he 
wants to establish at Mecca. He has supplied the outlines of his 
scheme to the Mohammedan press. The new^ university will aim at 
teaching the Mohammedan youths from all parts of the world Mo- 
hammedan literature, but it will be conducted on modern lines. As 
to funds, he feels there can be no misgiving. There may be some 
trouble with the Turks who have never cared to educate Arabs, but the 
Moulvi is sanguine that these difficulties will be easily got over because 
when the Indian Mohammedans make up their minds to help this 
university, the Sultan of Turkey will not say No to the Indian Moham- 

Nationalists in Exile. 

The Egyptian Nationalists, deprived of free speech by the sup- 
pression of their journals, have not ceased to fret under what they call 
the yoke of British bondage. According to recent news in the Egyptiaii 
Gazette, they are publishing an Arabic paper in Paris and sending it 
into Egypt surrej^titiously. Turkey is as unwilling as is Egypt to 
harbour this species of Nationalist. According to the Constantinople 
papers. Sheikh Abdel Aziz Shawish, the notorious NationaKst agitator, 
will be appointed director of a religious establishment which it has been 
decided to create in Medina. This transfer to Arabia of Sheikh 
Shawish was, according to rumour, decided upon by the Union and 
Progress Party in order to keep him away from the Turkish capital, 
where his presence is increasingly inconvenient. 

Moslem Children and Mission Schools. 

The Mohammedan press in Cairo and in Constantinople from time 
to time contains warnings to parents, advising them not to send their 
children to mission schools because of the danger that they will either 


lose all their religion or become Christians. The paper called Es SJia'ab 
recently contained these sentiments : " We know that the various 
missions of the religious fraternities are not concerned with education 
in the sense of progress, but are centers of propagandism, their only 
purpose being to turn their pupils from Islam to Christianity. There- 
fore we have for some time been warning parents against sending their 
children to these establishments. They enter them as Moslems, but 
having completed their education, they leave them either as total 
infidels or as Christians in everything but name." In an article which 
appeared in the Jeune Turc, Ahmed Aghaieff speaks of the instruction 
given in mission schools, as follows : — 

" These schools have attracted up to this time quite a large number 
of Moslem children of both sexes. But a fairly perceptible current of 
adverse opinion is setting in against these schools, and this for several 
reasons. First of all there is the narrow fanaticism of those who direct 
these schools. These schools, so edifying from the Christian stand- 
point, are absolutely destructive from the Moslem point of view. 
They set themselves to the task of destroying all Moslem and national 
sentiment in their pupils ; with this end in view, they rigorously 
exclude from their programmes all religious instruction for Moslem 
children, drive out the Turkish language and Turkish history, while 
forcing the children to attend Christian prayers, and compelling them 
to learn foreign languages and foreign history. In reality, they teach 
no positive result, for they merely destroy the religious convictions of 
their Moslem pupils without succeeding in making Christians of them. 
If those who stand at the head of these schools could avoid this narrow 
spirit, if they reahzed the necessity of respecting the language and 
religion of the country which shows them hospitality, they could 
attract a much larger number of children and render a real service 
as well to the countries which they represent as to the land where they 
hve. But they are incapable of this ; and the love of country, which 
is from day to day becoming more developed, is in a fair way to become 
a serious force against the education of Moslem children in foreign 
religious schools. We are fully and absolutely convinced that as soon 
as the native private or government schools can be more or less im- 
proved and multiplied, the current of Moslem children to these foreign 
schools will cease. And Moslem public opinion peremptorily demands 
that such improvements be introduced, that more sustained and more 
rational care be devoted to the school question." 

Islam in the Philippines. 

Last year Colonel Finley, of the United States army and the Gov- 
ernor of the Moros, visited Constantinople as representative of the 
Moslems of the Southern Philippine group. He has been in the 
Philippine Islands for eleven years, and seems to have won the confi- 
dence of the Moslem inhabitants. According to a correspondent in the 
Near East, the Moros have offered a spirited resistance at times to the 
occupation by the United States, but Colonel Finley, by his sympathy, 
firmness, and justice, has won them over to such an extent that they 
appointed him their representative to obtain their recognition by the 
Khalif at Constantinople, and gave him an enthusiastic send-off on 
his mission. Surely few Anglo-Saxons or Christians have had a more 
remarkable work entrusted to them. 

The prime object of the mission was to obtain from the Khalifate 
the appointment of one or more Hodjas, or teachers, who should 


endeavour to influence the mass of the Moro people in the PhiUppines 
to acquire a more enlightened knowledge of their own faith in the 
teachings of the Prophet, to impress them with the virtues of Moham- 
medan tenets in order that they may Hve more consistently in the 
light of the best culture of Islam, and to lead them away from the 
abuses which have sprung up in their reUgion. Whilst this is being 
done, it is expected that on the other hand the people will be impressed 
as to the necessity of submitting to the laws and regulations of the 
United States Government, and stress is to be laid on the fact that the 
United States Government is entirely non-sectarian, having no State 
religion and being absolutely tolerant of all beliefs. 

One would like to know whether in such matters as slavery and 
polygamy the United States Government has made a compromise 
with Islam, and in how far the policy of the American Repubhc is to 
follow the lines of the British in Nigeria and the Sudan in discouraging 
missionary work among these Moslems. 

The Italian Policy for Tripoli. 

According to the Cairo daily press, the Itahan Government has 
decided on founding a porch (riwaak) or hostel near the Azhar Univer- 
sity for boarding those Moslem students of Erethrea and Tripoli who 
come to study at this institution. The hostel will contain 150 beds 
a large reference librarj^ and all the necessary accompaniments of a 
boarding establishment. Itahan masters will be engaged to teach the 
Italian language to the students at certain hours in the day. Monthly 
allowances are to be given to Tripolitan students at the Azhar. The 
object of the Italian Government, say the Mokattam, is to bring up 
teachers who Avill go back to Tripoli, and teach the coming generation 
Islamic doctrine, the Arabic tongue, and love of Italy. 

Moslem Universities. 

The latest news of the Aligarh University is regarding the question 
of affiliation. A meeting was held by the Committee, but they would 
not agree to the power given to the Viceroy as Chancellor of the 
University to be vested in him as Governor-Greneral in Council. It also 
decided to name the University the Moslem University. The Com- 
mittee has decided to send a deputation to the Viceroy, as there was 
unanimity on the question of having a University, and has sanctioned 
the interest of the University Fund to be expended for the furtherance 
of the University scheme by increasing the staff of the College and 
enlarging the buildings and sending promising young members to 
England to be of use as Professors in the University. 

While the leading progressive Moslem University proposes to send 
its students to England for training, the oldest Moslem University, Al 
Azhar, is also stirred by the wave of progress. According to the 
Egyptian Gazette, the Sheikh of the Azhar Mosque has ordered that all 
students who have been for over seventeen years receiving instruction 
there, must be examined at the forthcoming examination, and those 
who do not pass it successfully will be discharged from the University. 
This is the first time that any such time limit has existed. Up to now 
a student might remain at this historic seat of learning all his life, 
and no one has ever been " sent down " for failing to pass examinations. 


Moslem Missionaries. 

In imitation of the organization in Old Cairo for training con- 
troversialists and Moslem propagandists of the faith, an association 
under the title of " Nazarat-ul-Ma'arif-ul-Qorania," has been started 
at Delhi for the training of Mohammedan missionaries intimately 
acquainted with their own religion and equipped with a knowledge of 
Enghsh and other modem languages. The organization proposes to 
award scholarships of Rs. 50 per mensem to graduates, who would 
undertake religious duty and receive their traim'ng at the institution. 
Those unacquainted with English will be taught English and other 
modern languages and receive substantial stipends. Nawab Vicar-ul- 
Mulk has given his wholehearted support to the Nazarat and invited 
public help for it. Her Highness the Begum of Bhopal has also 
expressed her approval of the purposes of the association and made a 
perpetual annual grant of Rs. 2,400. 

An All Egypt Conference. 

At the summer meeting of the American Mission at Ramleh, it was 
recommended that a committee be appointed to seek the co-operation 
of all the Missions in Egypt in inviting Dr. John R. Mott, as repre- 
senting the Edinburgh Continuation Committee, to hold a Conference 
similar to those recently held in India, China, and Japan, sometime in 
the near future. The hope is that this Conference will lead to a closer 
correlation and the increased efficiency of all the agencies now working 
for the evangelization of Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan. The 
Committee is in correspondence with Dr. Mott and other missionary 
leaders, and has already secured the hearty co-operation of the other 
missions in Egypt. This preliminary notice is intended as a special 
call for prayer. If the proposed Conference is to produce results 
commensurate with the present day opportunities in Egypt, and really 
bind together all the Missions to a common task with a common faith 
and in a common hope, all preparation for the Conference must be in 
the spirit of intercession. Let us pray for each other and for the 
leaders in this enterprise ; for the Committee that shall be appointed 
that they may prepare the programme with wisdom, and that the 
results of the Conference may be spiritual and abiding. 

Doubtless this Conference will consider such topics as were con- 
sidered in Japan : The occupation of the whole field ; The Egyptian 
Evangehcal Church ; Christian Leadership in Egypt ; The training of 
IVIissionaries ; Education ; Christian Literature ; and the Neglected 
Bedouin population. May we not hope that this Conference, like those 
held in the Far East, will be strategic in its conceptions and plans, 
and will result in the launching of an evangelistic campaign which will 
reach out to every village of Egypt. 

The Lucknow Conference Literature Committee. 

The second annual meeting of this Committee took place in Cairo 
last November. Six of the original members and five consulting 
members were present. The agenda and the minutes took a wide 
sweep of the present problems coming within the province of the 
Committee. Personal reports were heard from Algeria, Constantinople, 
SjT-ia, Egypt and Arabia ; while correspondence from Baghdad, 
Turkestan, China and Persia brought the Committee face to face with 
present conditions in these widely separated lands. 


It was agreed to continue this investigation of conditions in East 
Africa, China and Malaysia, through members of the Committee and 
workers in those regions. 

Much interest was manifested in the plan for producing a new 
literature for boys and girls. Miss Trotter laid before the Committee 
a number of illustrated story parables done in a delightfully interesting 
and artistic form, some of which have already been published in 
Turkish. A strong sub-committee has taken this in hand. 

A large part of the session was taken up in discussing plans for 
wider and more effective distribution of the hterature already in 
existence, and especially among the large numbers of pilgrims from the 
East and the West. This brought into notice a new phase of the work 
in the matter of languages. Eighteen of the Nile Mission Press 
Khutbas are already issued in Turkish, but it was felt that these and 
other literature must be translated into French for use in various 
provinces in the Orient. A still larger need was apparent for the same 
literature in Russian and inter- Asian languages and where the distri- 
bution would not be hampered by conditions still existing in Turkey. 
Various other publications large and small were agreed upon and 
assigned to the proper persons and sub-committees. 

A number of answers to the various publications have recently 
appeared in Turkish and Arabic. Some of them showing evidence 
of earnest study and an open-mindedness to truth. The larger 
volumes make much use of the queries and difficulties and cavils of the 
pseudo-higher criticism in Christian lands concerning the Bible, and 
many of the more daring and less trustworthy exponents would be 
surprised to know how large their names and half-baked theories 
figure in Moslem attacks on the authority and sufficiency of the Bible. 
As missionaries we once rejoiced in being free from such windy polemics, 
but are now having them thrust upon us in foreign lands and foreign 

It was noted with pleasure that, with some glaring exceptions, 
there was a better tone in such literature, and we welcome a state of 
public opinion where Christian as well as Moslem can discuss the 
faith of the other without raising the passions of a mob such as filled 
the theatre at Ephesus in Paul's day (Acts xix. 24). There is a danger 
in Turke}^ since the abohtion of the Government censorship, that the 
duties of the censor may be assumed by the more fanatical element in 
the large cities as represented in the lower class of newspapers. We 
can afford to be patient with this since we are sure there is an increas- 
ingly larger number who are inclined to ask for " fair play " in the 
matter of controversy, and a still larger number who are willing to 
look at the good in Christianity and try to find a way of linking it 
with the best in Islam. F. E. Hoskins, D.D. 


The Koran and the Calendar Once More. 

The controversy concerning the Hegira New Year's Day has not yet 
subsided in the Moslem press of Cairo, and complaints against the 
Grand Kadi's recent action in changing New Year's Day from 
Saturday to Sunday continue to be made. The latest complaint is one 
signed by the Imams and muezzins of the mosques of Cairo, and ends 
as follows : — 

" Tlve action of the Grand Kadi has thrown us into perplexity, 
and we do not know which calendar to follow. We cannot see how 



anyone could have seen the new moon on the first of Moharram when 
for three days the sky was cloudy, and no moon could be seen. If the 
action was taken in accordance with instructions from Constantinople, 
then no allowance could have been made for the difference in the latitude 
of the two places. All our feast days and hohdays have been thrown 
out of reckoning, and we anxiously wait to hear what the Mehkemeh 
Sharia has to say about this, as well as the Press." 

Is the Veil Islamic ? 

The Jaridah and the Sliaab of Cairo are now having a series of 
lively if lengthy controversial articles on the subject of the veil. The 
Jaridah favours the removal of the veil, while the Shaab prefers to 
remain conservative. 

Writers in the first-mentioned journal declare that the veil is neither 
a Koranic nor Sunna institution, but an outgrowth of later times, 
and that the same may be said of the free relations between the sexes. 
It is true that some texts in the Koran mention the veil, but that 
happens only when referring to the wives of the Prophet, who were an 
exception to the rest of Avomenkind. Moreover, legahsts have always 
maintained that a woman's face and hands should not be covered, 
and that free contact between the sexes was not reprehensible. Some 
even have gone as far as allowing woman to dispense justice in court. 

The veil, says the Jaridah, is neither a religious nor a racial insti- 
tution. Observe how the fellah women go about uncovered and no 
adverse comment is passed on them. Why should the restriction be 
limited to women of the better classes ? The veil grew out of men 
suspecting women, and out of jealousy. 

The Shaab takes up the controversy and tries to prove that the veil 
is a divine institution. After quoting one or two Koranic texts in 
support of its arguments, it states that in early Islam women were 
obliged to cover their faces, with the exception of one eye, as was done 
by Obeidah. Others considered woman's hair an ornament, and 
ordered it to be hidden. As to mixing -with the other sex, nothing 
could be more contrary to the mind of the Prophet, who even made 
it illegal for woman to attend mosques where men congregate, much 
less secular social gatherings. 

The Almighty has forbidden woman to look at man's face as he has 
forbidden man to look at her face, for the Koran says "it is the eyes 
that lust." The ^vriter then quotes the follo^ving incident : — The 
Prophet one day had a lady visitor, when a blind man entered. " Hide 
your faces," called out the Prophet to his guest. The woman pleaded 
that the man was blind, whereupon the Prophet remarked, "He is 
blind, but you are not." 

The Shaab concludes by saying that the above is the spirit of Islam 
which is contrary to the spirit of the age, that now tends to immorality 
and corruption. — The Egyptian Mail 

Mass Movement in Central Celebes. 

According to the Malaysia Message, a remarkable movement 
toward Christianity is taking place at Balantak in the eastern part of 
central Celebes. In the struggle for the animistic tribes between 
Islam and Christianity, the latter is beginning to win. 

" From our Batavia contemporary De Banier, we learn that a 
remarkable movement towards Christianity is taking place in Balantak, 


which hes at the Eastern extremity of Central Celebes, among people 
who have not yet come under the influence of Mohammedanism. 

" The Dutch clergyman at Macassar, Rev. R. W. F. Kijftenbelt, 
to whose zeal it is mainly due that this movement is being followed up, 
writes as follows, on the 19th of September : I returned yesterday 
from a trip to Loewoek (the chief to^vn of Balantak), Kolono Dale and 
Kandari. At Loewoek I met ^Ir. Kelling, who had just returned from 
Lamala. The people there are so eager to become Christians that 
within fourteen days 1,800 persons have joined our congregations. 
(Here follows a list of fifteen places, served by five native pastors, 
with a total Christian community of 2,356). I cannot yet find a 
suitable married pastor for Lingketen, where the people have long been 
waiting for a teacher. I certainly need an experienced man there. 
Towards the end of this month I expect about nine Minahassa teachers. 
Two of these go to Lingketen, and one of them to Pangkang. The 
Mohammedans on the coast are trying to carry on their propaganda 
even by baptising the people. But we quietly let them go their own 
way. (Dr. Adriani here inserts the following explanation : Mr. 
Kijftenbelt, no doubt, means the purification ceremony, by which the 
convert is taken to the river side where religious ceremonies are 
performed. Here his head is first cleansed mth Hme juice, and 
afterwards water is poured over him for the purpose of ceremonial 
purification. After this he is allowed to take part in the services, even 
though he is not yet circumcised. Many heathen are afraid of this 
operation, and believe that they will die as the result of it). At 
Tongke, where they understand that we do not interfere with the 
Mohammedans, even the children of the Mohammedan Balantak 
people attend our school. They gladly avail themselves of the in- 
struction given there, and the Mohammedan chief, the Sangadji, has 
now given up his opposition, and is friendly towards us. 

" At Binoeang (which is in quite a different district, lying in the 
Western part of Central Celebes, where a spontaneous movement 
towards Christianity h<is sprung up) four more teachers are coming 
to work." 




The Cambridge Medieval History. Vol. II. Rise of the Saracens 
and the Foundation of the Western Empire. By various 
writers. Royal 8vo. ; pp. 889. London : Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press. 
This volume contains at least three chapters of interest to students 
of Islam. The chapter, entitled " Mohamet and Islam," by A. A. 
Bevan, M.A., Lord Almoner's Reader and Professor of Arabic in the 
University of Cambridge, is a resum^ of the hfe and teaching of the 
prophet. The Avriter has nothing new or striking in the treatment of 
his subject. He emphasizes the difficulty of estimating the character 
of Mohammed, and cites the example of Noldeke, who abandoned his 
scheme of writing a history of the early Moslem empire because of his 
*' inability to offer any satisfactory account of the prophet's character." 
C. H. Becker, professor of Oriental history in the Colonial Institute 
of Hamburg, in his two chapters on " The Expansion of the Saracens," 
emphasizes the political aspect of Islam. He points out that historical 
research has modified the idea that " Mahomet and the first caliphs 
made all things ancAV and substantially created the civilization of 
Islam." He sees in Islam not the beginning of a new order of things, 
but claims it to be " the last Hnk in a long development of universal 
history." He says, " Nothing absolute^ new, therefore, arrives from 
the expansion of the Arabs, not even conditions uncongenial to the 
West of the Middle Ages ; in fact, on closer examination, we perceive 
an intimate inner relationship in the world of thought between the 
Christianit}^ of the Middle Ages and Islam." And, again, " It was 
not the religion of Islam which was by that time disseminated by the 
sword, but merely the political sovereignty of the Arabs. The accept- 
ance of Islam by other than Arabians was not only not striven for, but 
was, in fact, regarded with disfavour. The subdued peoples might 
peacefully retain their old rehgions, provided only they paid ample 
tribute. As on conversion these payments ceased, at least in the early 
times, such changes of rehgion were disliked." He further says, " The 
sudden surging forward of the Arabs was cnly apparentli/ sudden 
(italics ours) for centuries previously the Arab migration had been in 
preparation. It was the last great Semitic migration connected with 
the economical dechne of Arabia . . . The expansion of the Saracens 
is the final stage in a process of development extending over centuries. 
Islam was simply a change in the watchword for which they fought 
... It would be a mistake to regard the Arab migration merely as a 
rehgious movement incited by Mahomet. The question may, in fact, 
be put whether the whole movement is not conceivable without the 
intervention of Islam . . , That strong religious tie which at the 
present time binds together all Moslems, that exclusive religious 
spirit of the later world of Islam , is at all events not the primary cause 
of the Arab migration, but merely a consequence of the political and 


cultural conditions caused by it. The importance of Islam in this 
direction lies in its masked political character, which the modern world 
has, even in our own time, to take into consideration." 

The writer's contention that the strong religious tie which binds 
together all Moslems, and the exclusive spirit of the later world of 
Islam, are merely a consequence of conditions brought about by the 
" migration " is open to question. It is exceedingly doubtful whether 
there would have been such an extensive expansion had it not been 
for the binding tie of " Islamic brotherhood." He himself says, 
" Hunger and avarice, not reUgion, are the impelling forces, but 
religion supplies the essential unity and central power." One is 
almost led to think that the writer, in his zeal for the poUtical aspect, 
is unduly minimizing its religious significance. He says again, " The 
expansion of the Saracens' religion, both in point of time and in itself, 
can only be regarded as of minor import and rather as a pohtical 

The rest of this lengthy chapter, extending over thirty-six pages, 
contains a brief, historical survey of the conquests of the Islamic 
forces in Asia and Egypt, and the writer states that his " exposition 
differs radically from all the usual descriptions of the expansion of the 
Arabs, not only in our estimates of the sources and events, but also 
in our chronological arrangement of them. The conquests of the 
Saracens have in later years been a focus of scientific debate. Through 
the labours of De Goeje, Weilhausen and IVIiednikoff, a complete revo- 
lution in our views has been effected." 

The next chapter, covering twenty-six pages, is concerned with the 
expansion in Africa and Europe. The writer tells us why he divides 
his subject into an Asiatic -Egyptian and an African-European ex- 
pansion. " This division is founded, not on outward, but on internal 
reasons. Even at the present time Islam in Northern Africa presents 
an appearance quite different from the Islam of Asia and Egypt. 
The reason for this must be sought in the totally different composition 
of the population. The Aramaic element of Nearer Asia and Coptic 
Egypt offered much less resistance to the Arabian nationality and 
the Arabian language than did the Persian element in Mid-Asia. 
The Berbers or Moors of Northern Africa take up a middle position 
between these two ; they certainly accepted Islam and Arabian 
culture, but they remodelled them, and preserved their own nationality 
in their customs and to a large extent also in their language." 

The chapter begins with an account of the occupation of Alexandria, 
and gives a general survey of the progress of the forces of Islam in 
Africa, Spain, Sicily, Italy, etc., and closes with an account of the 
decline of the Saracen power. In concluding, the writer says : " The 
expansion has passed its zenith, and is now thrown back on Africa. 
The process lasted a few centuries longer in Spain, but here, too, Islam 
remained merely an episode in history. The blessings of culture which 
were given to the West by its temporary Islamitic elements are at least 
as important as the influence of the East during the time of the Crus- 
ades. The lasting injuries which the constant Saracen scourge inflicted 
on Europe must not be exaggerated, for the Saracens did only what 
every Christian maritime power of that period held to be justifiable. 
Robbery and a trade in slaves were as legitimate on one side as on the 
other. As far as their ideals were concerned, the opponents were 
evenly matched. It was only later on that the Western land produced 
from its own inner self a new -world, whilst the East has never since 


attained a higher pitch of excellence than that which immediately 
followed the Saracen expansion." 

The chapter on " The Successors of Heraclius to 717 A.D." by 
E. W. Brooks, M.A., King's College, Cambridge, contains several 
paragraphs on the Saracen attacks on Constantinople, And through- 
out the volume are references to the history of Islam as far as it affects 
the period covered by the book. The chapters are scholarly and well 
written, and will exercise the critical powers of the student as he comes 
into contact (or conflict !) with opinions expressed bv the wTiters. 

H. E. F. Hayes. 
The Gospel According to the Jews and Pagans. By Samuel E. 

Stokes. 16mo. ; pp. 54. London : Longmans, Green and Co. 

This book was originally published in India by the Christian 
Literature Society, and we are glad to welcome a British edition. 
It is written with only one object : to demonstrate from other than 
Christian sources that Christ was crucified under Pontius Pilate, 
and that in the first century after His death men and women of all 
ranks and nationalities worshipped Him as God and died rather than 
deny Him ; that during the first and second centuries there was 
a growing Christian community with sacred books and worship, and 
whose pure and unselfish lives were a constant marvel to those about 
them. Section I. gives the celebrated passages from Tacitus (Ann. 
XV. 44), Pliny's Letters, Lucian of Samosata in the Death of Peregrinus, 
and Josephus. The text is given in the original with English trans- 
lation in parallel columns. In Section II. the author gathers these 
facts into a woven, connected narrative, which he rightly entitles 
" The Gospel according to the Jews and Pagans." The whole volume 
is of special value to all missionaries among Moslems, and should be 
adapted and translated into Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Turkish as 
soon as possible. Although the Moslem mind does not appreciate 
historical criticism as it should, this testimony from non-Christian 
writers carries an argument which is not easily gainsaid. The testi- 
mony of Celsus the Epicurean is given in an appendix. Some of it 
might better have been given in the body of the book. We strongly 
commend this little volume for every missionary library. S. M. Z. 
The New Testament Documents : Their Origin and Early History. 

By George Milligan, D.D. Pp. 320. London : Macmillan. 

The genuineness and authority of the Bible is the one fundamental 
question in the Moslem controversy. It is well-knov/n that Moslems 
either assert the corruption of the documents which compose the 
Scriptures, or say that they have been abrogated and annulled by 
the revelation of the Koran. Every missionary, therefore, needs a 
good handbook on the subject, especially in regard to the New Testa- 
ment text, so that he may present an intelligent theory of revelation 
and inspiration over against the mechanical and impossible theory 
which the Moslem holds in regard to the Koran. We know of no book 
better adapted for this purpose than these lectures delivered in Edin- 
burgh on the Croall Foundation, in 1911. Although they cover a wide 
field and discuss many problems, the treatment is in every way 
thorough, and to those with a knowledge of Greek, fascinating. The 
outward form of the original MSS., including the material on which 
they were written and their preservation, the manner in which the 
text was inscribed, and the character of the handwriting, are discussed 


in Lecture I. The text is illuminated by the reproduction of MSS., 
which will prove specially valuable in controversy. The subsequent 
lectures deal with the language of the New Testament, its literary 
character, the date of its circulation, and the collection of the various 
documents into the canon. The appendix contains invaluable notes 
on such subjects as, for example, the close of St. Mark's Gospel, the 
Epistle of St. Peter, and the Muratorian Fragment. This is his 
conclusion on the question of the Synoptics : — 

" Let me say that from whatever point of view we regard them, 
whatever we think of their sameness in diversity, or their diversity 
in sameness, the general impression which these Gospels leave upon our 
minds is that of a harmonious whole, especially in so far as it relates 
to the Central Figure." He quotes Professor Burkitt, when he says : 
*' Morally, ethnically, spiritually, they are all on the same plane. We 
cannot doubt that the common impression which they present of the 
way in which our Lord spoke, the style of His utterance, the manner 
of His discourses to rich and poor, to learned and unlearned, is based 
on true historical reminiscence." " The remarkable tendency of the 
ablest writers to see at the back of the Gospels, writings that were 
current within twenty years of our Lord's death, is one of the most 
outstanding fruits of modern criticism." S. M. Z. 

An Examination of the Books of the New Testament (Nazara 
fi kutub al 'ahd al gadid). By Dr. Mohammed Taufiq Sidqi. 

Dr. Sidqi takes delight in controversy for controversy's sake, and 
has accordingly read widely in critical works of the West to strengthen 
himself in his attack on Christianity. This book, which is a reprint 
of several articles which have appeared in the magazine al-Mandry 
is an attempt to show the untrustworthiness of the Gospel narratives 
by arguments which, in their general trend, are familiar enough. He 
relegates them to the second century ; he denies any justification for 
the traditional authorship ; the fourth Gospel especially he condemns 
as blatantly " tendenzios " ; and Moslem-like he considers that the 
author of the third sufficiently refutes any claim on his behalf to 
inspiration by confessing to having exerted himself in the effort to 
discover the true facts. We are not in the least surprised, nor do we 
complain that an educated Moslem should try to turn to account the 
methods and results of Biblical criticism, which to him are wholly 
incompatible with belief in an inspired book. But we do complain 
of Dr. Sidqi's methods. The stage of criticism which he presents, and, 
it may be mentioned, presents as though it were largely his own 
discovery, is wholly out of date. We cannot imagine that he is 
ignorant of the existence of living scholars, but we look in vain in his 
long list of authorities for a single one who would be recognised as a 
New Testament scholar of merit to-day. He is fond of quoting 
agnostics, and claiming that among them are to be found all Europeans 
who have honestly investigated the subject. In short, he ignores the 
fact that the position he takes up is that which has been worked upon 
steadily for the last half century, with the result that the dates of the 
Gospels have been steadily and rigorously pushed back and back, 
until Hamack himself has pronounced boldly, for instance, in favour 
of the Lucan authorship of the third Gospel. 

If the first part of the book is, to say the least, disingenuous, the 
last part is far worse. Dr. Sidqi declares that, in spite of the efforts 
of the compilers of the Gospels to exalt the character and person of 
Jesus, here and there points have escaped them. We are ashamed to 


defile a printed page by repeating his statements, but it is necessary 
in order to show the character of the book. He reiterates that what 
he says is not what Moslems believe about Jesus ; to them he is a pure 
and noble prophet ; it is what the Christian books themselves say. 
We quote the two most offensive instances : — (1) From the way in 
which Jesus and his disciples frequented the house of Mary and Martha, 
it is obvious that they were women of evil repute, and that the former 
went for immoral purposes. (2) The account of Jesus throwing off 
his garment after the Last Supper shows clearly that he was intoxicated. 

We are willing to grant originaUty to Dr. Sidqi in such points, and 
are tempted to ask whether they are not reflections of a society, or at 
least of a state of mind, to which the uplifting of women, the casting 
out of devils, is unthinkable. A further sidehght is given by the 
author's admission that he was instigated by the " tu quoque " senti- 
ment. Christian writers have defamed Mohammed — may not Moslems 
attack Jesus ? Dr. Sidqi is in Government employ. What would be 
the result of a Copt in a similar position who pubHshed articles one- 
tenth so revolting to the Moslem as these are to the Christian ? 

R. F. McNeile. 
The Lord Jesus in the Koran, etc. By Rev. J. Shillidy, D.D. 
Crown 8vo. Price 8 annas. Mission Press, Surat. 

We are indebted to our Irish Presbyterian friends for this serious 
booldet. There is very much matter contained within its 142 pages. 
Dr. Shillidy has given us thirty-two pages of extracts from the Koran. 
It is interesting to note that nothing is given from the Traditions. 
That is hardly to be wondered at, for the references are very meagre, 
that of the Descent of Christ at Damascus near the White Tower, 
and the one on the Sinlessness of Christ being two of the few ; in fact, 
it is a disappointing quest to hunt through the Traditions for references 
to the Work and Person of Jesus Christ. Why is there such a dis- 
proportion between the position accorded Him in the Koran and that 
given Him in the Traditions ? Without doubt, the latter represents 
the place He finds in the actual life of the Mohammedans of to-day. 

Pages 33 to 99 contain a most valuable and informing discussion 
upon the Forerunners of Jesus, His Annunciation, His Prophetship, 
His Personality, His relation to the other prophets, etc. We strongly 
advise every missionary to Mohammedans to procure this inexpensive 
book, as there are many points taken up by the author which are 
worthy of consideration and much thought. 

The selections have marginal summaries and foot references. 
Rod well's translation has been used ; and although this is notably 
better than Sale, which is a paraphrase rather than a translation, yet 
hov/ much more helpful it would be to give an original translation from 
the Arabic. For example, on page 10 there is a quotation from Surat 
Al-Baqara, " Ruh ul-Qudsi " being translated by Rodwell " The Holy 
Spirit." This is very inadvisable, seeing that it means only " the 
spirit of holiness." It is, however, clearly shown on page 11 that it 
refers to Gabriel, for the name has been put within brackets. The 
student should consult Mylrea's pamphlet, " The Spirit in the Koran '* 
(C.L.S., India). A more striking instance is found on p. 44, where 
the author labours to explain the meaning of the phrase " a holy son," 
one of Rodwell's few misleading translations ; an easier method would 
have been to translate ghuldm zaky, once for all, " a righteous son," 
the word " zaky " coming from the same root as " Zakat " — i.e., alms- 
giving (righteous deeds). 


We might, perhaps, have advised leaving out the section from 
pp. 27 to 32, especially the quotation from " The Cave," p. 29, as it 
would seem hardly worth mentioning at all. Still, if this section calls 
the student to think, and to ask why there is no reference to Christianity 
after the Day of Pentecost, then the author will have been well repaid 
for his trouble. Dr. Shillidy has conferred a favour upon us, and we 
sincerelj^ hope to receive further research volumes from the same pen. 

A. T. Upson. 
The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman 

the Magnificent.. By Albert Howe Lybyer, Ph.D. 8vo. ; 

350 pp. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. London : 

Henry Frowde. 1913. 
Professor Lybyer's thesis constitutes Vol. XVIII. of The Harvard 
Historical Series, and will be of interest to those who wish to study 
the origins of the modern political conditions of Turkey, and the 
processes by which that remarkable state known as the Ottoman 
Empire has been built up from such apparently heterogeneous ele- 
ments as Mongols, Persians, Greeks and others. The first part of the 
treatise is concerning the history and general character of the Ottoman 
peoples before the time of Suleiman, followed by the description of the 
features introduced by " the Great Legislator " under two heads, viz. : 
" The Ottoman Ruling Institution," and " The Moslem Institution." 
The construction of a sound, efficient government out of hordes so 
widely different, all constituting one great slave family ; the deliberate 
incorporating of Christian youths, to the exclusion of others, into every 
part of the life of the Empire, to become loyal and ardent Moslems 
through an elaborate educational process, while their progeny were 
barred from participation in state affairs because they were Moslems ; 
the development of a military, political and aristocratic fibre through 
the facilities provided by such a system ; how Suleiman was able to 
show to the world the most thoroughly organized and efficient govern- 
ment in the world in the sixteenth century, but which, by its very 
rigidness, became incapable of growth and success for later years ; 
these form the substance of the first 200 pages. Twenty-five pages 
are given to the Moslem Institution, which in the chapter on the com- 
parison of the two elements of the Empire, seems to have been the 
stronger of the two. The bibhography is elaborate. The chapter 
in the Appendix on the Mogul power in India is concise and well- 
written. R. S. McClenahan. 
Adab ul Layaqa. By Mohammed Massood. 8vo. ; pp. 150. 

Cairo. 1913. 
This book comes from the pen of that elegant writer, Mohammed 
Effendi Massood, an official of the Ministry of the Interior. I must 
here say that it is essentially written for Mohammedans owing to the 
many quotations from the Koran, the hadis the author gives, as well 
as for other reasons which will be noticed later, although it is equally 
instructive to all readers, whatever their creed or nationality may be. 

The author begins his book with advice on how to walk and sit 
down, and then goes on to speak of how the well-bred man's head, 
face, eyes, ears, mouth, teeth, etc., should be taken care of, and how 
to sneeze and cough. These chapters are followed by another on hands, 
in which the author makes some very particular recommendations. 
The chapters on cleanliness and on clothes are the most important in 
the book. He recommends ladies not to go about at home in their 
worst dresses, and lose the respect of their servants and the love of 


their husbands, not to wear more than one ring on each hand and two 
bracelets on each wrist. Then follow chapters on how to behave at 
table, on how to invite friends to dine at one's house, on visiting and 
visiting-cards, etc. The writer says that Oriental manners are against 
the idea of ladies having visiting-cards, but unfortunately he does not 
explain the reason. In the chapter on conversation, he says that a 
lady should not ask a gentleman how his health is unless he is either 
old or ill, and a man should not speak to his friend of his (the friend's) 
wife, but whenever the necessity arises to repeat what the friend's 
wife had said, to remark " it was said in the harem," or "it was said 
behind the veil." Likewise, in speaking to a friend of a member of 
his family, it is right and proper to say " my master, your father," 
or " your respected uncle," or " your well-guarded mother." He 
recommends ladies and children not to speak in societj^ — perhaps from 
fear of their saying something stupid owing to their want of instruction ! 

The last chapters of the book deal with manners in discussions, with 
praising and with consulting others, and with correspondence, which 
is the closing chapter of the book. 

The author has thus dealt with the greatest part, if not all, of the 
maxims of Oriental good breeding. The book is not compiled after any 
of the existing works dealing with European good manners, for various 
reasons, of which I may mention only two : (1) Oriental manners, in 
many respects, are different from European ; and (2) in a book of this 
sort, say, in English, the author presumes that his readers are not 
entirely devoid of knowledge of how to behave themselves, except in a 
higher and consequently more refined society than that to which they 

The book is written in the author's usual style, which is both 
highly polished and vigorous, and he illustrates his maxims with 
poetry, stories of Mohammed, of Ali, of Aristotle, of Queen Marie 
Christine, of Lord Chesterfield, of Mr. Gladstone, of Arab princes and 
other notabilities. It bears on the title-page an announcement that 
the Ministry of Education has decided that it should be used for reading 
in Government schools, which is a most excellent measure to popu- 
larize good manners in the whole length and breadth of the country, 
and for which both the Mnister of Education and his Adviser are to be 
congratulated. The book is well-printed on excellent paper and sold 
at a popular price. S. Spiro Bey. 

Orient and Occident. By Manmath C. Mallik. 8vo. ; pp. 315. 
T. Fisher Unwin, London. 1913. 

The author, a cultivated Indian barrister, states his purpose in the 
preface ; it is to indicate some of the differences and agreements 
between the East and the West, and how toleration and mutual appre- 
ciation may bridge the chasm which still exists. The book is the more 
valuable because it gives the Eastern view of the West and will help 
missionaries to appreciate it. Serious charges are made as to the 
effects of British policy in India. The book does not touch 
directly on the Moslem question, but has a distinct message also for 
the nearer East. R. W. C. 

Le Calvaire de I'lslam. 336 pp. Plon-Nourit and Cie. Paris. 

Mme. A. de Rochebrume pleads with the young Turks to face their 
Calvary of internal idleness, fatalism and female isolation, and of 
external hatred and the devastation of the Bulgarian war, for the hope 
set before them of a resurrection to science, patriotism and feminism. 


A re^alistic picture of expiring Islam, with regrettable details, is painted 

about an American heroine. A. S. P. 

The Near East, Dalmatia, Greece, and Constantinople. By 

Robert Hichens. Illustrated by Jules Guerin, and with 

photographs. London : Hodder and Stoughton. 1913. 25/-. 

This book and its companion volume on the Holy Land, similarly 
illustrated, are the result of Mr. Hichens' tour in the Near East just 
before the outbreak of the Balkan War. He was, in fact, arrested in 
Athens on suspicion of being a Turkish spy. He takes us with him 
through the cities and islands of Dalmatia, so comparatively little 
known to the Enghsh traveller, and through the far better known 
regions of Greece and Constantinople. The editors of the Century 
Magazine, for whom these articles were originally written and illus- 
trated, could hardly have chosen two men more absolutely fitted for 
their task than the author of the " Garden of Allah " and Jules Guerin, 
nor two men more perfectly fitted to illustrate each other. The book 
is a riot of colour from start to finish, and the Near East is just that. 
The word painting of Mr. Hichens and the brush of M. Guerin call up 
one brilliant image after another, and if our memory of the same 
journey be correct (for we have traversed almost the same route), 
neither words nor colours exaggerate or distort. 

There is little of the incident of travel in the text, comparatively 
little of the human element ; simply a continuous kaleidoscopic 
presentation of the opalescent scene. If you want to see the Near 
East this is the book to read — not if you want to investigate her 
ethnology, her religion, or her politics. 

As his novels have already, perhaps, led us to expect, Mr. Hichens 
is the happier the nearer he approaches the real East. His Constanti- 
nople is better than his Dalmatia. But he is happiest of all when he 
approaches a desert. His descriptions of solitudes are always masterly. 

The photographs are excellent and well chosen, as are also the colour 
illustrations. Ruth Rouse. 

The Fringe of the East : A journey through Past and Present 
Provinces of Turkey. By Harry Charles Lukach. Mac- 
millan and Co. 1913. $4 net. 

The chief charge that can be brought against this book is that it 
is out of date as far as the political situation is concerned, as its author 
frankly confesses in the preface. It is a record of travels in certain 
parts of the Turkish Empire in 1908 ; and Adana massacres, the 
Constitutional Revolution, the end of the Abdul Hamed regime, the 
Italian War, and the Balkan War, have changed the whole face ot 
Near Eastern history since then. But the East remains the East, 
and Mr. Lukach 's book is mostly concerned with things that have not 
changed and do not change. He travelled through Greece and certain 
of the Greek islands, visiting the monasteries of the Levant, Jerusalem 
and other parts of Palestine and Syria, and made a most interesting 
tour more or less off the beaten track through Aleppo to the Euphrates. 
He gives a bright and most readable account of his journeyings and 
succeeds in reproducing the atmosphere of Eastern travel. He gives 
the historical, racial and religious background to present day scenes 
and incidents ; and it is quite clear that this background is the result 
of no one journey in the Near East, but of a longer stay there and much 
reading. He gives much interesting information on many interesting 
topics of which most of us are very ignorant, and our ignorance of 
which confuses most of our thinking on Eastern questions, missionary 


and otherwise. He has a wide, if not profound, knowledge of the 
different Eastern Churches and sects, and of other rehgious bodies 
in the Turkish Empire, their history and their present day position, 
and can interest you in them all. He makes you see the extraordinary 
panorama of history that is forced upon your gaze as you travel in the 
Turkish Empire — Egyptian, Hittite, Assyrian.. Hebrew, Greek, Roman, 
Byzantine, Crusading, Venetian — spread before you through their 
monuments like the geological strata in a great cliff. And he shows 
an affectionate interest in the modern Jews, Turks, infidels and heretics, 
their customs, their proverbs, their folk-lore, as well as in their roots in 
history. A genial, tolerant, chatty, interesting book, and illustrated 
with any number of good photographs. Ruth Rouse. 

Turkey in Agony. (With Complementary Notes). By Pierre 

LoTi. Translated by Bedwin Sands. 16mo. ; pp. 202. 

London : African Times and Orient Revieio. 1913. 
Turquie Agonisante, the original of this volume, consisting of brief, 
impassioned appeals in behalf of that unfortunate country, was 
written in the hope of securing for her suffering peoples French sym- 
pathy and help ; and, according to the translator, has " so gloriously 
accomplished its task," that the Ottoman Committee in London (a 
counter movement to the Balkan Committee) has issued an English 
edition, hoping for similar results in Great Britain. The letters, 
covering the period from the time of the great fire in Stambul, October, 
1911, till April, 1913, deal chiefly with the Balkan War and its attend- 
ant Christian atrocities, although Italy may see herself as the invading 
tyrant in Tripoli ; and the European Powers may discover their 
responsibility for the beginning of the Balkan War by " driving the 
Turks to extreme despair," and for its prolongation. The author 
realises that " Islam is dying out like a great sun near the hour of 
evening," and the thought brings him only sadness. Many who love 
our Moslem brothers and sisters see in this inevitable decline the hand 
of God's providence, ushering in a new and brighter day for Turkey 
and the whole Moslem world. C. B. K. 

Veiled Women. By Marmaduke Pickthall. 16mo. ; pp. 320. 

London : G. Bell and Sons. 1913. 
One more novel on the present-day impact of Western ideas on 
the world of Islam. In this case, the experiences of an English woman 
who takes upon herself the yoke of a Moslem marriage without reahsing 
the weight of its burden. Stories of harem life are told, often too 
realistically for the general reader ; and whether it is the author's 
intention or not, the book proves that Western women converted to 
Islam descend to a lower plane of indifference and stagnation than 
their Moslem sisters, perhaps because in utter forgetfulness of the past 
Hes the only hope of peace. C. B. K. 

Madagascar for Christ. London : Friends' Foreign Missionary 

Society. 1914. Price, M. net. 
During the summer of 1913 a joint deputation visit to Madagascar 
was carried out by nine leaders of the Friends' Foreign Missionary 
Society, the London Missionary Society, and the Paris Missionary 
Society, in the interests of the World Continuation Committee, and 
this record of impressions of the tour is important for those interested 
in the Malagasy Church and the stemming of the advance of Islam 
in the island in particular. The Moslem population is estimated at 
75,000, and unfortunately theirs is " anything but a pure type of 
Mohammedanism, many vices being introduced, especially drunkenness 



and immorality." A map showing the tribes in the island is in- 
eluded. E. I. M. B. 

Italy in North Africa. By W. K. McClure. Demy 8vo. ; pp. 320. 
Illustrated. London : Constable and Co. 

An interesting account of nineteen weeks with the Italian Army 
in Tripoli. A Retrospect and a Forecast. " Turldsh extortion and 
misgovernment have crushed the subject peoples, and let in the re- 
lentless desert upon the fields." The Occupation gives hope that before 
long " Italians and Arabs will be co-operating successfully in the 
revival and development of the country that now belongs to both." 

B. G. L. H. 
The Man of Egypt. By Clayton Sedgwick Cooper. 16mo. ; 
pp. 300. London : liodder and Stoughton. 1913. 

The object of this work, the author says, is "to give to the person 
who stays at home a brief unbiased idea of the commg ma^n of Egypt 
in his industrial, educational, political and religious awakenings." 
It is the first in a series to be entitled " The Coming Men." The 
author is well-known in the American Student Movement in promoting 
Bible study, and has had large experience with college men. 

In eleven brief chapters he gives us clever, appreciative, sym- 
pathetic, but sometimes rather superficial sketches of the land and 
its rulers, the people and their religious beliefs. The book has all the 
good points and some of the faults of the tourist journal. The whole 
question of the British Occupation, for example, is settled in sixteen 
pages, of which two are taken up with a list of the important per- 
sonages whom the author met ! His attitude towa,rd the coming 
man of Egypt, awakened by the new education and the disintegration 
of the old faith, is full of sympathy, and he speaks a good word for 
missions and mission schools, especially the American Mission Training 
College at Assiut, which has 825 of these coming men enrolled as 
students. The chapter on Islam is full of minor mistakes or printer's 
errors : Muzzein for muezzin ; MoJiammet ; " The Koran is the 
exclusive textbook at El Azhar " ; " Koranic Petitions ascend to 
Allah without ceasing in the name of Mohammet " ; " Historical 
allusions to the Prophet's flights." The Apostle James is not referred 
to in the Koran as stated on page 207, nor does the Koran contain the 
statem.ent : "Go, seek knowledge everywhere ; if needs be, even in 
China " (p. 240). S. M. Z. 

Mohammedanism in Malaya. By " M. D." S.P.G., London. 
1913. Id. 

This reprint from " The East and the West " presents the appeal of 
the Moslems of Malaya to the British Christian public. Without 
professing to be more than a digest of facts found in the publications 
of those with first-hand knowledge of the field, it is a pamphlet worthy 
of close attention, the more so because the Straits Settlements have 
belonged to the British Crown for close on a hundred years, and this 
portion of the Empire has remained, so far as its indigmous people are- 
concerned, entirely outside the purview of all missionary agencies. 
Considerable quotations are made from Gottfried Simon's " The 
Progress and Arrest of Islam in Sumatra," and it is to be hoped that 
readers of the pamphlet may be encouraged to study that more com- 
plete work bearing on the same subject. The steady progress and 
success of Dutch and German Missions to the Moslems of the East 
Indies is a strong incentive to the establishment of well-equipped 
British stations in the same region. E. I. M. B. 




A Missionary Survey of the year 19 13. J. H. Oldham. Inter- 
national Review of Missions. Edinburgh, January, 1914. Section 
VI. of the Survey deals with " The Moslem World " and work 
among Moslems is also treated under the headings India, China, 
Malaysia and Africa. 

Zum Achiqar. Th. Noldeke. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen GesellscJuift. 1913. P. 766. 

Zauw al-manija. A. Fischer. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 113. 

Arab, 'lata.' J. Earth. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen 
Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 494. 

Zu aran. 'lata. ' Arab. *dati.' A.Fischer. Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 692. 

'Zahir' im Marokkanischen. A. Fischer. Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 384. 

Das Ratsel des Codex Cumanicus. JuHus Nemeth. Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 577. 

Les plus anciens Monuments de I'ecriture arabe en Chine. 
Paul Pelhot avec des notes de CI. Huart et D. Ross. Journal 
Asiaiique. Paris. July-August. 1913. 

Concerning (1) the origin and rendering of two fragments of 
Chinese and Persian (in Arabic script), dating from 1217 a.d., 
photographed in Japan by the Chinese scholar Lo Tchen-yu, and 
published in 1909 in the Chinese review Chen Tcheon Kono Konang 
tsi ; (2) some Persian inscriptions of the Mongol period, discovered 
at Chantong by M. Chavannes and pubhshed in the T'oung Pao 
in 1908. 

The Moslem Idea of Truth. Rev. S. M. Zwemer, D.D. Lutheran 
Church Work. Philadelphia. January 29th, 1914. Shows the 
low ideas of truth prevalent in Moslem lands. 


Zur arabischen Archelideslegende. A. " Baumstark. Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 126. 

Recent Events in the Near East. Islamic Review. Woking. 

February, 1914. Notes of an address to the Positivist Society 
in London, by Mohammed Ali, editor of the Comrade. Acknow- 
ledges the loss of temporal power for Islam, but claims its spiritual 
mission is bv no means at an end. 


Mohammedan Advance in Africa. Rev. G. T. Manley. Church 
Missionary Gleaner. London. February, 1914. Emphasises the 
part played by the Government Karana (colom'ed official) and 
Moslem regiments in the advance of Islam. 

Peer becomes Muslim. Review of Religions. Qadian, India. 
December, 1913. Concerning the conversion of Lord Headley to 
Islam and other results of the work of K. Kamal-ud-Din, the 
editor of the Islamic Review. 


The Bible and other religious books. Rev. N. Macnicol. The 
Indian Interpreter. Poona, India. January, 1914. A com- 
parative study of the Bible, the Vedas and the Koran in particular. 

The Muslim Ideal of Life in a Nutshell. The Revieiv of Religions. 
Qadian, India. November, 1913. 

Zum Koran. Julius Welihausen. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 630. 

Finality of the Muslim Law. Abdul Haque. The Review of 
Religions. Qadian, India. November, 1913. 


Neue Fortschritte des Islam in Westafrika. Koloniale Rund- 
schau. No. XL 1913. P. 681. 

Sprichworter der Haussa. Koloniale RundscJiau. No. XL 1913. 
P. 687. 

Zur Beurteilung des Islams in Deutsch Ostafrika. Dr. F. 0. 
Karstedt. Koloniale Rundschau. No. XII. 1913. P. 728. 

The Behar University. S. Khuda Bukhsh. The Modern Review. 
Calcutta. November, 1913. Criticisms and suggestions with 
regard to the University of Dacca and the proposed degrees of 
Bachelor of Islam and Master of Islam in particular. 

The Chains of Islam. Pastor Awetaranian. Church Missionary 
Review. December, 1913. An estimate of the enslaving power 
of the Sheria. 

The Indian Moslem Outlook. H.H. the Aga Khan. The Edinburgh 
Review. January, 1914. A discussion from the Indian Moslem 
standpoint of recent articles in The Times, Professor T. W. 
Arnold's " The Preaching of Is] am," and " Moral and Material 
Progress of India : Report for 1911-12." 

A ^ruling Indian Princess on Woman in Islam. H.H. Sultan 
Jahan of Bhopal. Islamic Review. Woking. January, 1914. 
The copy of a letter to Miss de Selincourt, acknowledging the 
receipt of certain communications with regard to the education 
of women in India. 

The Perfect Religion : X. Female Seclusion. XL Polygamy. 
M. Ataur Rahman. The Review of Religions. Qadian, India. 
Dec, 1913. Jan., 1914. A defence of Moslem seclusion of 
women and polygamy based on the Koran. 

Traum und Traumbedeutung nach Abdalgani an Nabulusi. 
P. 8chwarz. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndisclien Gesell- 
schaft. 1913. P. 473. 

Tiirkische Papierausschneider. J. H. Mordtmann. Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 471. 

Die Quitte als Vorzeichen bei den Persern. A. Fischer. Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 1913. P. 




Geistige Kampfe in der Eingeborenen Bevolkerung an der Kiiste 
Ostafrikas. K. Axenfeld. Koloniale Rundschau. No. XI. 
P. 641 ; No. XII. P. 739. 1913. 

The Promised Messiah on the British Rule. Ghulam Ahmad 
Khan. The Review of Religions. October, 1913. Translation 
from the Aeena-i-Kamalat-i-Islam, of Ahmad, the Promised 
Messiah, which inculcates sincere and constant loyalty to British 
rule in India. 

After the War in the Balkans. Rev. G. D. Herrick, D.D. Mis- 
sionary Review of the World. New York. January, 1914. A 
sketch of the pohtical situation and the special opportunities for 
American educational missions to Albania and Turkey. 


A recent Tour in Albania. Rev. P. B. Kenned}^ (of Durazzo). 

Missionary Review of the World. New York. January, 1914. 
Challenging the Crescent. By " S. W. W. W." Mercy and 

Truth. London. February, 1914. Sketch of the plans for 

advance in medical mission work in Palestine, Turkish Arabia 

and Persia, under the Church Missionary Society. 
The Western Soudan : (i) The People and their Religions. 

Geo. C. Reed. The Gospel Message. Kansas City. January, 

Christianity and Islam : South and East of Lake Nyasa. Rev. 

R. H. Napier. " Life and Work." Edinburgh. March, 1914. 


Islam versus Christianity (ii.). Qazi Abdul Haque. The Review 
of Religions. Qadian, India. October, 1913. A review from 
the Moslem standpoint of Dr. Herrick's " Christian and Moham- 

Jesus in the Holy Quran (i.), (ii.). The Review of Religions. Qadian, 
India. November-December, 1913. A reply to " The Stumbling- 
Block of the Cross," by Rev. S. M. Zwemer. The Moslem 
World. April, 1913. 

Another 'Mare's Nest.' John Parkinson. Islamic Review. Wok- 
ing. January, 1914. A reply to the Rev. W. St. Clair Tisdall's 
article in The Moslem World. October, 1913. 

Islam. By the editor of The Revieio of Religions. Qadian, India. 
Islamic Review. Woldng. January, 1914. A brief exposition 
of Islam, for the free distribution of which funds have been 
provided by Babbo Mohammed Ahmadi, of Ludiana, Punjab. 

A Twice-born Turk (iii., iv., v.). Missionary Review of the World, 
New York, December, 1913. January-February, 1914. Further 
reminiscences of a converted Moslem Sheikh, translated by 
A. T. Upson. 

The Moslem World 

Vol. IV JULY, 1914 No. 3 

— :o: — 

The task of evangelizing the Moslem world is not only 
a labour of love and a duty that taxes the very patience 
of hope, but it is first and always a challenge to faith. 
And it is this chiefly, not because of the strength and 
the extent and the baffling character of the problem 
outwardly, but because of its inner character. Islam 
challenges the very beliefs that constitute the essence 
of Christianity. In preaching to Moslems, we must 
contend for the faith once for all delivered to the saints, 
or acknowledge defeat and surrender at the outset. 

Conciliation is our high privilege, but compromise 
is our chief peril. This is forcibly pointed out by 
the Bishop of Zanzibar in his recent Open Letter* : 
" I can speak only for what I see and know ; and speaking 
for this Mohammedan land, I do not hesitate to say that 
a Church that has tM^o views in its highest ranks about 
the trustworthiness of the Bible, the authority of the 
Church, and the infallibility of the Christ, has surrendered 
its chance of winning the Moslem ; for his dependence 
upon his book, his traditions, and his prophet, will be 
broken not by a debating society, but by the living, 
speaking Church of the Infallible Word Incarnate." 

A belief in the deity of our Saviour may be a mere 
matter of creed, the acceptance of a form of statement 
without personal experience, or it may be a conviction 
of the heart, a passion in one's life. In no part of the 
world's battlefield for righteousness and truth does belief 
in the deity of Jesus Christ so naturally and almost 
spontaneously turn from mere dogma into a logical 

* C/., '' Ecclesia Anglicana," 1913. p. 14. 


necessity and a great passion as when face to face with 
Mohammedan denials of the claims of our Saviour. 
The challenge of the muezzin calling out the creed of 
Islam five times daily, is to the thoughtless tourist an 
artistic pleasure, to us it is a cry of pain ; it hurts. 
In the silence of the dawn we cannot help saying softly 
that " it pleased the Father that in Jesus Christ should 
all fulness dwell " — not in Mohammed. We feel that 
" in Him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and know- 
ledge," and that the ignorant in Moslem lands have a 
right to this treasure as well as we ourselves. But 
Mohammed has taken away the key of knowledge and 
left them in darkness. The Apotheosis of the Prophet 
of Arabia in later tradition, and according to popular 
Islam in the hearts of all his followers, practically puts 
him in the same relation to believers which Jesus Christ 
holds to us. That he and not Christ is their hope hurts 
us because we love them. And Christ loves them more. 
He sees them when and because they are " yet a great 
way off." 

To those who accept this challenge of faith and this 
challenge to faith, there is a calm confidence of coming 
victory. Because nothing is impossible with God, there- 
fore we believe and expect the humanly impossible. 
God cannot possibly be unconcerned in the issue of this 
conflict. It is the eternal purpose of our God that at 
the name of Jesus every Mohammedan knee shall bow. 
It is the promise of God that the knowledge of Christ's 
glory shall cover also these Moslem lands as the waters 
cover the sea. It is the command of God that they be 
evangelized. It is the character of God to be no re- 
specter of persons or of races. On this fourfold rock of 
truth our faith rests firm. 

To every missionary that great word of Isaiah is 
more than an Old Testament prophecy ; it breathes the 
very passion of our daily prayers : " Jehovah, that is 
My name : and My glory will I not give to another, nor 
My praise to graven images." A passion for the glory 
of Christ is one of the deepest and highest motives for 
missions to Moslems. Who would not die for the honour 
of the King ? S. M. Zwemer. 




— — :o: 

The traveller to Uganda is impressed with the all but 
utter contrast between the country through which he 
passes in north-eastern Africa and the country in which 
he finds himself on the equator. The primary difference 
lies in the rainfall. This has affected the soil, and this 
in turn has influenced the people. Where the rain fails, 
the soil is of necessity hard and barren, a few only of 
the hardiest shrubs survive the scorching heat, and these 
are shrivelled and stunted. Where the rainfall on the 
equator is abundant, the- vegetation everywhere springs 
up in luxuriant prodigality, and the double harvest of each 
year calls forth little effort. The effect on the people is 
marked : each country produces its own type adapted 
to the environment in which their lives are set. 

In the one countr}^ is produced a people sunny by 
nature, good-natured and easy going ; in the other, under 
sterner conditions, is reared up a harder race inured to 

Missionary work in the two countries is no less 
dependent on its environment. In Uganda the conditions 
are in some respects singularly easy. Friendly chiefs, 
a people eager to be taught, the absence of a fixed creed, 
facilities for travel, a strong and sympathetic, if impartial, 
Government, have all combined to make the spread of 
the Gospel easy. The rainfall has been abundant, and 
the growth has been correspondingly rapid. The single 
fact that during last year alone (1913) the increase in 
the number of children in the Church schools of Uganda 
numbered 11,000, shows how rapid that growth has 
been and is. 

But the very fertility of the soil has its own obvious 


dangers : if the harvests are plenteous, no less do the 
weeds spring up with a rapidity unknown in a harder 

In the Mohammedan lands to the north-east every- 
thing is changed. A hard soil and a hard people, combined 
with a hard and dogmatic creed, have brought Christian 
missionaries face to face with a problem which must 
often leave them disheartened and weary, almost envious 
of those who are called to labour in the more fertile and 
inviting fields of the world. Where the one is hard put 
to it to harvest the vast crop that waits in every direction 
the hand of the reaper, the other thanks God for the 
isolated shoots that from time to time force their way 
up above the hard soil of indifference and contempt. 

But the balance is not wholly on one side. The 
harder conditions of life unquestionably produce the 
sterner races. There are fruits which can only be borne 
where the conditions are severe, and they are among 
the finest products of the Christian faith. That is not 
lost labour which can show no visible results here and 
now. The value of discipline is in itself no light matter : 
the value of a work in God's sight is strangely different 
from the measure of success in the eyes of the world. 
Who can tell whether in the harder mission fields of the 
world God is not training by an iron discipline His best 
workers for a work in another life, for which others who 
have only laboured under relatively easier conditions 
have never been fitted ? Not the achievement but the 
spirit in which the work is done ultimately counts. 

Yet none the less is the training a hard test, and no 
thought of future gain can wholly compensate for present 
disappointment. Failure, like success, has its manifest 
dangers. It may easily discourage and take the heart 
out of the worker, or it may harden and produce a 
temper soured and embittered ; it may depress and rob 
the life of all joy and almost of all faith in God. It is 
well for us to remember at such times that our Lord 
Himself passed through His hours of disappointment, 
and survived and triumphed. The 11th chapter of St. 
Matthew's Gospel shows something of the discouragement 
through which our Lord passed and how entirely He rose 


above it. That chapter is for all His servants in like 
circumstances a continual inspiration. 

1. He experienced discouragement. It came to Him 
from the people, for whose sake He had sanctified Him- 
self. '' We piped unto you, and ye did not dance ; we 
wailed unto you, and ye did not mourn " (chap. xi. 17). 
Nothing could touch the stolid indifference even of that 
generation : the stern asceticism of John, the gentle 
persuasiveness of a greater than John were equally 
powerless : no logic, no appeal could touch a people 
too well satisfied with what they had to be conscious 
of any deeper need. It was a hard soil. 

And discouragement came from a quarter from which 
least of all it might have been expected. The one who 
first of all had proclaimed the Messiah faltered and 
wavered, " Art Thou He that cometh, or look we for 
another ? " (chap. xi. 3). The words must have fallen 
with a chilling effect on those who heard, some of whom 
first had faith in Jesus through the preaching of John, 
and with no less a chill on the heart of Jesus. It was 
His hour of disappointment. 

The discouragement did not daunt Him. There 
is an instinctive tendency in us all when brought suddenly 
or unexpectedly up against opposition to seek a way of 
escape. To adapt the message to the environment ; to 
eliminate or smooth over those features of it that excite 
opposition ; to withdraw quietly from an inconvenient 
position and take up ground out of range of the enemies' 
guns. It is remarkable that in the moment when He 
most felt the full force of the opposition Christ hurled 
back the strongest of His denunciations : " Then began 
He to upbraid the cities in which most of His mighty 
works were done, because they repented not. Woe unto 
thee, Chorazin ... it shall be more tolerable for Tyre 
and Sidon in the day of judgment than for you " (chap. 
xi. 20-24). He never swerved from His path because 
of opposition. 

3. He was not depressed by His disappointment. 
Through the storms of seeming failure He traced the 
rainbow of Divine blessing. This discouragement was 
of God. Even in the face of it He burst out in triumphant 


praise : ''At that season Jesus answered and said, I thank 
Thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou 
didst hide these things from the wise and understanding, 
and reveal them unto babes " (chap. xi. 25). How far 
otherwise has it often been with us ! Accustomed to look 
at the things that are seen, we grow discouraged when 
these fail us. We lose heart, we blame ourselves, and 
question the rightness of ourselves or our work in the 
world, the truth of our missionary call. We go on, but 
without joy. We preach and labour, but the life has 
gone out of the work. Nothing but the clear vision of 
God, the deep consciousness of a near relationship with 
Him, can enable us in such an hour to cry : "I thank 
Thee, Father." 

4. And He was not embittered by indifference or 
opposition. It is remarkable that the tenderest, the 
sweetest of His appeals comes forth from the midst of a 
record of apparent failure : " Come unto Me, all ye that 
labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest " 
(chap. xi. 28). From the heart of one who in the midst 
of a heavy experience of ingratitude and opposition had 
gained the secret of a Divine calm, welled forth those 
words that have refreshed and revived the heart of 
uncounted thousands. And only in the furnace of 
suffering, bravely and patiently borne in His name, can 
be truly learnt that message, which from our lips shall 
go forth to strengthen and uplift those who around us 
need our help. J. J. Willis, 

Bishop of Uganda. 



— — :o: 

Charges have been made, in detail, against the com- 
panions of Baha UUah of assassinating the Azahs, the 
followers of his rival Subh-i-Azal. Most of the infor- 
mation regarding the matter is to be found in the books 
and translations of Prof. E. G. Browne, of Cambridge 
University, the greatest authority on Bahaism, at least 
in the Anglo-Saxon world. I wish to present and weigh 
the evidence in hand regarding these accusations. 

I. The first charge is that Baha UUah attem^^ted to 
poison Subh-i'Azal, his half-brother- and predecessor. 
This charge is found in the Hasht Behesht, a history of 
Babism, by Aga Sayid Javad*, a prominent Mullah of 
Kirman and a leading disciple of the Bab. The occur- 
rence took place when Azal and Baha were both at 
Adrianople under surveillance of the Turkish authorities. 
Baha, so it narrates, f ordered that there should be placed 
before him and " Azal a dish of plain food, with one side 
of which he had mixed some poison, intending to poison 
Azal. For hitherto the apportioned breakfast and supper 
had been from the house of Mirza Husain Ali (Baha 
Ullah). When that poisoned dish was placed before 
them, Baha pressed Azal to take of it. By a fortunate 
chance, the smell of onions was perceptible in the food, 
and Azal, being averse to onions, refused to taste it. 
Though urgently pressed, he refused, sajdng : ' It smells 
of onions.' Baha, supposing his evil design was suspected, 
and to disguise the truth, ate a little from the other 
(unpoisoned) side in order that Azal's suspicions might 
be dispelled and that he might eat of the poisoned side. 

* " New History," tran-^lated by Prof. Browne, p. 200, Note 4. 

t " Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society," 1892, p. 296, by Prof. 
Browne. Also " Traveller's Narrative," translated by the same 
author, p. 359. 


Now, inasmuch as the poison had to some extent diffused 
itself to the other side, it produced some shght effect 
on Baha, causing him sickness and vomiting, so that he 
summoned his physician." This account was confirmed 
by Mirza Abdul Ali, the son of Subh-i-Azal, to Prof. 
Browne, when he visited him in Cyprus in 1888.* 

The daughter of Baha, Bahiah Khanum, gives a 
contradictory account of the same affair, f She says 
that the feast was at Azal's house and that rice for both 
was served on the same plate, having been prepared in 
Azal's house. " The portion of rice intended for my 
father was flavoured with onions, of which he was very 
fond. The servant, by direction of Azal, placed this 
portion towards my father. He ate some of it, but 
fortunately not very much. He preferred the rice pre- 
pared for Azal, and ate of it. Soon after eating he 
became ill. The physician declared that he had been 
poisoned. He was so desperately ill for twenty-two days 
that the physician said he could not Hve." Mirza Abul 
Fazl, a Bahai writer, says, J " Azal sought to poison Baha 
Ullah, and attempted to do so twice, but failed to accom- 
plish his design." " He repeatedly planned to murder 
Baha." Baha himself alludes to these events in the 
Sura-i-Haykal. § "My brother warred with me. He 
desired to drink my blood. He took counsel with one 
of my attendants tempting him unto this. We went 
out from among them and dwelt in another house. 
Neither did we see him afterwards." 

Thus we have brother against brother, each accusing 
the other of attempting fratricide. How shall we settle 
the question of veracity ? Mr. Phelps makes a plea for 
Baha, but his words lack foundation. He says that 
Azal's story "is a transparent fabrication because it 
assumes an impossible ignorance on the part of Baha 
Ullah that Azal disliked onions, as well as the impossible 

* " Traveller's Narrative," p. 369. 

t Phelps. " Life of Abbas Effendi," pp. 40-44. 

t " Brilliant Proof," p. 11. 

Chicago Edition," pp. 20-23 ; and " Traveller's Narrative,'* pp. 

.*^ " 

368, 69. 


hypothesis that Baha Ullah would knowingly partake 
of food in which poison had been placed." But neither 
of these " impossible " things are a part of the story. 
The first objection can only be taken, if at all, to Prof. 
Browne's abridged account in the " Traveller's Narra- 
tive," and not to the original in " Hasht Behesht," which 
distinctly states that onions had communicated their 
flavour to the other side of the platter, contrary to 
intention ; and, secondly, Baha supposed when he ate 
(according to the " Hasht Behesht " account) that the 
poison had not communicated itself to his side of the 
platter of rice. Those familiar with Persian pillau, or 
boiled rice, in which each grain is separate and dry, will 
see that it would ordinarily be quite possible to put 
onions and poison on opposite sides of the platter without 
either reaching the other side. Each man would help 
himself, according to Persian custom, from the side of 
the dish next to him. Moreover, it was customary to 
prepare the food for Azal in the kitchen of Baha.* Up 
to the time of the incident they had both continued to 
live in the same house. This is evident from Baha's 
words in the " Sura-i-Haykal," where he says, " We 
went out, dwelt in another house, 7ieither did we see him 
afterwards y This agrees with the " Hasht Behesht." 
In this and several other particulars the narrative of 
Bahiah Khanum is defective or misleading. Mr. Phelps' 
plea, on account of the character of the Bahais, begs the 
question. This charge and subsequent ones to be dis- 
cussed, involve the integrity of Baha's character and that 
of his immediate disciples. The history shows no more 
reason to believe Baha than to believe Azal, but rather 

2. The next charge of the Azalis is as followsf : — 
*' Shortly after this, another plot was laid against Subh- 
i-Azal's life, and it was arranged that Mohammed Ali, 
the barber, should cut his {AzaFs) throat while shaving 
him in the bath. On the approach of the barber, how- 
ever, Subh-i-Azal divined his design, refused to allow 
him to come near, and, on leaving the bath, instantly 

* Phelps, idem, p. 40. t " Traveller's Narrative," p. 359. 


took another lodging, and separated himself entirely 
from Mirza Husain Ali and his followers." 

On the Bahai side, Bahiah Khanum says,* " One 
day in the bath Azal asked the servant (of Baha) 
' whether it would not be easy for an attendant who 
was not faithful to Baha to make away with him while 
shaving him.' The servant replied that this was certainly 
the case. Azal then asked whether, if God should lay 
upon him the command to do this, he would obey it ? 
The servant understood this to be the suggestion of such 
a command, and was so terrified by it that he rushed 
screaming from the room. This occurrence was ignored 
by my father, and our relations with Azal continued to 
be cordial." 

Here we have two stories in direct contradiction to 
each other. It may be observed that the attendant or 
barber, who was that day serving Azal in the bath, as 
is agreed by both parties, was a partisan of Baha,f 
without doubt the same barber, Mohammed Ali, Avho 
subsequently murdered the Azalis,f and who was decor- 
ated by Baha with the title Dallak-i-Hakikat,§ " The 
Barber of the Truth." It was much more natural that 
Azal should be suspicious of him than try to tempt him 
to kill Baha. 

In either case, what do we see ? Behold, these two 
" Manifestations of God " accusing each other of at- 
tempting assassination. They were brothers, both emin- 
ent disciples of the Bab, the " Point of Divinity " of 
the " new Revelation," both " revealers of inspired 
verses." The heart of each was full of hatred and envy 
and of desire to over-reach the other. Neither is worthy 
of credence, both being steeped in Persian deception 
from childhood. Possibly, at that time, each was ready 
to compass the death of the other. The subsequent 
history, however, casts back its reflection upon the 
murder-plots at Adrianople, and in its lurid light the 
character of the Bahais grows darker. As a consequence, 
the charges of the Azalis against the Bahais become 
probable and are easily accepted. 

* Phelps, p. 39. t Idem, p. 38. 

t "Traveller's Narrative," p. 361. § Idem, p. 362. 


3. The 'proved assassination of Azalis by Bahais at 
Acca, The quarrels and plots at Adrianople led to 
complaints of each party against the other before the 
Osmanli Government. For the sake of peace and safety 
they were separated. Azal was sent as a prisoner- 
pensioner to Famagusta, Cyprus. Baha was removed 
to Acca, Syria. The " Hasht Behesht " says* : " With 
the latter were his family, about eighty of his adherents, 
and four of Subh-i-Azal's followers, to wit, Haji Sayid 
Moham^med of Ispahan, Aga Jan Bey, Mirza Riza Kuli 
of Tafrish, and his brother Aga Mirza Nasrullah." 

These Azalis were murdered by the Bahais in Acca. 
Of this crime there are many who give testimony, (a) The 
" Hasht Behesht " saysf : " Before the transfer was 
actually effected, however, Mirza Nasrullah was poisoned 
by Baha, at Adrianople. The other Azalis were assas- 
sinated shortly after their arrival at Acca, in a house 
which they occupied near the barracks, the assassins 
being Abdul Karim, Mohammed the barber, Husain the 
water-carrier, and Mohammed Javad of Kasvin " (all 
attaches of Baha). 

(6) Subh-i-Azal independently confirmed this account 
in conversation with Prof. Browne. J 

(c) Bahai testimony also confirms it. Prof. Browne 
heard the story at Kirman from Sheikh Ibrahim, a Bahai, 
who had suffered imprisonment and torture for the faith, 
and who had seen some of the perpetrators while on a 
pilgrimage to Acca. He said,§ " The Babis were divided 
into two factions. So high did feeling run that the 
matter ended in open strife, and two Azalis and one 
Bahai were killed," at Adrianople. " The Turkish 
Government sent seven || Azalis to Acca with Baha. 
They — Aga Jan, called Kaj-Kulah, Haji Sayid Moham- 
med of Ispahan, one of the original companions of the 
Bab, Mirza Riza, a nephew of the last, Mirza Haydar 
Ali of Ardistan, Haji Sayid Husain of Kashan, and two 
others whose names I forget — lived all together in a 

* " Traveller's Narrative," p. 361. f Wem, p. 361. 

t Idem, p. 371. § " A Year Among the Persians," pp. 513-517. 

II Possibly he counts those who afterwards left their allegiance to 


house situated near the gate of the city. Well, one night 
about a month after their arrival at Acca, twelve Bahais 
(nine of whom were still living when I was at Acca) 
determined to kill them and so prevent them from doing 
any mischief. So they went at night, armed with 
swords and daggers, to the house where the Azalis lodged, 
and knocked at the door. Aga Jan came down to open 
to them, and was stabbed before he could cry out or offer 
the least resistance. Then they entered the house and 
killed the other six." In consequence, " the Turks 
imprisoned Baha and all his family and followers in the 
caravanserai, but the twelve assassins came forward 
and surrendered themselves, saying, ' We killed them 
without the knowledge of our Master or of any of the 
brethren. Punish us, not them.' So they were im- 
prisoned for a while ; but afterwards, at the intercession 
of Abbas Effendi (Abdul Baha), were suffered to be at 
large, on condition of remaining at Acca and wearing 
still fetters on their ankles for a time." 

(d) Mr. Lawrence Oliphant gives an account of the 
Bahais at Acca in his " Haifa, or Life in Modern Pales- 
tine."* He substantiates the account of the assassina- 
tions, and narrates how Baha Ullah was called before 
the Osmanli Court to answer on the charge of complicity 
in them. He further states that after one session, Baha 
" purchased an exemption from further attendance at 
court, with an enormous hribe,^^ 

(e) The defence, unable to escape the force of the 
damaging testimony or to deny the facts against such 
testimony, can only offer some excuses in extenuation. 
Bahiah Khanumf reduces the number of Bahais who 
made the attack on the Azalis to three, asserts that 
their intention was to threaten death and frighten but 
not to kill them, that but two Azalis were killed and 
also one of the Bahais, that the provocation was that 
the Azalis had slandered Baha Ullah, forged letters in 
his name, which incited the Government against him 
and were threatening to kill him, and further that Baha 

* " Haifa, etc.", p. 107 ; " Traveller's Narrative," p. 370. 
t Phelps, p. 75. 


was not cognisant of their intention. But Prof. Browne 
shows that Baha regarded the murder with some com- 
placency at least,* and refers to it in the Kitab-ul-Akdas,. 
saying, " God hath taken away him who led you astray," 
viz. : Haji Sayid Mohammed, one of the murdered men, 
who was AzaFs chief supporter. He also confirms the 
fact that Abbas Effendi interceded for the murderers 
and secured their freedom from adequate punishment. 
Just as Brigham Youngf condoned and secured immunity 
from punishment, if he did not justify or instigate the 
crimes of his sect, Bahiah Khanum herself shows us that 
the murderers acted for the religion, and not from any 
private or personal motives ; in other words, committed 
" religious assassination," after the traditional oriental 

4. Various and sundry other assassinations for the faith. 
According to the i^zali historian, these murders were 
followed by many others. Certain disciples separated 
themselves from Baha. Of these some fled from Acca,J 
" but the Khayyat Bashi (chief tailor) and Haji Ibrahim 
were assassinated in the caravanserai of the corn-sellers 
and buried in quicklime under the platform. Another, 
Haji Jaffar, importunately pressed his claim for a debt of 
1,200 pounds which Baha owed him. (I wonder whether 
it was incurred to meet the ' enormous bribe.'). There- 
upon Baha's amanuensis, " Mirza Aga Jan Kashani 
instructed a disciple, Ali of Kasvin, to slay the old man 
and throw his body out of the window of the upper room 
which he occupied in the caravanserai." It was then 
reported, " that he had cast himself out and died, yielding 
up his life to the Beloved." " All the prominent sup- 
porters of Subh-i-Azal, who withstood Baha, were marked 
out for death, § and in Bagdad, Mullah Rajab Ali Kahir 

* " Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1889," p. 519 ; " Traveller's 
Narrative," pp. 94, 370. 

t " Brigham Young," by Cannon, p. 271. " Brigham failed to 
punish or even condemn those criminals who served him too well." 

X " Traveller's Narrative," p. 362. 

§ " Traveller's Narrative," p. 359. " Journal Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1889," p. 519 ; 1892, pp. 995-96. 


and his brother Haji Mirza Ahmad, Haji Mirza Moham- 
med Riza and several others fell one by one by the knife 
or the bullet of the assassin." The following others are 
specified with the place and name of the assassin,* " Aga 
Sayid Ali the Arab, one of the original ' Letters of the 
Living,' was killed in Tabriz by Mirza Mustapha of Nirak ; 
and Aga Ali Mohammed by Abdul Karim ; Haji Aga of 
Tabriz met a like fate, as did Haji Mirza Ahmad, the 
brother of the historian Haji Mirza Jani.*}* Another, 
whose faith had grown cold, was Aga Mohammed Ali of 
Ispahan, who was residing at Constantinople. J Mirza 
Abul Kasim was sent from Acca with instructions to 
'' bleed that block of heedlessness whose blood is in 
excess." He robbed his victim of £350, with part of 
which he bought and sent goods to Acca. Another 
instance was Mirza Asad Ullah " Deyyan," who claimed 
to be a " Manifestation. "§ " Mirza Husain AH (Baha), 
after a protracted discussion with him, instructed his 
servant, Mirza Mohammed of Mezanderan, to slay him, 
which was accordingly done." Count Gobineau confirms 
this Concerning these crimes we have also the 
independent testimon}^ of Subh-i-Azal, who mentioned 
most of these instances by name and added several others. 
Azal said to Capt. Young, a British officer in Cyprus,^[ 
*' About twenty of my followers were killed by the 
Bahais." He confirmed it in an autograph letter to 
Prof. Browne, saying, " The}^ (i.e., the Bahais) un- 
sheathed the sword of hatred and wrought what they 
would. They cruelly put to death the remnant of my 
friends who stood firm." In the " New History "** 
Prof. Browne names over the list of those assassinated, 
and adds, " Of the more prominent Azalis, Sa^dd Javad, 
of Kerbela (or Kirman), seems to have been almost the 
only one who long survived what the Azalis call ' The 
direful Disorder.' " In Kirman, Prof. Browne said to 

* " Traveller's Narrative," p. 363. 

t Idem, p. 332. Also " New History," p. 391. 

J " Traveller's Narrative," p. 363. § Idem, pp. 357, 365. 

II " Religions et Philosophies dans I'Asie Centrale," pp. 277-278. 

1[ " Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1889," p. 996. ** P. xxiii. 


the Bahais,* " From a statement of one of your own 
party, it appears that your friends at Acca, who complain 
so much of the bigotry, intolerance and ferocious antag- 
onism of the Mohammedans, and who are always talking 
about ' consorting with men of every faith with spiritu- 
ality and fragrance,' could find no better argument than 
the dagger of the assassin wherewith to convince the 
unfortunate Azalis." 

5. The conduct of the primitive Babis and their 
leaders, and their attitude towards the talcing of life, has a 
bearing on the question of the conduct of the Bahais, 
for up to the time of the residence at Adrianople they 
were identical. The history of the Babis is a bloody one. 
The " first blood-shed which took place in Persia (in 
connection with the Babi movement) was the murder 
of a Shiah Mujtihid by one or more Babis." It was a 
" religious assassination." The circumstances were as 
follows,"!* When the Bab, as captive, passed through 
Kasvin, en route for Maku, he wrote a letter asking 
succour from Haji Mohammed Taki, an orthodox 
Mujtihid, who was the father-in-law of the celebrated 
Kurrat-ul-Ayn. " The Haji tore the letter into frag- 
ments, and made some unseemly remarks." When this 
was reported to the Bab, he said, " Was there no one to 
smite him on the mouth ? " The Bahai historian (1880) 
continues, " Wherefore the Lord brought it to pass that 
he was smitten in the mouth with a spear head that he 
might no more speak insolently." Shortly afterwards a 
certain Babi,t named Salih, hearing the Mujtihid curse 
and revile Sheikh Ahmad, the teacher of the Bab, entered 
the mosque and slew him at the pulpit. The Bahai 
historian continues, " This was the consequence of the 
Haji's conduct to the Bab, and agreeable to the tradition 

* " A Year Among the Persians," p. 530. 

t " New History," pp. 274, 75 ; " Traveller's Narrative," pp. 311, 
198, 99 

% The Kasas-ul-Ulema, the Shiah history, says, " Certain Babis, 
stung by his words, fell upon him early one morning as he was praying 
in the mosque, and with knives and daggers inflicted on him eight 
wounds from which he died two days later." — " Traveller's Narrative," 
p. 198. 


of the Imams, ' whosoever curseth us ... is an infidel," 
and so he deemed it incumbent on himself to slay him." 

A variation of this story is found in a work by an 
American Bahai, Mary H. Ford, called " The Oriental 
Rose."* She narrates that Kurrat-ul-Ayn heard the 
Mujtihid cursing the Bab, and gazing upon him she 
exclaimed, " How unfortunate you are ! For I see your 
mouth filled with blood ! " " The following morning, as 
he was crossing the threshold of the mosque, he was 
struck upon the mouth by the lance of a hidden assailant. 
The attack was followed up by five or six other assassins, 
who beat the life out of his mangled body." " The 
strange insight of Kurrat ul-Ayn had foreseen it." " The 
assassination removed a serious obstacle from her 

From these narratives, both from the pens of 
'* Friends," it is evident that the Bab and Kurrat-ul-Ayn 
each spoke words which were direct instigations and 
incitements to their fanatical followers to commit 
murder. The chief murderer fled and " joined himself 
to the people of God " at Sheikh Tabarsi. Disregarding 
his crime, they welcomed him to their ranks as a " follower 
of God, and he attained to martyrdom. f 

We can admire the courage and devotion of the Babis, 
but certainly their hatred and fanaticism carry them on 
to retaliation and revenge which are far from pure 
religion. Witness their deeds ! Farrukh Khan, a pris- 
oner of war, was first skinned alive and then roasted, J 
and twenty-two prisoners of war were put to death at 
the same time, at Zarjan. At Sheikh Tabarsi, by order 
of Janab-i-Kuddus, His Excellency the Holy, the enemies 
slain in battle were decapitated and their heads set on 
posts around the ramparts.§ 

The attempt to assassinate Nasr-i-Din Shah (1852) 
showKS also the murderous spirit of the Babis. From 
seven to twelve || Babis were engaged in the plot, and 

* Pp. 61, 62. t " New History,'^ pp. 278 and 82. 

J Idem, p. 115 and note, p. 411. 

§ " New History," p. 73. " Traveller's Narrative," p. 178. 

jl Idem, p. 323. 


four of them started out to take part in the assault. It 
was not, as is commonly represented by Bahais, the act 
of an unbalanced, weak-minded individual, but the 
revengeful plot of a number. The spirit of vengeance was 
very strong within them. Of this we have a witness 
from a very unexpected quarter, namely, the celebrated 
Bahai apologist, Mirza Abul Fazl. He writes,* " Numer- 
ous historical and tangible evidences can be furnished 
to prove that it was the pen of Baha UUah which pro- 
tected from death his own enemies, such as Subh-i-Azal, 
Nasr-i-Din Shah and certain great doctors and divines. 
Otherwise the Babis would not have allowed a single one 
of these people to have escaped alive,'''' He certainly must 
include Bahais, for the Babis would not have desired to 
kill Sabh-i-Azal. 

6. But the assertion of M. Abul Fazl, that Baha was 
as the " Prince of Peace " among a lot of untrained, 
untamed disciples, will not stand investigation. For 
Baha's history shows the contrary. Baha, together with 
Azal, started for and tried to join the army at Tabarsi,f 
and was absent from participation in its sanguinary 
conflict, solely because his arrest by the Persian authori- 
ties at Amul prevented him from reaching the fort. 
After his release he fell under suspicion becausej he 
" not improbably harboured designs of setting up a 
standard of revolt on his own account." He was, there- 
fore, rearrested and sent to the capital. One of Baha's 
Tablets §is a paean of exultation on the occasion of the 
death of Fuad Pasha, the vizier, who exiled him. He 
rejoicingly celebrates his death and consigns him to Hell, 
where the heart boils and the tormenting angel melts 
him and taunts him, saying, " This is Hell, which thou 
wert wont to deny night and day." Baha also commends 
suicide for his sake. It is narrated by Abdul Baha || 
that rather than be separated in exile from Baha, " Haji 
Jafar was moved to lamentation, and with his own hand 

♦ " The Brilliant Proof," p. 11. 

t " New History," pp. 378, 79. % Idem, 378-380. 

§ " Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1892," p. 271. 

li " Traveller's Narrative," pp. 100-101 


cut his throat." Baha, in the Lawh-i-Raiz, alluded to 
this event, saying, " One from amongst the Friends 
sacrificed himself for myself and cut his throat with his 
onm hand for the love of God. This is such that we have 
not heard from former ages. This is that which God 
hath set apart for this dispensation." Another disciple 
attempted suicide about the same time.* 

These instances are cited as proofs of the truth of the 
religion, by M. Mohammed Husain Shirazi, who says,f 
*' More faithful and devoted (than the early Christians), 
some martyrs of our day have killed themselves with 
their own hands out of devotion to their Lord Baha." 
Again Baha sent Badi, the messenger, to the Shah, with 
the " Epistle " from Acca, assuring him beforehand that 
he was going to death. The letter could easily have been 
sent through one of the foreign consulates without 
sacrifice of life. 

7. Psychological attestation of the accusation against 
the Bahais, of assassination, is seen in their doctrine of 
the power and prerogative of the " Manifestation," and 
the inference made by the Bahais from that doctrine. 
This is set forth in the Tablet of Ishrakat,J " Verily He 
(Baha) hath come from the Heaven of the Unseen, and 
with Him the standard of ' He doeth whatsoever He 
willeth,' and the hosts of power and authority. As to all 
else save Him : It is incumbent upon them to cling 
unto that which he hath commanded." " Woe unto 
those who denied and turned away from Him." " The 
Most Great Infallibility " is applied only to one (the 
Manifestation), whose station is sanctified above com- 
mands or prohibitions. He is proof against error. Verily 
if he declares heaven to be earth, right to be left, or south 
to be north, it is true, and there is no doubt of it." " No 
one has a right to oppose him, or to say, ' Why or where- 
fore ' ; and he who disputes Him is verily of the op- 
posers." " He doeth whatsoever he willeth, and 
commandeth whatsoever he desireth." 

In like manner Abdul Baha states the authority of 

* Phelps, p. 50. t " Facts for Behaists," p. 42. 

% " Chicago Edition, 1908," pp. 11-14. 


the Manifestation,* " He is not under the shadow of the 
former laws. Whatever he performs is an upright action. 
No behever has any right to criticise." " If some people 
do not understand the hidden secret of one of his com- 
mands or actions, they ought not to oppose it." 

These principles are boldly interpreted and applied 
by the Bahais to the subject under discussion. Sayid 
Kamil, a Bahai of Shiraz, said to Prof. Brownef with a 
look of supreme surprise, " You surely cannot pretend 
to deny that a prophet, who is an incarnation of the 
Universal Intelligence, has a right to inflict death, openly 
or secretly, on those who stubbornly opposed him. A 
prophet is no more to be blamed for removing an obdurate 
opponent than a surgeon for an amputation of a gangren- 
ous limb." This opinion prevailed among the Bahais. 
At Yezd they said,{ " A divine messenger has as much 
right to kill and compel as a surgeon to amputate." 
The Bahai Missionaries maintained § that, " A prophet 
has a right to slay if he knows it necessary ; if he sees 
that the slaughter of a few will prevent many from going 
astray, he is justified in commanding such slaughter. 
No one can question his right to destroy the bodies of a 
few that the souls of many may live." A Bahai acquaint- 
ance of Dr. Frame, of Resht, told him|| " without any 
appearance of shame, that he paid so much to have a 
persecutor removed." 

8. In connection with all the above facts, it must be 
kept in mind that " religious assassination has been freely 
"practised since the beginning of Islam, and that the 
prophet Mohammed gave it the sanction of his example 
on numerous occasions." Prof. Browne,^ who thus 
emphasises this fact, and gives instances from the 
Moslem biographies of Mohammed, points out its bearing 
on our judgment regarding the assassinations alleged 

* "Answered Questions," by Barney, pp. 199-201. 

t " Traveller's Narrative," p. 372. " A Year in Persia," p. 328. 

X Idem, p. 406. § Idem, p. 306. 

II " Moslem World," 1912, p. 237. 

If " Traveller's Narrative," pp. 371-73. 


against the Bahais, and concludes, " In Asia a different 
standard of morality prevails in this matter." Certain 
facts regarding the Imams revealed in the dark annals of 
Islam, show what historical precedents the Babis and 
Bahais had back of them. Consider the deaths of the 
twelve Imams. Ali was ^assassinated with a dagger, 
Husain killed after battle, nine other Imams were 
poisoned, and the last one mysteriously disappeared. 

To sum up. Our investigation has led to the con- 
clusion that the Bahais were guilty of these assassinations 
as charged. The evidence is circumstantial, with names 
and places. Some of the witnesses are still living. Some 
have given their testimony in writing, some in conver- 
sation with Europeans, who have reported it accurately 
to the world. The environment in which they lived, and 
the historical and theological traditions on which they 
fed, strengthen the direct proofs. 

The answer to these charges by Mirza Abul Fazl in 
his " Brilliant Proof "f is, that we should hear both sides, 
and that it is not right to accept the witness of enemies 
against the Bahais, which is as that of Protestants against 
the Catholics and vice-versa. Our reply is, that both sides 
have been heard, and examined, and that some of the 
most damaging testimony is from Bahais themselves. 
It should be noted that the testimony is altogether from 
the followers of the Bab, of various kinds and not from 
Moslem writers. Mr. Phelps, like many Bahai writers, 
would ignore the charges. He says, J " I do not think 
that it would be time well employed to advert to them in 
detail. "He pronounces them " incredible " and " flatly 
in contradiction to the spirit, lives and teachings of Baha 
UUah and his successor," and destined " quickl}^ to fade 
away and be forgotten, if left to themselves." No 
indeed ! Lovers of truth will not overlook and forget 
such a record. They will judge Bahais by their deeds, 
not by their professions. 

* " Traveller's Narrative," p. 296. 

t A Reply to Rev. P. Z. Easton's article iii the " Evangelical 

% " Life of Abbas Efs," p. 43. 


The conclusions of Prof. Browne, who was undoubt- 
edly a favourably-incHned judge, who investigated 
impartial^ and heard the testimony on both sides, has 
the greatest weight in determining the judgment of the 
world. In the " Traveller's Narrative," his first volume 
on Babism and Bahaism, he states that it is only with 
great reluctance and solely in the interest of truth, that 
he sets down these grave accusations against the Bahais, 
and adds,* " If they are true, of what use are the noblest 
and most humane utterances, if they are associated with 
such deeds ? If they are false, further investigation will, 
without doubt, conclusively prove their falsity." In the 
" New History," which was published two years later, 
after further investigation and calm deliberation, he 
wrote,f " At first not a few prominent Babis, including 
even several ' Letters of the Living ' and personal friends 
of the Bab, adhered faithfully to Subh-i-Azal. One by 
one these disappeared, most of them as, I fear, cannot 
he doubted, by foul play on the part of too zealous Bahais. ^^ 

Other defects in morals, the proofs of which I hope to 
present in a future paper, will add to the conviction that 
Bahaism stands condemned by the law : " By their fruits 
ye shall know them." 

S. G. Wilson. 

* P. 364. 

I " New History," p. xxiii. 



Islam, as a religion, offers great inducements in honour 
and wealth to those who embrace it ; the prophet himself 
was wont to make large distribution of the spoils of war 
to his followers, especially distinguishing new believers 
and enemies who had submitted to him. 

A mullah, who had been the means of converting an 
Armenian to the faith, promised him his daughter in 
marriage and a certain sum of mone}^ ; failing to fulfil 
his obligations, he presented the young man with a 
certificate on which he was entitled to collect money 
from the faithful. 

Theoretically, a convert is entitled to claim all the 
property of his unconverted relatives ; practically, in 
countries where this claim can be enforced, it is the cause 
of great hardship to Christians, whose enemies in their 
own families sometimes take this mode of revenge on 
them, becoming Moslems to despoil them of their posses- 

In a purely Moslem country, governed by Moslem 
law, the man who forsakes Islam is liable to the loss of 
everything, even life itself. There are those who have 
thus suffered, even unto death. This circumstance suffi- 
ciently explains the necessity under which converts 
labour of receiving help from some direction ; many are 
the experiences which are yet unrecorded in our books, 
of help in strange and wonderful ways, and from un- 
expected quarters. 

The man, not yet entirely freed from the ideas 
imbibed from his former rehgion, is not altogether to 
blame, if he cherishes the hope of some material advant- 
age to be gained from the profession of Christianity. It 
may be sometime before he understands fully the re- 
quirements of the Saviour in the tenth chapter of 


Matthew, and His message to Paul : "I will show him 
how great things he must suffer for my sake." 

The missionary must be prepared for many counterfeit 
inquiries, such as those who tell us if we will send them 
to a foreign country and provide them with a good income, 
they will rejoice to become Christians. One such asked, 
*' What do you offer me ? " On hearing the inducements 
were reconciliation, peace with God, a Heavenly Father's 
love, deliverance from sin in this life, and in the next 
eternal life, he exclaimed, " What nonsense ! I want a 
horse and a hundred dollars." A very fluent talker and 
expounder of Scripture was extremely urgent in his 
desire for baptism, and could hardly be put off. When 
his baptism was delayed, he became a Bahai. Being 
asked his reasons, he replied, " I believe in Christianity 
and much prefer to be a Christian, but you did nothing 
for me. The Bahais bought me carpets and a tea urn, 
so I can open a tea shop ; they found a husband for my 
daughter and a wife for my son. That was something 
worth while." 

These are extreme cases ; even among them some are 
found, who coming at first for the loaves and fishes, find 
a real change and become willing to bear privation and 
persecution for Christ's sake. While we weed out the 
tares, we should desire to run no risk of rooting up the 
wheat with them. But how can we help wisely, es- 
pecially in pecuniary matters ? On the one hand, we 
wish carefully to avoid teaching them to put their trust 
in us. It is quite impossible for us to play Providence 
to them, though it is a great temptation in all our mis- 
sionary work to make the attempt. That road is strewn 
with the wrecks of disastrous failure and bitter with the 
memory of, on the one side disappointed expectations, 
and on the other what we register as ingratitude and 
rapacity, all arising from our undertaking to do what is 
not our work. 

In reading and hearing the experiences of converts 
from Islam, Judaism, heathenism and other false faiths, 
have you not been often struck with the way in which, 
being shut up to God only, far from any human help or 
encouragement, they have been triumphantly delivered 


and provided for, even though they had come to the 
very end of all possible resources ? How strong is the 
faith of such men in a God who loved and did not forsake 
them ! How they love to tell the story and give all the 
praise to Him ! 

We can tell from personal knowledge of many such 
cases, and so can almost every missionary. One such 
man, stranded in a strange city, penniless and helpless, 
enduring the extreme of bodily privation, daily sought 
the Protestant Armenian pastor, as the only one able to 
help him. Having learned Armenian, he spoke that 
language with such proficiency that the pastor was 
convinced he was an impostor of his own race, who had 
trumped up a story of being a converted Moslem, to 
exploit the Christians of that city. The poor man, 
almost in despair and ready to perish, put his hope in 
God. Going to the Sunday morning service, a missionary 
traveller was there, to whom the pastor said, " Do you 
see this lying Armenian, who is trying to make me think 
he is a converted Moslem, so as to be helped by us ? " 
The traveller promptly responded, " This is no Armenian ; 
every word of his story is true ; he is my own pupil and 
I can vouch for him as a faithful brother." After that 
all was easy ; the sceptical pastor received the convert 
with joy, baptizing him with his own hands. That 
convert is now well-known in the Church from his faithful 
service of many years ; he still blesses God, who at just 
the right moment brought just the right man to testify 
in his behalf. 

Every genuine Christian must in some way be tried ; 
we cannot shield our Moslem brethren from the test of 
faith, even if we would. A friend who many years ago 
renounced Islam, hearing of a profession of conversion, 
always asks, " Has he suffered anything for Christ ? 
Till he does, we cannot be sure that he is genuine." 

What, then, is the truest service we can render to the 
inquirer and convert from Islam ? Is it not to impress 
upon him, by our words and example, the faith in God 
alone, and the thorough dependence on Christ as an 
ever-present, loving Shepherd, which will glorify God 
and not man ? Can we help him to learn to fix his eye 


upon Jesus alone, and to take comfort in the Lord's 
privations and sorrows ? Can we instruct him to wait 
on God ? Can we have the courage and faith to do it 
ourselves ? Can we be sure God loves him with an 
everlasting love, that he is just as precious in the eyes 
of his Lord as we are, that there is a plan for his life, 
to be divinely worked out, and that God will fulfil all 
His promises to him, without our human help, unless it 
is in the plan for Him to use it ? Can we show him how 
to depend on an unseen God, a Lover and Friend, his 
Lover and his Friend ? Instead of dipping out a little 
cup of water for his thirst, from our own supply, can we 
take him to the fountain and assure him it is as full and 
free for him as for us ? All the resources of Infinity are 
at his disposal. Can we show him we believe it, and 
that he can safely venture on that unknown, untried 
deep ? Have we the courage to teach " the doctrine " 
and tell the inquirer or convert that he " must through 
much tribulation enter the Kingdom of God ? " Was 
that only for Paul and Asia Minor ? In that long ago 
time, the teachers also suffered much tribulation with 
the converts. Are we prepared to do the same ? What 
is the real comfort and help which we must give them ? 
First, certainly, unfeigned love, sympathy, prayer, wise 
counsel and untiring patience ; in a word, ourselves, or, 
rather, Christ in us, for whence are we to obtain these 
gifts, but by direct communication with the fountain 
and source of '' all good gifts, Who giveth liberally and 
upbraideth not ? " 

When at our wits' end, with regard to a " case," can 
we say frankly, " I do not know what to do, but our 
God does." Some years ago a merchant in Chicago, 
converted from Romanism, was in danger of financial 
ruin from a brother with whom he was in partnership, 
who was incensed at his change of faith and life. In his 
distress he went to the Christian minister whose preaching 
had led him to Christ, and told him all his troubles. The 
pastor said, " Silver and gold have I none, but we have 
prayer, and the promises ; we will take the case to our 
Father." The loving fervent prayers of that hour 
brought new hope and comfort to the sorely tried man ; 


he received light and guidance, was enabled to extricate 
himself from the partnership without loss, and to start 
a prosperous business of his own in a strictly honourable 
way. More than all, he learned to go to God for himself 
and find Him a very present help in trouble, near to all 
that call upon Him. 

Often, no doubt, our Father does mean us to be 
instruments in helping the needy and persecuted in 
material ways ; he casts them on us to try our faith and 
love to Himself and them. Let us wait also on God for 
guidance as to when and how that help is to be given. 

It is a great temptation to put a convert on a salary 
in order to provide for him, trusting that somehow it will 
all come out right, whether he is fitted for the situation 
and capable of discharging its duties or not. We have 
no records of salaries in the early church, in which money 
seems to have been quite a secondary consideration, but 
there must have been some inducements in favour of 
putting novices in positions of honour, as Timothy is 
expressly warned against it. Many sad mistakes are 
made in this direction, where the novice has not himself 
had sufficient instruction and experience, and where his 
life fails to answer to his profession. 

Sometimes we are constrained to believe that the call 
of a man to Christian work of a special kind has not been 
from God, but only from ourselves. Should he not learn 
from us to wait for an intimation of what the Lord will 
have him to do ? 

Who is sufficient for these things ? Sometimes we 
are tempted to think only an angel could have sufficient 
wisdom and knowledge to judge and act righthf. But 
the task has been entrusted to us weak mortals, and we 
have all the resources of God on which to fall back. 
Aiming at His glory onl}^ we shall not seek His face in 
vain ; He will prove to us and to those for w^hom we are 
labouring, that He is not a far away shadowy Helper of 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, a dead God of dead men, 
but that He is for us and for them, near, real and living, 
" a very present help in trouble," " the Author and 
Finisher " of the faith of the Moslem convert and of ours. 




The question of financial aid to Moslem converts is only 
one variety of the larger question dating from Pentecost 
and running down through the Christian ages to the 
present da}^ The needs, the evils and the proper 
methods, are practically the same for Moslem as for 
non-Moslem converts, only much intensified. 

I would put first among the items of need, that to 
the missionary himself and to the cause he represents. 
Our God-appointed task — to interpret Christ to those 
who know Him not — is to be performed partly by speech, 
but mostly by life and by deed. It is impossible to do 
this without abundant material relief to those in distress 
around us. We fail in our mission if we omit this indis- 
pensable picture of our Master — His caring for men's 
bodily needs. The Apostle Paul gives us a side-light 
upon aiding converts in Galatians vi. 10. The Apostle 
John emphasises the inevitableness of such aid in 
1st John iii. 17, and he only repeated what the i\pastle 
James had taught many years before in his epistle 
(James ii. 16). It is clear from these words that for us 
to withhold help for the bodies of our fellow-believers, 
when it is in our power, is vital failure. 

To the unenlightened and unconverted around us 
who see us withhold such help, we sadly misinterpret the 
spirit and purpose of Him who bids us and them to 
follow Him. Only by adding to our exposition and 
exhortation this object-lesson is it possible to faithfully 
reveal to an unbelieving world the person of the Saviour. 

Islam is the most aggressive of the non-Christian 
faiths, and strains to make converts. And Islam makes 
bountiful provision for the temporal care of its converts. 
Doubly important is it, then, that in the face of Islam 
the sincere Christian convert should be wisely cared for. 

Islam is also the most intolerant of the world's faiths, 
therefore those who incur its ill-will are more absolutely 
helpless than converts from any other faith. Moslem 
bigotry is strongest in the leaders, and, freedom being a 
stranger, the leaders are' able to enforce upon their 
followers the bigoted intolerance that ruins the converts 
from Islam at all costs. 


Islam is also the most powerful of the non-Christian 
faiths, and is thus in a position to execute its intolerance 
as no other faith can do, therefore the intensified need of 
material help for the Moslem converts. 

One must live in the Orient to appreciate the need. 

In Christian lands, the Gospel of brotherly helpfulness 
and the sacredness of physical distress are in the very air. 
They are recognised by every branch of the Government 
and by every respectable business concern, and they 
permeate our literature. They find expression in the 
ample provision at public charge, for all who are in phy- 
sical distress. There the Evangelist has had the road 
built for him, and he can speed away on his spiritual 
errand of love. But on the mission field it is whoUy 
different, and the missionary must take up this pioneer 
road-building work of expressing the love of Christ in 
material helpfulness. 

Is he, then, blind to the evils that attend upon the 
financial help given to converts and enquirers ? By no 
means. He realises that charity which kills self-respect 
and energy is the veriest uncharity. He knows that the 
dragon of avarice crouches at the door of every convert 
to devour his spiritual life. He is aware that the loaves 
and fishes are a real snare to shiftless ne'er-do-wells and 
keen opportunists, inducing them to assume the raiment 
of conversion, and thus to fall victims to a pestilent 
hypocrisy that ranks among the basest of human sins. 
He understands that such not only pollute the Church 
of their adoption and tarnish its fair name, but they also 
ahenate the honest inquirers they have left behind them, 
and swing themselves over to the very verge of hopeless 

But he also realises that Christ's Gospel of temporal 
helpfulness is the preface to Christ's Gospel of Eternal 
Salvation. He sees His Master's zeal in attending to the 
physical welfare of those to w^hom He ministered. 

He knows that God's doors to the human intellect 
and spirit are the senses, and " that is not first which is 
spiritual, but that which is natural, and afterwards that 
which is spiritual " (1 Cor. xv. 46) ; that the Master did 
not feed the multitudes to show His power but to show 


His love, and those who truly follow Him will adopt 
physical relief for the same high ends. 

Therefore he is much more afraid of the neglect of 
this form of ministry than he is of its abuse, and he dreads 
more the responsibility of not opening the door than 
that of allowing some unworthy ones to pass through it. 
Therefore he girds up his loins and goes forward. 

Some missionaries are conservative and some are 
liberal. As a conservative I strictly decline any advance 
promises of material support to enquirers. I prefer the 
Master's usual method of showing from the first the 
" strait gate and the narrow way," and having the 
enquirer first " count the cost." So He dealt even mth 
the last of the Apostles at the gateway of belief, saying : 
" I will show him how great things he must su^er for 
my name's sake " (Acts ix. 16). Such a course reduces 
greatly the abuses against which we wish to guard, and 
furnishes a healthy sifting process. At the same time,, 
those liberals who adopt a different policy are not to be 

After the enquirer has committed himself and made 
unreserved confession of Christ at any cost, the new 
relation of believing brotherhood takes effect, and what 
wise brother does for needy brother becomes a duty and 
a privilege. Honest and useful daily employment being 
a prime necessity, no effort should be spared to find such 
for the young convert. Partial employment, even nom- 
inal employment, are better than nothing. Where no 
such thing is possible, there remains as a last resort the 
door of emigration to some land where security and 
employment may be had. 

It has to be borne in mind that self-support in the 
Orient runs in ruts, and the variet}^ and scope of useful 
labour, so fan^iliar in the Occident, does not exist. In 
a way unknown to us Westerners, the outcast is circum- 
scribed. Here sluggishness sits in the seat of enterprise, 
so that not only the realization but even the notion of 
enterprise is a stranger to the typical Oriental. Tims 
the Moslem convert is in a state of helplessness that only 
those who live in the Orient can appreciate. 

To urge them to accept martyrdom rather than recant 


is a clear duty. To insist on their facing martyrdom 
rather than seek refuge in emigration is another matter, 
and especially when recommended by those who are 
beyond the reach of violence. As far as possible we 
make the unearned assistance in the form of a loan, to 
safeguard their self-respect and stimulate their energies. 

As for the employment of recent converts in spiritual 
work, I am also a conservative. When we remember 
the years of preparation of Moses, John the Baptist, 
Jesus of Nazareth, and the Apostles, including Paul, we 
shall be slow to thrust recent converts into Evangelism 
as a calling, and much more so if a needed living is to be 
secured thereby. It is quite a different thing, and some- 
thing to be insisted upon, that the young convert should 
do as much voluntary spiritual work as he has the ability 
and opportunity to do. The Orientals have a favourite 
proverb which says, " Only one of its branches can hew 
a tree " (referring to the wooden handle of the axe). The 
truth in this proverb points the way to the conclusion 
mission workers are agreed upon, viz. : that every 
country must be mainly evangelized by its own sons, 
and, similarly, every tribe and every sect. On this 
principle, the evangelization of Moslems by Moslems is a 
cardinal doctrine for missions to Islam. As a spontane- 
ous God- appointed work of love, spiritual work among 
Moslems by Moslems cannot be too widely encouraged 
or too heartily endorsed. 

Where the work is a combination of business and 
evangelism, a novice can more safely be put in charge — 
e,g,, in a Bible store or reading-room. The Evangelism 
then being less aggressive, is safer in inexperienced hands 
than are its other phases. At the same time, there is in 
such employment less room for failure. 

In our efforts to bring the Moslem world to Christ, 
the appalling magnitude of the task should be a stimulus. 
The doors are manifestly opening, the Church is awaking, 
the Master beckons, and the prospect is entrancing. 
^' Thou knowest not what a day may bring forth." 

George F. Ford. 

Sidon, Syria, 



So far as I know, there has been no real persecution 
of converts in Morocco, in modern times ; for the 
simple reason that there have been no converts, pubhcly 
known as such. During the past twenty-five years we 
have at different times heard reports of individuals being 
persecuted, but at no time have such reports been 
verified. We believe that before the advent of French 
rule, any person who professed the Christian faith would 
have suffered the extreme penalty of Mohammedan law. 
Now that religious liberty is practically assured, we are 
confident that those who have hitherto been converts 
secretly, will soon be able quietly to confess before others 
the Christian faith. This will undoubtedly bring perse- 
cution, but it is difficult, at this stage, to say whether it 
will be severe enough to necessitate such converts getting 
financial help. 

Although French rule has only obtained for little 
over a year, a great religious change is already apparent. 
During the recent month of Ramadan, many abstained 
from fasting, and no attempt was made to punish such 
unorthodox Moslems. In previous years they would 
have been severely flogged. In conversation with an 
official, who is in charge of a wide district, we were 
assured that he would not allow anyone to be punished 
for eating in Ramadan, unless those eating purposely 
did so to provoke trouble. We believe this official's 
views would be upheld by other officials all over the 

Recently a young Shareef, in the employ of a French- 
man, openly declared in the presence of the Kadi, that he 
was not a Moslem, and refused to submit to that official's 
judgment. While there was no question of conversion 
in this instance, the ease with which the individual was 
able to defy the Kadi, because he was in the employment 
of a European, suggests the likelihood of converts being 
protected from severe persecution by the interference of 
the ruling power. 


Under the new regime, it seems to us that financial 
help to converts can only be necessary when such a thing 
as wholesale boycotting takes place. Even then it might 
be possible to help the convert to obtain employment 
with some European. Should Moslems still refuse to sell 
him the necessaries of life, he could easily get them from 
other sources. We are firmly of the opinion that no 
effort should be spared to maintain his independence. 
With the backing of the civil law, we think that only on 
very rare occasions would such efforts fail. But if a 
convert is wholly unable to earn his living, because of 
the attitude of Moslems around him, we as firmly believe 
it is the duty of those who may have been instrumental 
in leading him into the light, to stand by him, and help 
him to the simple necessaries of life. If the convert has 
been in a position of affluence, his new-found faith will 
enable him to dispense with many of the comforts he 
previously enjoyed. But while helping him in this way, 
no effort should be lost of as soon as possible restoring 
him to a position of independence. Otherwise, the 
sturdiness of his Christian character may be sadly 

Turning to the question of assisting women converts, 
our difficulties are both more numerous and more serious. 
Only those who know the social life of Moslems can fully 
appreciate these difficulties. The changes resulting from 
the new regime will not immediately affect home-life for 
the married woman. In the seclusion of her home, and 
under the eye of a fanatic husband, how is help to reach 
her ? Even though the ruling power were eager to 
facilitate such help, it will not lightly dare to ignore the 
rigid hareeni laws. And so the convert in the home 
might die of starvation, and no help be possible. If the 
convert be a single woman, attempts to help her to get 
self-supporting employment are much more difficult than 
in the case of a man. Even though a genuine convert, 
it would be courting her downfall to introduce her to a 
position, in which the ordinary European woman might 
be quite safe. We shall be glad to learn from other 
writers how this difficulty has been faced and overcome 
in lands that have been longer under religious liberty. 


As to the question of employing a convert in spiritual 
work at the outset of his Christian career, we feel sure 
common sense is sufficient to forbid such a proposal. If 
the Holy Spirit should lead a young convert to begin such 
work spontaneously, then we can rest assured that all will 
be well. He Who leads him into the work will lead him 
on in it. But for a missionary to ask a young convert 
from Islam to accept such a position, would be sadly at 
variance with the inspired advice concerning the 
" Novice." While our greatest hope of progress lies in 
the line of native preaching to native, we deprecate the 
thought of employing them to do so at the outset of their 
new life. If a convert is eager to preach, or scatter the 
written Word, let him do so, by all means, but let him 
earn his own living in his own way while doing so. In 
this way the genuineness of his desire will be vindicated, 
his abilities for such work be manifested, and the question 
of employing him later on be much more easily decided. 

Instead of employing young converts in spiritual work 
immediately, we feel sure that missionaries of long 
experience will covet every possible opportunity of ground- 
ing them in the Word of God. They will feel that pro- 
bably the grandest part of their life-work will be in 
helping to prepare native preachers. Such work cannot 
be undertaken too early, nor too thoroughly done. The 
outlook in Mohammedan lands has become much more 
hopeful owing to recent political changes, and if the right 
native preachers are forthcoming, who can tell what 
great and glorious spiritual changes may soon be 
witnessed ? C. Nairn. 

Marrakshy Morocco. 




" Men shall have the pre-eminence above women, because 
of those advantages wherein God hath caused the one of 
them to excel the other, and for that which they expend 
of their substance in maintaining their wives. The honest 
women are obedient, careful in the absence of their 
husbands, for that God preserveth them ; but those 
whose perverseness ye shall be apprehensive of, rebuke ; 
and remove them into separate apartments and chastise 
them."f Such, according to the Koran, is God's word 
upon the relation of man to woman, and the statement is 
so clear and explicit that the efforts of more refined 
Moslems to soften it, and in particular to remove from 
the sacred page the permission to chastise women, have 
entirety failed. Besides this pronouncement upon wo- 
man's inferior position, there is not a word in praise of 
a loving, intimate relationship between husband and 
wife, and I state these facts at the outset to show what 
is the spirit pervading the Moslem world in so far as it 
lies under the ban of the Sharia. 

As regards particular regulations, we find that 
woman is treated not as an individual being of anthropo- 
logical interest, but as a member of society, with relation- 
ships so extraordinarily varied that we must perforce 
classify them. A simple classification may be made 
according to family relationship, nationality, social and 
intellectual standing, the adjustment between these 
various interests being maintained by the State, which 
dominates and embraces all the others. In Islam this 
superstructure is almost, and at all events in principle, 

* Condensed from a lecture delivered in February, 1913, at the 
Seminar fiir Orientalische Sprachen, Berlin. 

t Cf., Koran IV. 38. (Sale's translation). 


the measure of the individual's intellectual outlook. 
Because in Islam the intellectual life is entirely under 
the sway of religion, no, of the Church, which not merely 
dominates the religious life but sets the norm for every 
kind of mental activity. The religious law is at once 
the law for every relationship of the members of the 
community amongst themselves and with the outside 
world. This short word of introduction will show that 
the position of woman in the Moslem world, in so far as 
it is determined by law, coincides with the position 
accorded to her from the religious standpoint. 

The fundamental principle underlying the Moslem 
attitude towards woman is " mulier taceat in ecclesia,^^ 
" ecclesia " being taken in the sense of community, 
*' ci vitas " — i.e., woman shall take no part whatever in 
public life. This is one of the great contrasts between 
the ancient Oriental world and the world of Western 
civilisation. Such problems as those which were solved 
by the Salic law in Western Europe could never have 
arisen in Islam, because from earliest times there has 
been no question of woman doing legislative work or 
conducting affairs of state. 

There have been but rare exceptions to this rule. 
I only know of one instance of a woman holding the 
supreme office of state, namely, the widow of the last 
Aijubid Sultan, Shadsharat addurr, the ruler of Egypt 
about 1250, who had coins struck with her name as such. 
And her independent rule only lasted a short time, 
because she soon married the Turkish Emir Aibek, and 
he assumed the sovereignty. 

Moslem law has always concerned itself in greatest 
detail with woman as a sex individual. The Law of 
ritual, of persons, of obligation and of punishment alike 
treat of her. 

Having reached marriageable age, a young woman is 
regarded as a weak-minded being with no will of her own, 
and her marriage lies in the hands of her guardian, her 
natural protector, her father, grandfather or elder 
brother, as the case may be. It is this guardian's duty 
to arrange for his ward's marriage, as it is the duty of 
every man who is of age to take a wife, be it only in order 


to escape from the temptation to punishable sin. Mar- 
riage is, therefore, the performance of a reHgious duty 
on the part of both the man who takes a wife and the 
man who arranges for it. In fulfiUing this religious duty, 
a contract is made whereby the bride passes over into the 
possession of her husband on the payment of a certain 
purchase price, or according to other authorities, certain 
hire. The bride's participation in the contract is a pure 
matter of form ; the majority of jurists say she must be 
consulted, but all agree that silence or a smile mark her 
consent, and disagreement would be futile. From the 
Moslem standpoint it would at best testify to her weak- 
mindedness, in brief woman has no choice of her husband. 
The whole affair is very quickly arranged. Some books 
of law mention a kind of promise (betrothal), but it is 
only a preliminary proceeding before the actual making 
of the contract. It is a disputed point as to whether the 
bridegroom may himself see the bride and how much of 
her he may see ; for the most part the inspection is made 
by female persons of confidence, such at least is the 
barbarous custom in Turkey to-day which has given 
modern Turkish novelists occasion for such sad descrip- 
tions. There are no engagements in the Moslem world, 
no opportunities for personal intercourse before the de- 
cision to spend a whole long life together for better or 
for worse, and all because of a barbarous custom, with 
not even a religious foundation, namely, the wearing of 
the veil. 

The keynote of woman's lot after marriage is the 
right of her husband to chastise her, combined with that 
other more ominous right to divorce her out of caprice. 
This does not, of course, mean that there are no loving 
couples in Islam, but this spirit does give free rein to, 
and even encourage, the husband's presumption and 
brutality. And the wife is completely bound to her 
husband ; she must in silence endure his every brutality 
because the Koran itself gives him the right to chastise 
her in the case of perversity, a very elastic term. Only 
in very few cases she can appeal to a judge to confirm 
her action for divorce or actually to pronounce a divorce. 
At this point we may make an important comparison : 


for centuries the Christian Church took the ground (and 
one branch of her does so still) that a marriage once 
consummated was inviolable, but she did allow for 
separation. There is no deed of separation in Islam. 
A woman is only set at liberty by repudiation on the 
part of her husband, which she cannot compel and 
which is entirely at his pleasure. I will not go into 
details but merely point out that divorce is legally a 
cancelling of the marriage contract, and requires a 
period of four weeks' notice, during which the man can 
annul the cancelling ; if he does not do so, the marriage 
is dissolved, and the woman can marry again. 

This giving notice on the part of the man, which 
really constitutes his right to make the divorce, throws 
a clear light upon, first, the nature of marriage in Islam, 
and, secondly, on the power of a wife to participate in 
other activities of social life, in that satisfactory partici- 
pation is not possible without personal freedom, without 
independence of the will of a person who has perhaps not 
the slightest interest in those activities or may contrive 
against them. 

A comparison with conditions of things amongst 
ourselves will again be helpful at this point. With us 
the problem has been not as to whether marriage is a 
private concern but as to whether it is a matter for the 
Church or the State. In Islam the State and the Church 
are fundamentally one, and neither the State nor the 
Church have any hand in a marriage or a divorce. It 
may be noted here that Turkey is the only Moslem State 
to make any serious attempt to redress the bad state of 
affairs above described. Nevertheless, it is not correct 
to say, as it has been said, that in Islam marriage is a 
private concern — i.e., that the marriage contract is a 
purely civil contract. It is associated with the meta- 
physical, namely, the religious duty to marry and to 
give in marriage. This reason for making the contract 
lifts the relationship it creates on to another plane. 
The curious result is that marriage is a mutual contract 
on a rehgious basis, but as soon as the contract is broken 
it becomes an affair of the individual and all religious 
considerations fall to the ground. 


Let us now examine the influence which is exercised 
upon the wife's other activities by her husband's right 
of divorce — i.e., the supreme power of her husband, 
which finds its extreme expression in his right of divorce. 
I include under the term " other activities," her share in 
national, social and intellectual life. 

The horizon of the average Moslem's thought about 
women has been, and still is to-day, largely bounded by 
such dicta as the following : " You are a woman, and, 
therefore, you may not earn your bread with your own 
hands ; even if as an unmarried woman you have talents 
which might enable you to better your own condition 
and that of your loved ones, you may not so use them, 
it would be a disgrace. If your husband is ill and unable 
to earn anything, you may not earn the means for the 
maintenance of the household." And from the intel- 
lectual standpoint, " You are a woman and have long 
hair and small understanding, and, therefore, you may 
not study." The final word of the Moslem Church upon 
every effort on the part of woman to think for herself is 
that it is rebellion against the will of God. 

There was a mighty stirring in the world of Turkish 
women when Abdul Hamid's reign of terror came to an 
end and a new era seemed to be at hand. But the 
Young Turks did not fulfil the expectations entertained 
concerning them, and now it is too late. Ottoman 
Turkish women no longer have the power to rise, and 
their menfolk are killing each other in party strife. 
Nevertheless the Turks are not the only inhabitants of 
Turkey, and there may in fact be a movement among 
that other ancient section of the population, the Arabs. 

The people of Syria, Mesopotamia, Bab3donia and the 
Syrian steppes enclosed by those countries, as also the 
people of Western Arabia down as far as Babelmandeb, 
may have intermingled with foreign stock, but they are 
the original inhabitants of the land who, apart from the 
Beduins, who have set themselves against civilisation, 
are the denisons of intellectual and moral treasure of 
hoary antiquity. Among all these people Islam, or 
rather the Islam of the theologians and jurists, meant 
the lowering of the status of woman, with the exception 


of the above-mentioned Beduins and the Arab peasants, 
whom sound common sense has saved from extrava- 

A very hopeful element in the population is found 
in the Christian Arabs of Syria, who form not less than 
twenty per cent, of the inhabitants. The Lebanon is 
occupied almost entirely by these intelligent and pro- 
gressive people, and their women-folk are no less en- 
lightened than the men. They help to support their 
families, quite a number of them engage in literary 
pursuits, and many are school teachers, great attention 
being given among them to education. Not long ago an 
article by a Lebanon woman living in Paris appeared in 
La\Revue dii Monde Musulman, describing with numerous 
portraits the leading men and women of Syria. Nor wiU 
the Mohammedans of Syria for ever remain shackled. 
TJieir rulers must see that it is to their advantage to 
move with the times also. So far only one progressive 
jpirit of good social standing has appeared among Arab 
Moslems, the late Qasir Amim, who took the field with 
his " Liberation of Woman " in 1899, and made reply 
by a second book, " The New Woman," to the attacks 
upon the first by the orthodox party. 

Finally, I would like to mention another people in 
Turkey, of whom — despite all that is continually said 
against them — I have great hopes, the Kurds. The 
freedom of their women seems to me to guarantee the 
development of this nation, which is called to play an 
important role in the intellectual life of eastern Asia 
Minor and Persia, a role quite different from what may 
be expected of the Persian cousins of the Kurds, as 
these may be. 

Reform movements are on foot among the Moham- 
medans of India, but with the exception of Egypt, 
which after all belongs to Asia, a sad condition of things 
prevails in North Africa. Moslem women from Tripoli 
to Morocco have a very Ioav status, and there is no 
prospect of a change unless there be some widespread 
movement, such as that from which many Moslems 
in the French possessions prophesy such great things, 
namely, the intermarriage of the Arab-Moslem elements 


of the population with Frankish women. Already not 
a few of the wealthier Mohammedans have married 
French women and also Spaniards from the Balearic 
Islands, with what are said to be excellent results. 

Russia occupies a place of her own as regards the 
education of woman and the training of a new generation. 
The Mohammedans are sending their daughters to 
Russian Girls' Gymnasia, and side by side with these 
there are Moslem girls' schools founded by the bene- 
factions of Mohammedan capitalists — e,g,, Takijeff in 
Baku. The movement seems to be especially strong in 
the Volga provinces, where it had its origin, but it has 
also spread to Crimea and the Caucasus and even to the 
mountain Kirgis, one of whose daughters passed her 
final medical examination at St. Petersburg in 1908. 

This description is, on the whole, a sad one, and well 
may we pity the sorrows of Moslem women owing to the 
unreasonable laws of Islam and the obstinacy of their 
lords and masters. But the dawn is breaking. If 
woman has still to fight against man for her rights in the 
Moslem world, there is nevertheless one domain in which 
they can fight side by side, namely, for the national 
idea against the international Moslem hierarchy. If 
there is ever to be a Renaissance among the peoples of 
the Moslem world, in the sense of displaying their peculiar 
national gifts and powers, for which political power is 
no necessity, it can only happen on national ground, 
and here man and woman can and must work side by 
side. To what end ? No other end than that the East- 
ern nations, and among them the Moslem nations, shall 
%ake their place in the great confederacy of civilised 
peoples. This inevitably requires woman's co-operation, 
and the raising of woman's status must be the special 
concern of all those who have the raising of the entire 
East at heart. 

Missions have here a wide and fruitful field, but 
all our women should espouse the cause of Moslem 
womanhood, giving all the counsel and help tliey possibly 
can to those who wish to enter the great international 
fight for woman's rights. The beautiful word '' emanci- 
pation," which really means " setting free from slavery," 


has unfortunately become discredited ; but the cause 
cannot be discredited, because it is a good cause. 

To make progress in her fight for freedom from 
slavery, the Mohammedan woman requires above all 
freedom of action. Here her worst and bitterest enemy 
is the Sharia, the reUgious law. Thus the woman's 
problem of the Moslem world is closely bound up with 
that other problem as to whether the Moslem peoples 
are to continue under that system, I cannot here call it 
by the name it deserves, but which calls itseK divine 
and in reality is mere man's work, and which, alas ! on 
every hand bears the brandmarks of passion, presumption 
and intolerance, intolerance towards all those of other 
faiths, and amongst fellow-believers supreme arrogance 
towards the other sex. If the Moslem world is to advance 
it has but one war cry : Freedom from the rehgious law. 
Under this flag alone does woman find her freedom and 
come to the place where she may fight^side by side with 
man for the supreme good of humanity. 

M. Hartmann. 



The minds of Moslem men in Egypt have been in great 
commotion of late, as to whether women should be 
veiled and kept in seclusion, or have their veils removed 
and enjoy the freedom of European women.* A number 
of articles on both sides of the question have been pub- 
lished in the Moslem press, and the following paragraphs 
translated from the Arabic will show what agitates the 
minds of many Moslems. A society of young men has 
been formed, whose object is to abolish the veil ; recently 
one of its members went (according to the Mohammedan 
papers) to a high-class school conducted by nuns, and 
by pretending to seek the admission of his sister as a 
pupil, he gained entrance and gave an address on this 
subject to the girls, much to the dismay of those who 
conform to traditions and former customs. This ruse 
was tried in our schools also, but those in charge were 
too cautious to allow the girls to be examined as to their 
proficiency in their studies. 

The first article which we quote is an extract from a 
letter written by an Egyptian now studying in England : 
" Some of the reasons for the advancement of the English 

* The effect is evident also in the Legislative assembly ; we learn 
from one of the Enghsh papers that an interesting Bill has lately been 
submitted to the Legislative assembly. It deals with the age at which 
girls may legally marry. The proposer of the Bill states that it is a 
recognised fact that the very low marriage age is responsible for 
degeneration in Oriental countries and for much of the disease that 
is prevalent. He suggests that the minimum age at which a girl may 
marry shall be fixed at sixteen years, calculated according to the 
Moslem calendar, and proposes that parents who permit their daughters, 
and guardians who permit their wards, to marry under that age, shall 
be made hable to severe penalties, as also the husband who marries 
a girl under sixteen. This law is to apply to all Egyptians ; but it is 
to be foreseen that it will meet with a certain amount of opposition, 
although the excellence of its fundamental principles is recognised. 


" For a long time the Egyptian woman has been 
prevented from partaking of the fruits of education, 
because of the man's opinion that the enhghtenment of 
the woman's mind is injurious to her morals. Man took 
from woman her personal freedom, imprisoned her gifts, 
and denied her education, because he thought onl}^ of 
himself and his excessive love of power. Thus the 
woman was not allowed to take her important place in 
society. He would not allow her to be like him, but 
reproached her with the saying that her mind was weak 
and that she could not understand things. He did not 
know that he was responsible for this ignorance and the 
cause of it. The attention of people to the education of 
woman and the loosing of the bands of illiteracy was 
aroused by the late Kassim Bey Amin, who without 
doubt was the pioneer in the revival of Egyptian women. 
Since that time there are other thoughtful men trying to 
improve the condition of women, because they realize 
that the education of woman is one of the pillars of 
elevation and advancement, and the first stone in the 
reviving of nations. The greatest proof of this is the fact 
that, in some countries, women, if they do not receive 
more education than men, receive no less. 

" I think I owe it to my countrymen to write some- 
thing about the teaching of women in England in all 
branches of education, so that public opinion in Egypt 
may be aroused to learn something of the cause of the 
elevation of this great nation, from whom we may well 
copy some of their good ideas." 

The writer then goes on to tell about the schools for 
compulsory education, and says that everyone in England 
knows how to read and write. The punishments for 
absence from school are enforced. Then he speaks of 
schools for the weak-minded, and kindergarten schools 
for the poor. He also mentions that the children are 
taught together until they are eight years old, and then 
the sexes are separated. He speaks of the general and 
difficult examinations for all classes, when the reward 
for those who succeed is free education in higher schools, 
thus enabling the poor to continue their studies. Then 
he states that the girls may enter the secondary schools, 


commercial schools and universities. He commends the 
commercial schools for people in the middle classes, and 
says : "It seems to me that teaching sciences and pro- 
fessions to girls has no danger in it, but a great many 
advantages. If a girl is wealth}^ she finds the knowledge 
gained an enlightenment and a high enjoyment ; in case 
she becomes poor, she is able to earn her living by the 
sweat of her brow, instead of giving way to despair like 
so many in the East ; or instead of living by vice, which 
brings to her and to society everlasting shame." 

In a later copy of The Moayyid there is a lengthy 
article on the " Foundation of the Life of a Nation, 
or the influence of woman in the elevation of a country." 
It is translated from an article in a Turkish newspaper, 
and the writer says : " The most important evidence of 
a revival and awakening which have resulted from the 
last war, is our willingness to admit the necessity of 
improving our social conditions. No one will deny that 
one of the causes of this great calamity was connected 
with our general life. All nations must be prepared for 
war by right living in time of peace, when children can 
be taught courage and self-reliance (but self-reliance and 
self-support have been declining from the hearts of the 
Ottomans for one hundred years or more), for we need 
energy and force well directed by skill. We have learned 
to know our standing, and have learned that we must 
understand our nation's real feelings and the bond that 
unites us . . . We have learned that the nations which 
think only of physical enjoyments, will fall. Each indi- 
vidual must be willing to make sacrifices, and we must 
gain national wealth instead of constantly spending our 
resources. We must have mental strength, and this 
requires well superintended elementary schools — the 
most important thing after our own homes. There the 
wife and mother should reign, and everyone now admits 
that the East will not be elevated until woman is elevated 
and restored to the position she once occupied. The fall 
of Moslem womanhood has been the greatest reason for 
the fall of the whole nation, and her education and uplift 
are necessary if the nation is to regain its lost position." 

The same paper contains an article appealing to 


Mohammedans to avoid the civiHzation of the west, 
which is too full of worthlessness and poison, notwith- 
standing the writings of Kassim Bey Amin. The article 
states : " More than twenty learned men have been 
writing on the same subject, and nothing new can be 
advanced. Even French and English writers have 
spoken of the evils resulting from modern civilization and 
freedom, which have wrought so much evil in family 
life, as well as tended to decrease the population." In 
comparing the Egyptian woman of to-day and the woman 
of ten years ago, he says, " The modern woman has lost 
all manners, has no regard for morals, and her only 
thought is to be dressed in the latest fashion, whether 
her house is cared for or not, and whether her children 
are trained or allowed to run wild ; whereas the former 
style of woman was the opposite of this. Now will 
those who are seeking to remove the veil from woman 
benefit her and others, or what will be the result ? We 
do not deny that Egyptian women are backward and 
need improvement, and we admit that her want of 
advancement is one great hindrance to us men ; but her 
uplift will not result from removing the evil. It will have 
the opposite effect." He then quotes poetry from their 
learned men of past ages, and asks the question : "Is 

B 's mind greater than Ghazzah's ? Is the blind 

following of any man the rule of religion ? Is the 
removing of the veil lawful in this Mohammedan religion, 
or is it wrong ? If it is right, where is the place in the 
book where it is permitted ? Now if it is wrong, are you 
farther sighted than the Koran, or has modern civilization 
put a covering over your hearts ? " 

A lengthy article in the same paper speaks of women 
before Mohammedanism and after it. It is a translation 
of " Polygamy in Islam," by the Seyyid Amir Ali. " The 
greatest mistake of Christians is their saying that Mo- 
hammed was the first one to make polygamy lawful,, 
for we can show that this is untrue. Mohammed found 
polygamy prevalent, and it remained so. In Persia this 
was the time of moral degradation, and there was no law 
regarding plural marriages, the man taking as many 
wives and concubines as he wished. The earl}^ Arabs and 


the Jews had a custom also of marrying on conditions, 
besides for a certain time, which would have brought 
disaster to Arabia had not God interposed and sent the 
Prophet of God to raise the position of women and 
elevate society generally. Among the Jews, under the 
law of Moses, the daughter had the place of a servant, 
and the father could sell her ; her brothers could act 
towards her as they chose after her father's death, and 
she could not inherit anything from her father unless 
she had a male child. Among the Arabs she had the 
position of a possession, and when women became widows 
they were considered the property of the sons of their 
husbands. Some sons even burnt their mothers alive. 
This custom was stopped by the Prophet, as he also 
stopped the slaying of infants as a sacrifice to idols. 
Surrounding nations also ill-treated women. At such a 
time the Prophet came with his reforms and his efforts 
to enforce his good laws. Anyone who studies can see 
that the honouring of women is one of the pillars of his 
reforms. We can prove this from the influence which 
this teaching had on his successors among the Arabs ; 
in the way they honoured his daughter and loved her, 
calling her ' The Lady of Light.' This teaching also 
influenced the women, some of whom were crowned with 
purity and virtue like Fatimah. Although at first his 
laws allowed temporary marriages, or marriage by 
contract, this law was changed in the third year of the 
Hegira, and he gave them equal rights with men. He 
also limited the number of wives, so no one could lawfully 
take more than four ; and he said the four must be 
treated exactly alike in every way, or the man should 
marry only one wife. This being an impossibility, proves 
that Mohammed was in favour of one wife only. How- 
ever, there may be circumstances in society when poly- 
gamy is a necessity and a duty, as, for example, to keep 
a poor woman from a life of shame. But when no such 
circumstances exist and people begin to consider things, 
there will be no need. The making of laws suitable for 
the times and the country shows the benefit of the laws 
made. Some learned people are now looking into the 
laws so as to make them suit present thought and times. 



The Mohammedans of India are aboHshing the custom of 
polygamy, and now there are ninety-five per cent, who 
marr}^ only one wife. And in Persia there are only two 
in a hundred who have more than one wife. We have 
great hope that the learned men will meet in a religious 
conference and decide upon a rule which will put down 

Another writer takes the position that woman in 
Egypt has no right to have her veil removed, and that 
she should not take part with men in earning a living. 
" Many of those who read articles advising these reforms 
do not know that these arrows are aimed at their holy 
religion, which in God's sight is a great thing. The 
Koran has not been silent as to the position and duties 
of women, and it states the pathway to the elevation of 
the race. The way to preserve society from evil is to 
keep women veiled. Would you wish them to copy the 
crimping of hair, the fancy hairdressing of Westerners, 
with their painted eye-brows, who flirt with men ? If 
our women learn all this, will they make happy wives ? 
Listen to advice, and flee from such things as steal away 
religion. Does not ^^our Lord say — " (and then follow 
quotations from the Koran instructing women to cover 
themselves, and a story regarding Mohammed's command 
to one of his wives, that she must cover herself before a 
blind man, for even if he could not see her, she could see 
him. " The covering is necessary, especially in these 
days when the waves of evil are breaking over us and 
the tempests of temptation. May God reform the Moslem 
nation and give it divine guidance." 

Another writer, a doctor of laws, says, " There is no 
distinct order in the Koran that women should be 
veiled, that they should not see or mix with men, or go 
about with uncovered faces. The canon law only orders 
women not to exhibit their ornaments publicly. The 
habit of wearing a veil originated with the wealthy, and 
was soon given religious sanction. The peasant women 
and those of the poorer classes in the towns do not wear 
veils. They go to the markets, receive their husband's 
friends at home, help men in their work, and enjoy great 
liberty inside and outside their houses, and yet no one 


criticises them or finds these habits improper, nor con- 
siders tjiem less chaste than others. BHnd jealousy, 
suspicion of one's friends, want of confidence in women, 
the belief that they have weak wills — these are the 
reasons which have induced the rich to deprive their 
women of liberty." 

The most radical attack, however, on the old orthodox 
view of the rights of women, appeared recently in El 
Geridah, from the pen of a Moslem student in London, 
Tewfik Diab. He asks why women should be veiled at 
all ! " Is it because the Mohammedan religion makes 
the veil a necessity ? If so, why do you believe one part 
of your religion and disbelieve another ? Wliy obey what 
is very obscurely laid down, and disregard doctrines that 
are definite and clear ? Why not whip the drunkard 
and the man who neglects his prayers ; why not cut off 
the arm of the thief, and stone the adulterer and the 
adulteress ? (as is laid down in the Koran). Do you 
really veil your women in order to guard your honour ? 
Are you really afraid that if your womenfolk leave home 
unveiled their passions will get the better of them, and 
they will lose control over themselves ? Do you think 
that a chastity that can only be maintained in a prison 
is worth much ? Do you believe that honour which can 
only be protected by a rag on the face is an honour 
preserved ? Does a cage turn a Honess into an ewe ? 
Or does the devil become an angel by wearing a veil ? " 

And closes his protest by an outspoken appeal : 
*' You fill the world, you despots, with your cries and 
your wails for your robbed liberty, and for your van- 
quished nation, shouting out that freedom is a natural 
right of man. But, when your conquerors look at you 
and see that one of your arms is extended to them with 
praj^er and supplication for your freedom and the dustour, 
and that, with the other, you press upon your daughter, 
wife, sister, and mother with a palm of flint and fingers 
of iron ; when they see all that, no wonder they laugh 
at you, and scorn you ; for they know that your 
clamouring after freedom and your tears for the dustour 
are only a mockery." 

Cairo, Egypt Anna Y. Thompson. 



The heart of the Dark Continent is still comparatively 
free from the advancing forces of Islam, and localising 
this district in the north-east corner of the Belgian 
Congo, we have a vast triangle in which Protestant 
Missions are free from the counteracting influence of the 
Moslem propaganda. 

From Lake Albert across the southern portions of 
the Eastern Sudan, the French Shari Chad Protectorate 
to the south-western districts of the Kameruns, we 
strike a boundary beyond which Islam has not passed 
except, possibly, in a few isolated units as traders. 
From Lake Albert again down south through the chain 
of Lakes to Nyasaland, and from there along the western 
boundary of Cape Colon}^ to the sea, we find another 
boundary line. Vast districts enclosed within these two 
boundaries and the South Atlantic Ocean may yet be 
saved from the thraldom of Mohammedanism, if the 
forces of the Christian Church only rise to the occasion, 
and enter these lands with the Evangel within the next 
decade. This is not an impossible task. The men and 
the means could easily be forthcoming, if only hearts 
at home were open to hear the cry, that comes from so 
many districts, for the Christian teacher. The day for 
prayer for open doors has passed. Probably there is 
not a spot within this whole immense triangle where 
Christian Missions could not commence immediately, 
without hindrance from European powers, or opposition 
from the natives. 


Difficulties of climate and transport must necessarily 
await the further progress of civilisation in the shape of 
railways and river navigation. It is, however, only too 
true, alas ! that if the forces of Christ wait for these 
facilities, the day of opportunity will have largely passed. 
With their advent, other influences follow unhappily in 
the wake of civilisation in Africa. The trader, the miner, 
and the hunter, most of whom have one object in common 
— the acquisition of the greatest wealth in the shortest 
time without respect to the rights of the natives. It is 
a well-known fact that Christian Missions, where they 
precede the flag of civilised nations, take root and 
transform the countries, so preparing the way for a true 
Christian civilisation. Alas ! when the flag has preceded 
the Christian missionary, the task of the latter has been 
immensely increased, and the hope of a native Christian 
civilisation rendered almost impossible. 

We have in Uganda striking illustrations of the former. 
In Nigeria we are face to face with the latter. 

In this immense triangle, to which we have referred, 
the only spot where the Moslems have any influence 
are the districts around Yakusu in the bend of the Congo, 
where the remnants of the slave-raiding forces under 
Tippo Tib still linger. It would seem, however, that 
their influence for Moslem propaganda is comparatively 
insignificant. But what that influence might become 
if strengthened by the Moslem forces from the East, it 
is difficult to say. In the meantime Christian Missions 
are making real progress, and happier days are dawning 
in the Congo. 

Into this north east corner of the Belgian Congo — • 
which has remained unoccupied down through the 
Christian centuries to the present time — two Missions 
have recently penetrated, and are now establishing 
centres for evangelisation. 

Mr. C. T. Studd, who has done such noble work in 
China and India, is consecrating the time when so many 
consider they are entitled to a well-earned rest, to a 
pioneer expedition, that might well have daunted men 
of stronger physique and younger years. Seeing the 
need, and realising no one else was available, he went 


forth accompanied by Mr. A. B. Buxton ; and after 
passing through Uganda, undertook his pioneer tour 
through the various districts between Lake Albert and 
the Welle River. They have now established the 
*' Heart of Africa Mission " at Nyangara. From 
their investigations it would appear that although Mos- 
lems have not as yet penetrated the country, they are 
not far distant ; and failing the occupation of the country 
by Christian Missions, it is certain that with the advance 
of trading facilities, they would soon over-run tliis 
district. The Belgian Government has manifested no 
desire to encourage Moslems, and is reported to be 
anxious that they should be kept out of the country. 
It has also agreed to grant a fund of 300,000 francs to 
subsidise Belgian Missions devoting themselves to the 
education and upraising of the natives. In these respects 
they are in advance of other Governments, representative 
of Protestant nations. Efforts are also being made by 
the Southern Methodist Church of U.S.A. to open a 
Mission at Wembo, Niami, in the Belgian Congo. 

The other Mission is the " Africa Inland Mission," 
which has established stations at Mahagi on Lake Albert, 
and Dungu. 

The present Diocese of Uganda, comprises five 
Provinces,* which together make up the Uganda Protect- 
orate, and the greater part of the sixth, which lies within 
the East African Protectorate. 

The recently published Government Census gives the 
total native population of the Protectorate at 2,840,469. 
Add to this the 900,000 in the Nyanza Province, and we 
have a total of over 3,700,000 ; of these, the Protestants 
claim as adherents some 200,000, the Roman Catholics 
some 230,000, and Moslems approximately 78,000.f 

* As regards area, the Northern Province stands first of the five 
with 36,500 square miles ; the Eastern Province, including Busoga 
and Bukedi, second with 32,000 ; then the kingdom of Buganda with 
21,300 ; then Rudolf with 17,600 ; and, lastly, the Western Province, 
including Toro and Ankole, with 10,100. 

t The approximate percentages being respectively : Protestants, 
5 per cent. ; Roman Catholics, 6 per cent. ; Moslems, 2 per cent. ; 
and Pagans, 87 per cent. 






Mengo ... 112,991 

Entebbe... 13,000 

Masaka ... 5,762 

MUBENDI... 8,391 

53 European Missionaries. 
29 African Clergymen. 

BusoGA ... 9,151 
BuLULU ... 585 

Elgon ... 2,598 
KuMi ... 916 

23 Europeans. 
2 African Clergymen. 

Ankoli ... 9,152 
ToRO 12,433 

BusuNDi... 13,947 
Lango ... 128 

ACHOLI ... — 

Bari 25 

GuLU ... 47 

21 Europeans. 
8 African Clergymen. 


Unoccupied __ _ _ 155,000* 


MuMiAS ... 5,000* 5,000* 2,500* 460,000* 

KisuMU ... 5,000 5,000* 2,500* 460,000* 

6 Europeans. 

The Gospel has made such wonderful progress in the 
Buganda Province that Christianity is firmly established, 
and Mohammedanism makes comparative!}^ little ad- 
vance, but, as an indication of the conflict of interests, 
the following story related by the Bishop of Uganda is 
striking, and also pathetic : 

" There are living in the eastern part of the Diocese 
of Uganda two brothers ; both are chiefs of considerable 
importance, and both, until quite recently, were pure 
pagans. Both brothers, however, were extremely anx- 
ious to be taught, and each had gone so far as to learn 
to read. the New Testament for himself. A single mis- 
sionary was available, whom each was anxious to secure. 




































The brother to whom the missionary went has now built 
a large school, and brings scores of his people daily under 
Christian instruction. That the interest is not confined 
to the chief was seen when the first reading sheets were 
available for sale, and 125 were sold within the first 
half hour. There can be no doubt that both chief and 
people are already keenly interested ; but the other 
brother, for whom no missionary was available, is now a 
Mohammedan, ' ' 

Beyond the boundaries of Uganda proper lie a 
heterogeneous mass of more primitive tribes, with a 
bewildering variety of languages and dialects, and often 
differing from the Baganda as widely as the peoples of 
Southern Europe differ from ourselves. Of the 3,700,000 
people living within the diocese, the Baganda form but 
a small proportion. It is among these other tribes, 
Bantu and non-Bantu, that the struggle between Christi- 
anity and Islam is really serious. The future of the Pagan 
tribes to the east and north of the Kingdom of Uganda 
still hangs in the balance.* 

* The Rev. A. B. Fisher, who has been a C.M.S. missionary in the 
Uganda Protectorate for twenty-two years, has been working for 
the last twelve months at Gulu, " the furthest northern outpost of 
the Uganda Mission, away amongst the wild and warlike tribes of the 
Ganyi and Lango," and he is hoptag to join up this work with the 
C.M.S. Mission in the Anglo -Egyptian Sudan. He writes : " The 
Uganda Administration are pushing out north, and hope soon to have 
stations controUing the entire district right up to the Abysinian 
frontier, and early in April next to take over the Lado Enclave from 
the Sudan Government. These pohtical developments make it of 
paramount importance that the district should be effectively occupied 
by the Mission. The Nilotic tribes are the connecting hnk between 
the nominally Christian country of Uganda on the south, and the 
aggressive Mohammedan forces of the north. Now that the Egyptian 
boundary is extended right down to the Ganp frontier, the Moham- 
medan advance is no longer a likely menace, but an actual fact that has 
to be faced by the Christian Church." 

An impressive scene is given by Mrs. Fisher. Writing from Gulu, 
she says : " Eight young men, converts of our native teacher who has 
been labouring there, came and offered themselves as teachers for the 
districts, and these have been sent out each under a senior Munyoro 
teacher to important outposts, where we have been urged to send 
missionaries. At one of these places during our journey here, between 
one and two thousand men and women came to see us. In order to 
be seen and heard by all, my husband mounted a high ant-hill, 
which made an excellent pulpit : and in a very short time he had that 
great audience repeating St. John iii. 16. It was most impressive to 
hear these poor spirit -worshippers saying these beautiful words, and 


In Uganda there is a fair field and no favour, although 
the legislative power is in Christian hands. In the 
National Lukiko Council, the heathen chiefs are practi- 
cally non-existent, and the Mohammedans are com- 
paratively few. 

There is no direct missionary work for Mohammedans 
in Uganda, but progress is made amongst them in the 
ordinary course of missionary effort, and especially do 
they profit by the facilities given in the splendid Hospitals 
and Educational Institutions, where they are brought 
directly in touch with Christian influence. 

Dr. A. R. Cook, of the Mengo Hospital, says, " On 
reviewing the year as a whole, progress has been marked 
all along the line. There have been strenuous efforts to 
utilise the rich material brought to our doors in a spiritual 
way. Considerably over a hundred heathen, Moham- 
medan and Roman Catholic patients have been started 
on a course of " Mateka " first reading book reading, 
and many of these have publicly taken up the attitude of 
Christ's disciples. I believe in years to come there will 
be a very rich harvest from this faithful sowing of the 

And the Rev. A. E. Pleydell, of Maseno, in Kavirondo, 
writes : — '' Only a few years ago Kavirondo was con- 
spicuous for its people's lack of clothing, its great heathen 
dances, and opium smoking ; but all this is rapidly passing 
away owing to Christian civilisation and Government 
control. If we read the signs of the times rightly, young 
Kavirondo will become Christian in a few years. Roughly, 
the number of our adherents is somewhere near five thou- 

The Rev. F. H. Wright says that on returning from 
furlough recently, he found that the movement towards 
Christianity, which commenced amongst the Nilotic 
Kavirondo in the Kisumu township about three years 
ago, had spread in a most remarkable manner. "It is 
a thrilling sight to see a closely-packed mass of black 
faces before one, and to notice many, who a few months 

to see their eager countenances. They did not stand on ceremony, 
but constantly interrupted the ' sermon ' by ejaculations of ' Very 
good words ! ' " 


ago were walking about naked, covered with grease and 
red ochre, Hving in terror of the evil spirits they beUeved 
awaited to do them injury, now clean and clothed, and 
joining together in the worship of a God of love and 
anxious to hear more of the revelation He has given us 
through His Son Jesus Christ." 

In striking contrast, it is confidently stated that Islam 
is on the wane in all these districts. 

In British East Africa the coast towns are Moham- 
medan, the coastal districts are completely under the 
sway of Islam, and the tribes penetrating inland are 
deeply affected. In most districts there have been 
Mohammedan settlements, though some may be small. 
They consist of traders ; and the people, through their 
propaganda, have adopted Islam ostensibly for trade 
purposes, but they really form bases for Islamic devel- 
opment. The principal areas where Islam is penetrating 
into the pagan territory in the hinterland of British 
East Africa are the Kisumu, Ukambe, and the Kenia 
Provinces. The advance is steady and general. 

Railways continue to open up these districts, and 
wherever they penetrate, civilisation creates new demands 
which the Moslem trader to a large extent supplies. 

A missionary in East Africa writes : " The railway 
is day by day pushing farther inland from the east coast, 
and all along the line, from the coast to the interior, as 
far as it has reached, are little Moslem mosques — quite 
insignificant little huts, but still sufficient for the scatter- 
ing broadcast of the seeds of the false doctrine which we 
know are being sent forth from each one. Which is to 
be triumphant in Ugogo — the Cross or the Crescent ? 
The answer lies with the Christian Church at home." 

These words might be re-echoed from every part of 
the continent where railway construction is proceeding, 
and to a less extent wherever good roads are opening up 
the way for commerce. Even in remote parts of the 
Kikuyu district, httle colonies of SwahiH traders from 
the coast are setting up their own villages and bazaars, 
and their little m.osques with them. The greater 
education, the superior wealth and clothing, and the 
general social superiority of these traders over the 


Pagans, give them a prestige which quickly leads to 

The positions of influence are not only the commercial 
but also the Government and military centres. The 
following account from the Usambara Country is typical 
of what is happening in the places where the propaganda 
is most vigorous. 

In Usambara up to 1891 Islam was hardly known, 
and permission for Christian missions to settle in the 
country was made dependent by the chiefs on their not 
having anything to do with the Arabs. In north-western 
parts of Usambara, Islam made its entrance with the 
first Government Karana (coloured official). This 
Karana, whose name was Moukuzi, immediately began 
his propaganda, and built his first mosque at Mlala. 
For defalcation he was sent away and the mosque closed, 
but Islam remained. A trader named Isanika, who 
came from Digo, followed him in his attempts to spread 
the religion of the Koran. Native boys, who helped the 
trader in his work, were circumcised and formed into a 
Koran school, and now Mohammedanism has spread 
farther and farther, especially from the Government 
headquarters at Wilhelmstal. Nearly all the lower 
Government officials are Mohammedans, and the native 
chiefs are told that he who wants to succeed in his 
dealings with them had better become a Mohammedan 
too. The most influential sub-chiefs in West Usambara 
are to-day Mohammedans. The village chiefs were 
called makafira (infidels) until they grew sick of it, and 
as a result of this social pressure turned Mohammedans. 
No mosques have as yet been built there, but during the 
month of Ramadan the people pray regularly five times 
a day, and in Mlala a new Koran school carries on its 
work. The older people still hesitate to throw in their 
lot with the young and enthusiastic converts. 

The influence of Moslem regiments of soldiers is even 
more efficacious in producing conversions to Islam. The 
Moslem soldier is much nearer to the people, and much 
more understood and feared than the great European 
ruler, whom they only see occasionally and at a distance. 
The European does not jeer at their religion, and, 


indeed, from their point of view, is apparently indifferent 
to all religion. Where he observes Sunday, and attends 
at church, it may be guessed that he is a Christian ; 
but where the Government weekly holiday is observed 
on the Mohammedan Friday, and where large receptions 
of chiefs are held on Mohammedan festivals, the pagan 
native finds it hard to believe that the European is not 
favouring Islam at the expense of all other religions. 
But, in any case, the soldier is to him the most 
visible and practical representative of the European 
Government, and if the soldier is a Moslem it has great 
weight with him. Even native Christians have repre- 
sented themselves as unable to bear the continuous sneers 
of the Moslem soldiers, who insult them as " uncir- 

In one district (Rufigi) a mission-school was pulled 
down by the soldiers at the instigation of a local official, 
and subsequently a Government school erected with a 
Moslem teacher. The plantation labourers then began 
to go over en masse to Mohammedanism. 

The Moslem menace is well realised in British East 
Africa, and all the pagan tribes in the Protectorate have 
been divided amongst the Protestant Societies by 

One of the objects of the federation is to meet more 
effectively this advance of Islam, which can be better 
accomplished by united action. 

Without entering into the controversy about Kikuyu 
that has aroused so much interest, we can pray that 
the progress in co-operation and federation that has 
been commenced may be carried to its full fruition. 
That the ultimate victory of the Cross may be complete 
in that whole land, forming as it does the greatest bul- 
wark, on the Eastern portion of the Continent, between 
Islam in the North, and Christianity in the South. 
Those who are at the front, face to face with the forces 
of evil, realise that " Uunion fait la force''' 

In this connection also, it is well to notice that 
Moslems are watching the course of events, as well as 
Christians at home, not to speak of the natives of all 


Mr. A. T. Upson, of the Nile Mission Press, Cairo, 
says : " The chief Arabic paper of the Islamic World, 
Al-Moayad, in a recent issue, has a most interesting 
article upon the Kikuyu Conference, two columns in 
length. The writer refers to the fact that at a place 
called Kikuyu, in British East Africa, there was a Con- 
ference, the chief object of which was the consideration 
of means of progress in missionary work, and then, 
secondarily, how to get greater unification of missionary 
forces ; but, in addition, there has come out of it a 
general cry that the Christian world has done wrong in 
allowing so much division in its ranks, and that the way 
to get a great move, first of all, is to unify the denomi- 

The writer goes on to speak, in a generally appre- 
ciative tone, of the objects and means of unification, and 
then draws the inference that the stronger the Christians 
become the greater will be the impact of their united 
forces upon Islam. Then he rightly draws the attention of 
his readers to the fact that it is time for them to wake up ; 
for when the Christians do become more united, and the 
differences of denomination become obliterated, Moslems 
will be hardly able to stand against them. " Where, 
then," he says, " are our Ulema (learned men), where 
are our leaders, and where are those that are able to 
donate funds for us to follow the example of the Chris- 
tians ? Things are in a bad condition ; rich men will 
not give their wealth ; and others will not start a move- 
ment ; but all the time we hear of the Christians planning 
and planning to do more against us. God, send us 
(Moslems) someone to collect together our scattered 

In German East Africa there has been a thorough 
investigation of the best way to check the advance of 
Islam, by Pastor Axenfeld, one of the ablest of the 
missionary secretaries in Europe, who spent several 
months upon the field visiting the Missions and con- 
ferring upon this matter. As a result it has been decided 
to found at Morogoro a missionary institution for the 
purpose of training Christian schoolmasters, and the 
German Government has promised to employ such 


teachers in its schools. That this effort may succeed, 
all three Societies — the Berlin Mission, the Moravians, 
and the C.M.S. — have agreed to co-operate. 

Such training Institutions could easily be multiplied 
if only the Church at home were ready to pay the cost. 
If we are willing to give ourselves to God for this work, 
and to follow His leading, we may be sure of His blessing. 
Then will the Moslem advance be turned backward, and 
the Christian advance will begin. 

The number of catechumens in the C.M.S. German 
East Africa field is now 2,324, whereas two years ago it 
was onl}^^ ninety-seven ; and during the last year pupils 
in C.M.S. Schools have increased from 7,200 to 17,000. 
Writing from camp in Pnela district of Ukaguru, on 
September 27th, Bishop Peel says : — 

"It is the exception now to have a poor welcome 
anywhere in Ugogo and Ukaguru where the C.M.S. is 
known and at work. All the Missionaries are rejoicing, 
some are wonder-struck, at what is happening in their 
districts in respect of desire for " teaching." I see 
Kanisas (mud and wattle churches) built by the people 
for Sunday and week-day use in most of the places I 
visit. It is for God to turn the hearts of the people to 
Himself now ; meanwhile we are glad before Him to 
know that in the greater part of the C.M.S. sphere in 
Ugogo and Ukaguru the Gospel is being taught and 

It is difficult to give a correct index of the different 
religions of the native population of German East 
Africa. Official reports estimate 300,000 Mohammedans. 
Outside of the Ruanda and Urindi on the Congo border, 
the other tribes appear to be opposed to adopting the 
dogmas of Islam. More Mohammedans are found in the 
coast belts, such as Usambara, Usagara and Khutu, 
but the vast majority of natives are so far quite un- 
sympathetic to the Oriental faith. 

The German Government are favourable, not merely 
to education but to Christian education, and are anxious 
to have Christian teachers in their schools rather than 
Moslems, as they regard the dominance of Islam in Africa 
as inimical to their interests. 


The German Missions are fully alive to their respon- 
sibilities, and, realising the added efficiency through 
union and co-operation, are anxious to secure this as 
far as possible. Of the several Missions, the Bielefeld 
Mission is working in the Usambara district, the north- 
east corner of the Colony, and since 1907 also in the 
north-west corner among the E-uanda people, a populous 
tribe. Then there is the Berlin Mission, occupying the 
Usaramo district and those lying south-west toward 
Lake Nyasa. Together with the Berlin Mission the 
Moravians started their work in German East Africa 
(1891), stretching from Lake Nyasa north-west and also 
north into the country of the Wanyamwesi. Two years 
later, in 1893, the Leipzig Mission began at the Kiliman- 
jaro, later on extending their work into the neighbouring 
spheres among the tribes of the Meru and of the Pare 
mountains. These are the older Missions, and all are 
making special efforts to counteract the Mohammedan 
advance. Thus, the Moravians have recently opened a 
station at Tabora, a most important Mohammedan place 
on the new central railway line, running from the coast 
to Lake Tanganyika. On the same railway the Morogoro 
Union Training Institute, previously referred to, has been 
called into existence, with a view of training preachers 
and teachers who thoroughly master the Swahili lan- 
guage, the lingua franca of East Africa. 

The Leipsig Mission also has extended its work in the 
direction toward the main railway line, into the Iramba 
district. And the whole move of the Bielefeld Mission 
into Ruanda was influenced by the impending Moham- 
medan peril. 

But the urgency of the claim has not only led to 
increasing efforts on the part of these societies, already 
working in German East Africa, it also called two more 
German missions into this field. In 1911 the Neukirchen 
Mission, following an invitation of the Bielefeld Mission, 
went to Urundi, south of Ruanda. The following year 
the Breklum Mission added another link southward 
through occupying the Uha district, and, meanwhile, 
opened a station at the terminus of the central railway 
at Ujiji, on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, a place 


known already in Livingstone's time as an emporium of 
Mohammedan trade. In this connection we might cross 
the continent and mention the new efforts in the Kamer- 
uns, where the Gossner Mission have opened near Carnot, 
and the Deutscher Hilfsbund propose commencing at 
Leri. The Seventh Day Baptists have also to be men- 
tioned. A new district, east of Lake Victoria, has been 
added to their older work carried on in the southern part 
of the Pare district. 

All this shows that the German Missions are facing 
the problem, and that they are determined to meet the 
demand of the hour. But these new tasks add new 
financial burdens to the old ones, and much will depend 
in the future on whether Christian Germany is willing to 
provide means, and men, for this important task. 

Along the East African coast line down to Chinde, 
Beira and Delagoa Bay, the Moslem traders from India 
are to be found everywhere. From these districts they 
have penetrated to N3^asaland, where they have settled 
for trading ; and though not aggressive in their propa- 
ganda, the fact of their marrying native women leads to 
a generation of half-castes who are brought up to observe 
their fathers' practices. The slave trade from Zanzibar 
and the east coast originally brought Mohammedans 
through Portuguese territory south of the Rovuma 
River, and from there to the southern end of Lake Nyasa. 
Mponda and Fort Johnstone, where the Shire River 
leaves the lake, form strong Moslem centres. From 
there Islam reaches down south between Zomba Mountain 
and Lake Shirwa for a distance of about eighty miles,, 
and extends within thirty miles of Blantyre. 

The Rev. R. H. Napier, B.D., of the Church of 
Scotland Foreign Mission, reports : " The Zomba- 
Domasa part of their mission field has many Moslems, 
perhaps 10,000, but Blantyre has very few, and Mlanje 
a decreasing number. The frontier of Islam may,, 
therefore, be regarded locally as the latitude of the 
southern end of the Lake Shirwa. 

" In that area live three peoples — Yao, Any an j a,, 
and others. Islam chiefly affects the Yaos and very 
slightly the others. We accept it as good policy that. 


if possible, anti-Moslem literature should be in Yao. 
As many Yao chiefs, and many Yao soldiers in Govern- 
ment employ, are Moslems, Islam is fashionable among 
Yaos. Some districts are almost wholly Moslem. In 
others, Moslem and heathen villages dot the country. 
It is an accepted dictum that, unless hindered, Islam 
will take over the heathen. 

" Islam wheels round the south of Lake Nyasa and 
extends up to Kota-Kota, which was of old noted as a 
slave export place, and is now known for Islam and 
syphilis. Islam hardly extends at all into Angoniland 
on the south-west of the lake, and not at all on the 
lower Shire River. I have heard from travellers that 
away west in Rhodesia, Islam is prevalent and is pushing 

" In Portugese East Africa, in its northern part, live 
many Moslem Yaos. They have influenced the Anguru 
people south of them (also called Mauwa) along the line 
of the Luli river, who are newly Moslem, and other 
Anguru just east of Lake Shirwa. South of the Luli 
basin I have found no Moslems. On the Malema, a 
southern tributary of the Luli, some Moslem Mauwa 
natives told me that they would abandon Islam if the 
Mission would come to teach them. Just east of Lake 
Shirwa I was told by a native that the local Augura had 
received Islam only because Christianity had not 

" Hence to lay off the frontier of Islam in the inland 
part of East Africa, draw a line from Fort Jamieson in 
north-east Rhodesia to Kota-Kota on Lake Nyasa ; 
then to Eponda or Matope on the Upper Shire River ; 
then to the south end of Lake Shirwa ; then down the 
Luli (or Lurio) River to the Ocean. Mozambique is 
Moslem, too, but of the vicinity I know nothing. 

" Where the most rapid advance is I do not know, but 
the district just south of Lake Nyasa has the most 
Moslems newly made. South through Fort Johnstone 
to Zomba has been a rapid victory for Islam, but the belt 
of native parishes with dozens of schools across southern 
Nyasaland will not let it get farther. Where the mission 
village school, staffed by trained native teacher-evangel- 


ists, holds the field first, or where it enters the field at 
the same time as Islam, Christianity grows into a vigorous 
native Church, and Islam usually loses many members 
to Christianity. Islam is dying out of some districts 
where it once had an incipient hold. Its frontier is its 
weakest part. 

" As to occupation, Nyasaland is adequately occupied. 
The London Missionary Society, the Dutch Reformed 
Church Mission, the Anglicans and the Romanists are in 
Rhodesia. It is absolutely vital to checking the advance 
of Islam to occupy Portuguese East Africa. The Anglican 
Universities' Mission works in from Zanzibar towards 
Nyasa, and also in the region of Fort Johnstone and 
Kota-Kota. The Church of Scotland is just beginning 
work about 100 miles east of Lake Shirwa, with a view 
to extend immediately from there to the sea in a direction 
south-east so as to build an Islam-proof barrier across 
the country. Experience shows that a net work of 
Christian schools, under native teacher-evangelists, 
schools which, group by group, produce native Christians 
and grow into parishes, together with a vernacular Bible 
and good training and supervision of these teachers by 
Europeans — that this gives an armour-belt almost in- 
vulnerable to Moslem attack. It is equally the tried 
method of winning Moslem Africa." 

Of the tribes most deepty affected by Islam, the Yao 
is the most important. Originally coming from the coast 
and socially affected by Islam, it has not merely held its 
own but has increased its influence. 

A great many of the native troops are recruited from 
this tribe, and the superior air which they assume tends 
to bring into the ranks of Mohammedanism other natives 
who, like the native everywhere, hate to be looked down 
upon. As a man can become Mohammedan by paying 
6s. in exchange for a small slate bearing a sentence of the 
Koran, and the only further necessity is that he conform 
to certain practices, Mohammedanism gains ground with 
some ease in this way, but, on the other hand, Nyasaland 
has not yet forgotten the slaving of forty and fifty 
years ago, and the wonderful blessing granted to the work 
of the Livingstonia and other Christian missions has 


resulted in a bulwark being erected against the advance 
of Islam. 

The concensus of information of missionaries in South 
Africa appears to be that there is a decided movement 
on the part of Malays to win over the white and coloured, 
whether Christians or Jews. The evil is so gradual in 
growth, and so insidious, as to pass almost unnoticed. 
Both the Malays and Indian Moslems endeavour to secure 
converts for Islam by marrying white women and girls 
by Mohammedan rites, and adopting white children. 
The native Christians are often very ignorant of the 
difference between their own religion and Mohammedan- 
ism, and in order to deceive them, the Mohammedans 
exercise rites corresponding to Baptism and Holy Com- 
munion called by similar names. Arab, Indian, Egyptian 
and Turkish Moslems are actively engaged spreading 
their faith by Koranic schools, charms, sorcery, threats, 
and immorality. One writer says, " It is painful beyond 
description to see everywhere white and coloured, who 
once were Christian or Jewish children, now adults 
bearing Mohammedan names, wearing the Malay head- 
dress, often, alas ! decorated with charms, and it is 
marvellous to see what a difference this has brought 
about — moral deterioration, aloofness, hatred, antagon- 
ism to their former co-religionists and nationality." 

In South Africa — a general term for the district south 
of the Zambesi and Cunene Rivers — Islamic propaganda 
is limited at present, but active in its character.* 

The Rev. G. B. A. Gerdener, B.A. has been appointed 
by the Dutch Reformed Church for tlie organisation of 
their special work amongst the Mohammedans. He has 
made careful investigations, and reports as follows with 
reference to the numbers and dispositions of the Moham- 
medans, and the efforts being made to reach them : — 

" Outside the Union, says Mr. Gerdener, there is no 

*1. In the Union of S. Africa. Census 1911. Europeans, 62 ; 
Bantu, 1896 ; Coloured, 43,946 (Dutch speaking half-caste). Total in 
the Union of S. Africa, 45,904. 

2. Outside the Union of S. Africa, including German S.W.A., 
Bechuanaland, S. Rhodesia, and Portugese E.A, South of Zambesi. 
The nearest approximation, no official figures available, 1,000. Final 
total, 46,904. 


immediate propaganda, as far as I am aware. The 1,000 
Moslems put down for these parts are scattered chiefly 
over South Rhodesia, where they are Bantu coming from 
the interior and engaged in the mines, and to a less extent 
on farms, and in Portuguese East Africa, where they are 
chiefly Indians in such coast towns as Laurenzo Marques. 

" The 45,904 Moslems in the Union are found chiefly 
in three centres (districts) • Natal has 13,475, the Western 
Province of the Cape has about 22,000, while there are 
said to be several thousands on the Rand (Johannesburg 
and environs). The remainder are scattered all over, 
the majority hugging the coastal towns, where they hold 
hawkers and general dealers' licenses. 

" In each of these three districts the situation is 
distinct : Natal Moslems are, with hardly any exceptions, 
Indians, chiefly Gujerati-speaking, from Bombay. They 
are scattered over the Province, being almost divided 
between rural and urban areas. Generally speaking, 
they seem to be making little headway in the matter of 
proselytising. No cases of Bantu having become Moslems 
are known in Natal. Hinduism predominates in Natal. 
There is no systematic effort to bring the Gospel to the 
Moslems, and inefficient propaganda on behalf of Hindus 
in Natal. Incidentally, by means of individual effort, 
something is done for the Moslems, but nothing to speak 
of, and some Society should be invited to place a special 
worker in the Moslem field of Natal. 

" On the Rand there are said to be thousands of 
Moslems from Central Africa, each a zealous missionary 
for his cause. While it is true that many of the Transvaal 
Moslems are Bantu from Central Africa, and are engaged 
on the mines, it is too much to say that each is a zealous 
missionary. The majority come from the east coast, 
Quilimane and Mozambique, and are themselves little 
more than formal followers of the Crescent. This does 
not minimise the danger, for the Rand is a seed-bed for 
mission work of any kind, and any day a regular Moslem 
propaganda may have the most far-reaching conse- 
quences. The attention of the many agencies working 
in the Compounds should be drawn to the danger and 
the opportunity, and a call made for the workers to give 



direct and sympathetic attention to Moslems who come 
to the mines and usually stay a short period before they 
return home. Of the 8,193 Moslems in Transvaal, 7,156 
are in urban areas, 3,279 being in Johannesburg itself." 

We cannot leave the Dark Continent without a brief 
reference to the adjoining Island of Madagascar, where, 
unfortunately, Islam is making progress, especially 
among the Sakalava race. Practically the whole popu- 
lation on the coast from Soalala to Mojanja is already 
Mohammedan. For many years Arab influence has been 
felt to some extent, and recently Mohammedan Indians 
have settled in the country. This influence has also been 
increased by the influx of Comorians and Soalala, who 
marry several Sakalava wives. The number of Moham- 
medans in the Island is estimated at about 75,000. 
Some villages are almost equally divided, the original 
pagans having become either Christian or Mohammedan. 
It is stated that many vices, especially drunkenness and 
immorality, have been introduced by the Mohammedans. 
The recent United Conference of the various Missionary 
Societies at work in the island should be most valuable 
in strengthening the forces now available, and calling 
out further reinforcements with a view to planning a 
campaign for the evangelisation of the island before the 
further progress of Islam increases the difficulties of 
Christian Missionary effort. 

Wm. J. W. ROOME. 





The urgent nature of the crisis in the Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan has recently been brought home to me by a trip 
through North-east Africa, from Alexandria to Mombasa. 
The journey southward to Khartoum reveals a pathetic 
picture of the trimphant advance of Islam and a woeful 
lack of Christian missionary enterprise among the pagan 
Nilotic tribes. For hundreds of miles at a stretch, 
among semi-pagan and wholly pagan tribes, there is a 
total absence of missionary work, and the inevitable 
consequence is everywhere apparent, — Islam is making 
unopposed progress through the country and so rendering 
future missionary work incalculably more difficult. The 
small number of missionaries who are at present in the 
field is utterly inadequate for the task of checking this 
Moslem advance. There should be at least five times 
as many as there are at present if such scattered tribes 
as the Dinka and Shilluk people are to be evangelized. 
The field is hopelessly undermanned. 

The excuse often urged for this unoccupied state of 
the Sudan is a government regulation regarding Christian 
missions which, it is supposed, prohibits mission work 
throughout the whole Sudan. But while this may or 
may be not true regarding Khartoum and the northern 
Sudan, it certainly does not apply to the southern and 
pagan part of the country. Indeed, so far is it from 
being the case, that the Government expressly invited 
missionary co-operation, a few years ago, in the work 
of civilizing and educating the people ; and at the 
present time by granting half fares on the steamers and 
trains, and by giving other concessions to missionaries, 
the Government is greatly helping the work of those 
societies whose representatives are in the field. But 


despite this invitation to undertake missionary work, 
and despite the facilities afforded, the country has an 
utterly insufficient force to do the work of winning the 
people to Christ. 

The actual figures relative to the numbers and 
distribution of mission stations and workers south of 
Khartoum are as follows : For the first four hundred 
odd miles Islam has undisputed liberty to expand and 
become rooted, th&e being no mission station in that 
huge territory, although there are a great many pagan 
and semi-pagan people there. Then at Melut, 420 miles 
south of Khartoum, is situated the recently opened 
Sudan United Mission station, in connection with the 
establishment of which my trip through the country 
was undertaken. This station has at present a staff of 
only three men, but it is hoped that others will shortly 
arrive to augment that number. Then southward again 
for another 100 miles, and one sees the American United 
Presbyterian station at the junction of the Sobat and the 
Nile. Here, including the missionaries at an out-station, 
there is a force of seven. South of the mouth of the 
Sobat, and on the Nile, there is another great gap of 
about 200 miles, when the C.M.S. station of Malek is 
reached. Here there are four missionaries. This is the 
last Protestant mission station in the Sudan on the Nile, 
there being a gap to the south of some 300 miles before 
the C.M.S. station of Gulu in Uganda is reached. West 
of the Nile and in the Bahr el Ghazal province of the 
Sudan, are two C.M.S. stations at Zau and Yambio, with 
a force of four men between them. Besides these 
Protestant stations, there are on the west bank of the 
river three Austrian Roman Catholic missions, but I do 
not know their total number of workers. Thus the 
Protestant missionary force in this most important and 
strategic region total eighteen in all, only about two- 
thirds of whom can ever be in the field at the same 
time ! 

Relative to the population of the Sudan this number 
of missionaries is perhaps as great, or greater, than the 
number in certain parts of China, India and Japan, but 
the present population of a particular region or country 


is by no means the only consideration to be taken into 
account in the distribution of our forces. The nature 
of the people and their religion, the relation of that 
country or region to other countries, and its accessibility 
to the Christian world, must also be considered. On all 
these grounds the situation in the Sudan challenges our 
most earnest attention. 

(1) The Nilotic tribes are simple people, like children 
in many respects, and are easily impressed by show and 
force, unless animated by religious fanaticism, which, as 
pagans, they never are. Their religion is a primitive 
one, which quickly gives way to any more dogmatic 
teaching than its own. Indeed, those who know most 
about Africa assure us that the days of paganism are 
numbered, and that it must crumble away in the near 
future before any more dogmatic or seemingly authori- 
tative religion that comes into conflict with it. If -a 
sufficient number of Christian mission stations were 
planted among these people while they are yet pagan 
and in a comparatively plastic condition, there would 
be great hope — not, perhaps, of winning them to Christ 
in one generation, but at least of checking the progress 
of Islam by showing the pagans that there are other 
religions than Islam in which civilized people believe. 
At the present time it appears to the pagan that all the 
educated, rich and powerful people are Moslems, and the 
poor and oppressed are, like himself, of no religion. If 
a pagan who lives near a Moslem settlement is asked 
whether he is a Moslem, he says " Yes " at once. Why ? 
Because he is a Moslem ? No ! He is no more a Moslem 
than his questioner : he merely says " yes " because he 
thinks that all the seemingly rich and powerful foreigners 
from the north are Moslems, and he too wants to be rich 
and powerful and wise. It is not so much the moral 
license of Islam that first attracts the pagan, for he 
probably never learns what Islam allows or prohibits ; 
it is the clothes and the wealth and the apparent wisdom 
of the Moslem that he covets. He calls himself a Moslem 
because that is the highest thing he has ever heard of. 
But it is only a step between calling himself a Moslem 
and becoming a Moslem and training his family in 


Islam. If, then, there were more evidences of Christi- 
anity, this impressionable pagan would turn to Christi- 
anity as easily as to Mohammedanism ; he might be as 
poor a Christian convert as he is now a convert to Islam, 
but at least he would not be a bigoted opponent of 
Christianity, and something more might be done with 
his children. 

(2) With regard to the relation of the Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan to the countries to the west, south and east of 
it : on the west is the French Sudan, partly Moslem and 
partly pagan : on the south lies the Belgian Congo and 
the Uganda Protectorate, where a native church is 
already grappling with a Moslem advance from the 
south-east : on the east lies Abyssinia, in which a nominal 
Christianity has almost let its light die out. W^hat, then, 
will be the effects on these neighbouring countries if we 
allow the southern Sudan to become wholly or pre- 
dominantly Moslem ? A great impetus would be given 
to the spread of Islam in the Congo and the French 
Sudan, the already complex problems of Uganda would 
be greatly increased, and Abyssinia would be filled with 
Moslem traders eager to spread their victorious faith. 

(3) The accessibility of the Sudan : No country 
could be more accessible. Khartoum is only nine days' 
journey from London ! It is the nearest heathen field 
to Christian Europe, and yet it has only eighteen mission- 
aries working there. From Khartoum several steamers 
run southward each month, branching at the Sobat and 
Lake No, to the various streams of the Upper Nile. 
Throughout the length and breadth of the country runs 
the finest navigable waterway in the world, but while 
this great river brings food and life to Egypt, it bears 
only merchandise and Islam to the south. 

I would plead with those who may chance to read 
this article for a great outpouring of prayer for the pagan 
tribes of the Sudan, and for an active interest in the 
work of extending the Kingdom of God in that neglected 

Melbourne, D. N. MacDiarmid. 




In The Moslem World for October last we pointed out 
what an m-valuable discovery Mr. Muhammad Tahirut 
Tanir had made in the mistaken idea that the Gospel 
narrative was derived from heathen sources. We shewed 
that he had borrowed his assertions from one or two 
books of no authority, that even his array of " author- 
ities " was itself copied from a particularly worthless 
book, that the works relied on were hopelessly out of 
date and unreliable, and that he had fortified his " quota- 
tions " from certain Oriental books by interpolations 
of his own, so as to delude his readers into imagining 
that these books taught doctrines never dreamt of by 
their authors. Literary dishonesty of this kind must 
revolt every honest reader of Mr. Tanir' s lucubrations. 

Strangely enough, however, an Englishman — a Mr. 
Parkinson — has taken up the cudgels on behalf of Mr. 
Tanir (whose book he has evidently never read) in the 
" Muslim India " of last January. He does not profess 
to believe in Islam — nay, he begins by scoffing at belief 
in the Virgin-birth of the Lord Jesus Christ, though it is 
taught in the Koran itself* — but he rejoices in the 
opportunity of attacking Christianity. 

Not only has Mr. Parkinson omitted to possess himself 
of Mr. Tanir' s book, but he has proved to his readers that 
he has failed to read in their original languages any of 
the Oriental authorities from which all reliable knowledge 
of Oriental religions must clearly be derived. It is 
obviously unfair to these religions to depend for infor- 
mation about their tenets upon the chance statements 
of foreign travellers. 

* Siirahs Al Tahrim, ver. 12 ; Al Anbiyd, ver. 91 ; Maryam, vv. 
6-22 ; Al 'Imrdn, vv. 40-42, the verses being numbered as in Flugel's 


It is only because he cannot find any Sanskrit or Pali 
authority for a " Crucifixion Myth " in India, in con- 
nexion with Indra, Krishna, or any other Hindu deit}^ 
that my critic has to depend on the statements of " the 
Jesuit Andrade, writing from Tibet in 1626," and " the 
Jesuit Giorgi " in 1772. Such dependence is a confession 
of lack of evidence to prove what he wants to prove ; 
and to say " scholars are agreed that even late documents 
contain early legends " is not to the point. Proof is 
needed of the early existence of the legends, and proof is 
the one thing lacking in Mr. Parkinson's article — ^that 
and logic. Possibly he and his school are superior to 
such sublunary matters, and it is only his readers who 
are affected by their absence. If it be true that, in some 
unnamed city in Nepal in 1880, at the Indra festival 
" figures of Indra, with outstretched arms," were 
" erected all about the city," how does that prove that 
the Hindus believe Indra to have been crucified ? The 
Rig- Veda and all their sacred books, in fact all their 
known literature, may be searched in vain for such a 
tenet. Hinduism is still a living faith, so that it is easy 
to test Mr. Parkinson's (laughing or crying) " Hier- 
ologist's " assertions. Even Mr. Parkinson himself, we 
presume, occasional^ stretches out his arms without 
being crucified. The fact that the Khonds — and not 
they only, alas ! — used to offer human sacrifices, or even 
my critic's vague assertion that in some places there is 
" a certain propensity to the symbol of the cross," or 
his " doubt if we are yet acquainted with all the relative 
facts concerning the earty worship of Krishna," — all 
these things together fail to convince any reasonable 
man that there was " an early legend telling of a crucified 
Krishna," or Indra. In fact, the very attempt to bolster 
up a theory by irrelevant statements and an appeal to 
people's ignorance has the effect of shewing in what 
desperate straits Mr. Parkinson and his " Hierologists " 
find themselves. Of course, if imagination and baseless 
assertion commend themselves to people, even though 
opposed to all the known facts of the case, we have 
nothing more to say. But we Christians prefer to stick 
to facts rather than credit fictions, even when the latter 


appear in " Muslim India." Nor can the statement that 
" Professor Drews . . . appears to suggest a quasi- 
crucifixion " prove anything against (1) the complete 
absence of any such doctrine in the Hindu books, ancient 
and modern alike, and (2) the positive assertion of these 
books* that Krishna died of an arrow-wound in the foot. 

As Christians, our motto is, " Prove all things, hold 
fast that which is good."* As for all such theories as the 
Modern Mythologists of the type of Robertson, Doane, 
Phelips, et hoc genus omne, devise, we ask for proof as we 
examine them. Such make assertions in considerable 
numbers and with eloquent reiteration : but when we 
test them they generally break down, like those of Mr. 
Tanir and his would-be champion. 

It is oft^n asserted that there are numerous heathen 
parallels to the Gospel narrative of our Lord's Virgin 
Eirth, the Massacre of the Innocents, the Crucifixion, 
Resurrection, Ascension, etc. I have examined these 
supposed parallels in my " Mythic Christs and the True," 
" The Noble Eightfold Path," " Christianity and Other 
Faiths," and in my paper on " Mithraism " (Journal of 
the Victoria Institute, vol. xliii., pp. 237, &,), and I have 
proved that such parallels exist only in the imaginations 
of credulous men, who, for the most part, have not taken 
the trouble to study the sacred books of the Chinese, 
Persians, Ancient Egyptians, Hindus, Babylonians, etc., 
in their original languages. Of course such studies take 
time, but in no other subject is a man held to be fit to 
teach unless he has studied, and knows something of what 
he writes about. 

Much of my critic's " logic " is worthy of notice as 
somewhat peculiar. He has not succeeded in shewing 
how the eighth child of Devaki and her husband Vasudeva 
could be considered " Virgin-born," though he employs 
ridicule to supply his lack of evidence. Nor does he 
succeed better when he turns from India to Finland. As 
this latter is a point which is not often put forward, we 
must devote a few lines to its consideration. 

* The main authorities are given in my Article in the October 
number of The Moslem World. 

t 1 Thess. V. 21. 


" In Finnish mythology," writes Mr. Parkinson, " the 
white-bosomed virgin Mariatta becomes pregnant by 
contact with a mountain berry, and takes refuge in a 
stable, where her child is born." In contrast with most 
of his statements he is correct here. The account is given 
at full length in the " Kalevala," the " national Epic " 
of Finland, Runol, verses 1-430. There we are told, 
moreover, that the stable, far from a village, was heated 
by the breath of horses. Her son vanished from Mar- 
jatta's* knee, as she was brushing his hair. When she 
searched for him, a star told her that her son had created 
it, so did the moon and the sun. The latter informed her 
that her son was sunk in a marsh up to his armpits. 
Finding him there, she took him to be " crossed," " sprin- 
kled with mater," and " baptised." He was made King 
of all Carelia. Then his opponent, the old Finnish hero 
Vainamoinen, who had in vain urged that the child 
should be thrown into a swamp, abandoned on hills 
thick with berries, or killed by having his head shattered 
against the trees, departed in anger, leaving the child 
to take his place. But what does all this prove ? The 
epic was first put into writing by Elias Lonnrot in 1835 ; 
but he " afterwardsf re-arranged and expanded it," 
publishing it in this final form in 1849. Doubtless much 
of it had existed for centuries in oral form as separate 
ballads before its being put into a connected whole in 
this way : but the antiquity of the part with which we 
are now concerned cannot be so great as to give any 
support to Mr. Parkinson's contention. In several other 
parts of the epic marks of Christian influence are seen — 
e,g,, an evil character appears as Juntas, which name, 
as Kirby, the English translator, points out, is " pro- 
bably derived from %Judas'' Moreover, a few Teutonic 
and Scandinavian words occur in the Finnish text, such 
as meren {gen,) for " seas " in Runo i., 125. This is from 
the German Meer, ' sea,' and shews that German influence 

* This is the proper Finnish spelling of the name, the j being 
pronounced y, as in German. 

t Kirby's " Kalevala," Dent's Ed., Vol. i., Introduction, p. viii. 

X Glossary, S. V. Juntas. 


had more or less acted on the Finns before that verse was 
written. Such points affect the antiquity and independ- 
ence of the legends. Regarding Marjatta, however, the 
case is clear. I translate the following passage from the 
note in the Name-Index of Forsman's admirable Finnish 
edition of the text of the Kalevala," with Finnish notes, 
pubhshed in 1887. 

" Marjatta,"^ name of a female, formed from Maria, 
the name of Jesus' mother, modified in the mouth of the 
people in such a manner that thereby the meaning is 
Finnish, which then again evidently gave origin to the 
myth that the Saviour was produced from a berry. ^' 

The meaning of this is, that Marja in Finnish means 
" a berry," and that the Finns fancied that Maria, 
instead of being a foreign (Greco-Hebrew) name, was 
Finnish. In order to account for this name, therefore, 
the legend came into existence.! 

When the matter is studied, therefore, it is evident 
that the legend of Marjatta is not pre-Christian but is, 
on the contrary, derived from the Gospel narrative and a 
mistaken etymology. We have dealt at some length 
with this matter because it affords an admirable illus- 
tration of the way in which all such asserted heathen 
parallels to Gospel narratives invariably fail when 
honestly examined without a credulous anti- Christian 
bias. Mr. Parkinson has here given us another specimen 
of his ability to discover a Mare's Nest on his own account. 

Classical scholars may judge from his mistaken 
reference to " Grseco-Roman mythology " in Juno's 
case how trustworthy are his assertions regarding Oriental 
and American religious myths. 

As I have pointed out in Chapter VII. of my 
" Christianity and Other Faiths," there is a vast differ- 
ence between Virgin-hirth and any other " supernatural " 
birth. The former is rarely, if ever (apart from Christian 

♦ P. 390. 

t Similar cases occur in other tongues. Thus the ignorant in 
Persia think that Ghdi (" tea "), instead of being a foreign word 
(Chinese chd), is their own word chdhi, " belonging to a well or pit." 
Hence the story has become current that the Chinese find tea by 
groping in underground pits ! 


influence), found in any religion but the Christian : the 
latter is commonly the subject of myths which have 
ultimately become attached to most characters of the 
past who in fable (and sometimes in fact) have played 
important parts in the world, such as Perseus, Krishna, 
Buddha. To confound Virgin-birth with other super- 
natural methods of birth is not conducive to clearness of 
thought, yet Mr. Parkinson follows in the track of his 
honoured " hierologists " in this matter — quite inno- 
cently, as far as we can judge. But every Moslem can 
readily see the distinction to which we refer, if he will 
remember that, though not a few x4rabic and Persian 
writers speak of Mohammed's supernatural* birth, yet 
it is never claimed that he was Virgin-horn. On the 
other hand, the Koran asserts that Christ was born of a 
Virgin. Surely it is not necessary to call attention to 
the fact that the word virgin has a very clear and definite 
meaning. Hence the fact that " Krishna could not be 
virgin-born because he was the eighth child of his mother " 
Devaki and her husband Vasudeva is clear to the Hindu 
mind, if not to my critics. Hence, too, the Hindus have 
never held such a tenet. The same thing applies to the 
Buddhists. They have never believed that Buddha was 
virgin-born. As for " the Cyrus legend " to the same 
effect, which Mr. Parkinson fancies so ancient, the same 
result is found on enquiry. Fortunately Cyrus gives us 
his own genealogy in one of his inscriptions, tracing it 
back for some generations to Teispes (Persian Chaishpish, 
Assyrian Sispis). He calls himself " son of Cambyses " 
Persian Kambujiya, Assyrian Kambuziya)f . Herodotus 
(L, 91, 107, 108) and Xenophon (" Cyropaedia," I.) agree 
that his father was the Persian Cambyses and his mother 
the Median princess Mandane. No hint whatever of 
Virgin-birth, or even of anything supernatural about it, 
is given in any one of these three sources. In fact, the 
very contrary is definitely stated. Thus we find that 
another bubble has burst. 

* Telling, e.g., how the " Light of Mohammed," which once shone 
on Adam's forehead, left 'Abdullah and attended Aminah from 
Mohammed's conception till his birth. 

t See the original text of the Assyrian inscription in RawUnson's 
*' Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia," Vol. v., plate 35. 


We now come to Jerome's statement (in the fourth 
century of our era) that Buddha was supposed to have 
come forth from a virgin's side. A late Buddhist myth 
does indeed state that he emerged from Maya's side, but 
her virginity is not asserted. Jerome's statement* could 
not in any case carry much weight, as he knew nothing 
of India at first hand, especially since it is contrary to 
the authoritative religious books of the Buddhists them- 
selves. But any small degree of weight it might other- 
wise seem to have quite vanished when we discover (as 
I have shewn in " Christianity and Other Faiths," p. 90) 
that he confounded with the Indian Buddha a Persian 
impostor who assumed that title about 200 A.D, Besides 
claiming Virgin-birth in a sense, this man also imitated 
our Lord by appointing twelve disciples. Some European 
writers of our own time have sunk deeper into the mire 
than Jerome, and with much less excuse, by ascribing 
these twelve disciples to the true Buddha. 

It would really be worth my critic's while to study a 
subject before writing about it. The matter upon which 
he has written well deserves years of careful study. 
When he undertakes it, he will find that Mr. Robertson 
can hardly be quoted as an authority upon Hinduism or 
any other faith. As for " Mr. Vivian's "f book, if Mr. 
Parkinson will refer to Mr. Howard Nash's " Pagan and 
Christian Parallels in the light of Modern Thought," he 
will see that " Vivian " has unblushingly copied wholesale 
from Doane, while professing (as Mr. Tanir does) to have 
investigated matters for himself. The thing is so un- 
worthy that no Englishman could venture for an instant 
to defend such conduct, if fully aware of it. 

It is not my present task to disprove the quite baseless 
assertion that " no scholar now believes that the Evang- 
elists wrote the Gospels." On the contrary, few scholars 
would venture to make such a statement. The " Ency- 
clopaedia Biblica " is not considered by any scholar as 
settling the question. Much water has flowed under 
Blackfriars Bridge since that work issued from the press.. 

* Found in his Contra Jovinianum. Lib. i., § 22, 
t His real name is Phelips. •» 


It will suffice for the present to refer to Professor Har- 
nack's writings on the subject. The latest result of 
researches is to shew that belief in the genuineness and 
authenticity of the New Testament books in general 
stands on surer ground than ever. Every attack on 
them serves but to manifest in ever clearer light their 
reliability. So, too, the efforts of opponents in recent 
years to prove that Christianity has borrowed from 
Mithraism, Buddhism, Hinduism, from Greek and Asiatic 
" Mysteries," from the religions of Babylonia, Egypt, 
and even China, have led both Christian and non-Chris- 
tian scholars to investigate the matter at first hand : 
and such investigation is rapidly dispelling the illusion 
and rendering it evident that the position of Christianity 
is more impregnable than ever imagined before. " The 
gates of Hades shall not prevail against it." 

W. St. Clair Tisdall. 




* [Because of the importance of the language problem in Missions 
to Moslems, we welcome this brief article on one of the most celebrated 
language-schools in Europe. — Ed.] 

In 1884 Germany appeared as a colonial power. In 
October, 1908, the City of Hamburg opened an insti- 
tution for the special purpose of preparing public officials 
and private individuals for service in foreign parts. 
Similar undertakings had been contemplated or variously 
carried out elsewhere ; but the Hamburgisches Kolonial- 
institut is unique in the boldness of its conception and 
the thoroughness of its organization. All such as have 
to do with the expansion and development of the German 
colonies — officials, missionaries, merchants, planters, 
travellers and scientific investigators — were to have the 
conceivabty best preparation for their tasks. More than 
this, it was to invite foreign students to study in Ham- 
burg and acquaint themselves with German science and 
German colonial problems, and create in the European 
home countries an intelligently sympathetic puhliJcum 
which might be relied on to favour the colonies with 
sound legislation and enterprising settlers. German 
universities, libraries and museums offered in a scattered 
way more than probably could have been found in any 
other country ; in Berlin existed the Seminar filr Orient- 
alische Sprachen, well-known in scholarship. But the 
new institution was to represent the colonial idea, and 
yet avoid being an isolated community of mediocre 
scientific character. The organization was effected by 
merging the various lectureships and institutes in Ham- 
burg into a whole, under the patronage of Edmund 
Siemers and Alfred Beit, public-spirited citizens of the 
small republic. Characteristic of its spirit is the legend 
over the portal : Der ForscMing, der Lehre, der Bildung, 


The curriculum invades the province of the university 
in including philosophy, jurisprudence, political science, 
history and geography. Its main and characteristic work 
centres about the Seminars, groups of instructors, native 
assistants, and students with the books and apparatus 
pertaining to the lands and civilizations studied. Thus 
the Moslem Orient, Eastern Asia, and Africa form each 
a group. The phonetic laboratory serves them all ; and 
the German merchant marine co-operates in furnishing 
rare human materials for investigation from distant 
ports. At the other end of the scale we find courses in 
cooking and a variety of homely arts. 

It is no matter of chance or of national endowment 
that German officials are in all the world proficient 
linguists, and often also men of scientific training. 
German commerce is the richer for these men. If they 
have a line of goods to sell or a message to carry, this 
is done without the continued friction which exists 
between iU-trained and untrained men and a foreign 
environment. Civil service is not in politics. Technical 
preparation is required beforehand. The hopeless are 
eliminated early with great economy and advantage to 
the service. 

Language study is pursued under the following guiding 
principles : (1) As adults cannot learn languages quickly 
and thoroughly by mere imitation and little reasoning, 
as the child can and must do, grammar in the form of 
the classified observations of predecessors on the 
phenomenology of the language is indispensable. (2) 
Grammar in the sense of philology is the science of which 
linguistry is the art. It will not suffice to know about 
the languages ; one must have a command of them. 
Immediate, intimate and prolonged contact with the 
living reality, abundant exercises for knitting up eye, 
ear, tongue, pen and action, are the means of making 
the foreign speech, like our own, a sj^stem of automatisms, 
instead of a repetition of tiring volitions. (3) A part of 
grammar much neglected is pronunciation. It is an 
indispensible part of the technique of linguistry. Its 
correlated science is phonetics. The actual phenomena 
of the learner's own speech and those of the foreign 


language must be studied. Then he may venture to 
learn by practice from the Ups of a native. The learner 
and the native working alone and without training will 
not rise above stumbling and groping imitation. The 
European teacher must not be the model of pronuncia- 
tion, but the native. He remains the interpreter of the 
one to the other. Also the pupil is often, and the native 
nearly always, unskilful in linguistic pedagogy. Where 
material fails one may use a phonographic record. Even 
where natives are available the machine does good service 
in the necessary endless repetitions. Started properly, 
the beginner will not fall into the habit of merely sub- 
stituting the similar sounds of his own speech for the 
new ones. 

It is obvious that men and women so trained are not 
only efficient in their own work, but lend their influence 
later to a progressive policy of administration. They 
keep in touch with the scientific work at home. Often 
they themselves publish valuable materials gathered in 
the foreign field. 

The special workshop of phonetics in Hamburg, the 
Phonetisches Labartorium, was established by Professor 
Carl Meinhof, and put in charge of Dr. Panconcelli- 
Calzia. The former is a phonetician and a well-known 
pioneer in African philology. The latter is a man of 
unique gifts and training, devoted to his subject in its 
widest aspects and applications. In the well-equipped 
laboratory in the quietest section of Hamburg, a com- 
munity of interests has arisen among professions which 
before had hardly ever touched. All the normal and 
pathological phenomena of the voice in speech and song 
fall within its province. Linguists, teachers of the deaf 
and dumb, of singing and oratory, physicians, psycho- 
logists, and practical people with special problems, visit 
it for research, instruction or inquiry. It has one method 
for all : observation, measurement, experiment, calcu- 
lation, application. 

To describe even cursorily the equipment of the 

laboratory would here be impossible. Parts of it, like 

the acoustic section and the kymographs, are familiar 

to the physicist ; other parts are physiological and 



anatomical ; and the throat speciaHst and the dentist 
would find many of his devices there also. There is a 
room for the glyphic apparatus of the phonograph and 
gramophone families, in which records are made and 
stored, and subjected to enlargement, microscopic ex- 
amination, analysis and measurement. They also serve 
the more obvious purpose of recording the speech of 
such transients as are often procured from the Hagenbeck 
circus and the crews of the Asiatic and African ships, 
which return from long vo3^ages to the home port of 
Hamburg. A Rontgen X-ray laboratory of special 
equipment and other photographic apparatus are housed 
in the basement. The personal consists of the director, 
a skilled general assistant, a servant, two instrument 
makers, a philologist, a teacher of voice, a teacher of 
the deaf and dumb, and a physician, the last four without 
pay. The State spares no pains to maintain the labor- 
atory on the highest level of equipment and efficiency. 
It is not only serving through the colonial institute the 
practical ends of new candidates, but older men are 
coming back to Hamburg from the colonies to bring to 
it their problems and their materials. On one occasion 
Professor Meinhof was appealed to in despair by a group 
of missionaries who had utterly failed to master the 
language of the small and isolated community to which 
they had - been sent. They asserted that there were 
very few words in the language, and that each word 
had a bewildering number of significations. Investi- 
gation showed that the seeming homonyms were dis- 
tinguished by variations in the pitch of the voice. In 
another case a German, who had been born and had 
grown up among the fast disappearing inhabitants of 
an island in the South Pacific, was able to furnish unique 
materials for the study of humanity in that part of the 

By keeping in closest touch with missionary com- 
munities, and by maintaining a systematic exchange of 
students, lecturers, reports, bibliography, and scientific 
materials, centres of study on the field — like that of Dr. 
Zwemer and the Rev. W. H. T. Gairdner, in Cairo — an 
almost ideal system may be evolved. It is of the greatest 


importance that those at home should constantly taste 
the atmosphere of the distant land ; and it is obviously 
impossible to maintain libraries and professorships of 
university grade — to say nothing of laboratories — at 
great distances from the centres of Western civilization. 
The solution lies, as in every sort of training for service 
in foreign parts, in a synthesis between the two ideas of 
outpost station and home university. 

When the interest and generosity of Mrs. John S. 
Kennedy and other friends of Hartford Theological 
Seminary made possible the realization of a long-cherished 
plan of establishing in the city named, as part of a still 
larger scheme of religious education (see the Independent 
of October 30th, 1913), a school of special missionary 
preparation, the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut occupied a 
prominent place in the minds of its organizers. It 
seemed to them that men and women prepared in an 
institution of exacting scientific character and distinctly 
religious atmosphere, could not fail to affect profoundly 
the Mission abroad and to bring it into closer touch 
with the intellectual life at home. The Kennedy School 
of Missions is thus the first direct offspring of the Ham- 
burg Institut on this side of the Atlantic. Steps have 
been taken to furnish instruction of the same character. 
The nucleus of a phonetic laboratory has been formed, 
and class-work initiated. It is hoped that the interest 
aroused by such a movement will penetrate into the 
wider circles of American language teaching. If phon- 
etics never become an elementary study in the lower 
schools, as it well might do, it should influence the 
standpoint and method of all instruction in foreign 
languages and of English, not to mention the services 
it can render to the teachers of the deaf and dumb. No 
limitations have been placed upon the usefulness of this 
department, important and even primary as its appli- 
cation to missionary training will remain at the Hartford 

William H. Worrell. 




IslamTand the S.P.C.A. 

Our readers will remember the article on Waqf by the distinguished 
" Jurist " in the April number. The administration of this trust 
under the new Egjrptian ministry, we learn from the Egyptian Gazette, 
has taken note also of cruelty to animals. 

" The latest sally made by the Minister has reference to cruelty to 
animals, a subject which up to the present one might have been 
excused for considering as of httle interest to Mohammedans. Evidently 
it is of interest, however, to the IVIinister for Wakfs, who, seeing that 
all the efforts of the police and the S.P.C.A. are unable to produce any 
great abatement in the inhuman cruelty daily witnessed in our streets, 
has resolved to appeal to the cab-drivers and others through a religious 
channel. Accordingly circulars have been issued, enclosing a number 
of printed addresses which are appointed to be read in all mosques 
throughout Egypt at midday prayers on Friday next. These addresses 
contain an exhortation to all people having charge of animals to treat 
them kindly, an appeal which is backed up by several verses from the 
Koran and numerous quotations from the Islamic traditions which 
insist on the heinousness of the offence of cruelty." 

New Liberty in Tunisia. 

Our missionary correspondent from Tunis writes hopefulty of the 
new attitude of the French Government : — 

" The political situation here in some respects is peculiarly import- 
ant and intimately affects the missionarj^ situation. I came to Tunisia 
first in 1894, and from then onward to the ' Entente Cordiale ' Protest- 
ant missionary work — especially among Arabs — was not viewed simply 
with disfavour, but with positive hostility. France's position was not 
so strong as to enable her wilhngly to permit foreign missionaries to 
gain influence among the native population. The French view of 
the missionary has always been that he exercises a double function — 
rehgious and political. We were clearly given to understand that we 
were not wanted. We were subjected to petty indignities constantly. 
M. Clemenceau said a few years ago to a deputation of Christian 
men who waited upon him in order to alleviate our situation, ' You 
may be quite sincere in that you state your desire is simply to teach 
the Arabs the Gospel, but the fact remains that what really happens in 
experience is, that first comes the missionary, then the consul to guard 
their interests ; then arise incidents with ensuing political complica- 

" To sell the Bible publicly in the streets, or to give away religious 
Hterature, was forbidden. Opportunities to enforce this order, even 
when its contravention seemed doubtful, were eagerly seized. The 
missionaries were allowed to sell the Bible only in shops hired for the 
purpose. Itinerant journeys for evangelization were rendered ex- 
tremely difficult, through the hostility of local officials and police. 


" The history of the first fifteen to twenty years of missionary work 
in this country was so full of difficulty, discouragement and barrenness, 
that one wonders it was not given up in despair. 

" This is now quite changed. The ' Entente Cordiale ' with 
Britain — with whom, for better, for worse, Protestantism here is always 
allied in public opinion — has opened a new chapter in missionary annals. 
It is associated, too, with a revival in France itself of a widespread 
religious inquiry and an increased esteem for Protestant views of faith 
and life. It is now widely conceded that a nation cannot face twentieth 
century conditions on atheistic negations. This has, we incline to 
think, affected the views of men at the head of the Government here. 
We can now — and commonly do — sell the Bible to the Arabs in the 
public streets. We scatter publicly tracts dealing trenchantly with 
Islam ; we can itinerate to the bounds of the country without let or 
hindrance. We can without fear of molestation quietly converse 
with men on the claims of Christ, in pubhc places. For years we dared 
not move our small meeting for men from our private houses, so as to 
keep within the law. This hindrance has now been removed, and since 
October last we have held our meetings in a roomy public hall in the 
busiest part of the city." 

Changes in Morocco. 

Mr. R. G. Steven, sub-agent of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society in Morocco, gives a deeply interesting account of the effect 
of French rule in the " country of Othello " in the Bible in the World. 
He writes : — 

" Five years ago there were no roads, railways, or bridges. To-day, 
good main roads are being made all over the country, and bridges have 
been built across some of the rivers. From Casablanca to Rabat and 
Mequinez, and in the Showia district, light railways have been laid 
and trains are now running. There is a motor service from Casablanca 
and Saffi into Marakesh. From Casablanca it used to take five days 
to reach Marakesh ; the journey can now be done in a day. In the 
chief cities we now find electric light, wireless telegraphy, aeroplanes 
and motor-cars. The streets are being widened and paved, and 
up-to-date drainage schemes carried out. 

" The Moors themselves are changing as well. A Moorish lawyer 
said to me : 'I have no faith in Islam ; it clogs the wheels of progress.' 
Another said : ' Our rehgion is to blame ; it prevents the advance of 
education and enlightenment.' In Fez not long ago certain young 
Moslems of the upper classes expressed themselves thus : ' Why should 
we marry girls we have never seen ? . . . Why should we have no 
choice in the matter ourselves, seeing we are those most interested ? 
. . . Why should not our sisters and other people's sisters be educated, 
so that they can become our companions, and help to make our homes 
brighter ? ' " 

Earliest Contact of Great Britain with Islam. 

Does anyone know of other or earlier evidence that Arabic coins 
were current in Europe before 757 A.D., than this item from the 
Christian World (London), December 18th, 1913 ? 

" An Anglo-Saxon gold coin of the time of King Offa (A.D. 757-796) 
has been bought by the British Museum. The coin, the only one of its 
kind known to be in existence, bears a Mohammedan inscription in 
Arabic. It is believed that Offa caused to be made an exact imitation 
oi an Arabic coin then in extensive circulation in Europe." 


Islam in England. 

A well-informed correspondent of the Homiletic Review (New York) 
gives the true proportions of the sensational newspaper reports regard- 
ing Islam in London. 

" One newspaper declares that ' in London particularly, conversions 
from Christianity to Islam are of almost daily occurrence.' Another 
speaks of ' three splendid mosques, the doors of one in London being 
gilded similarly to those of the world-famous Taj Mahal at Agra.' The 
facts do not warrant such statements. There is no mosque in Liverpool, 
and a small ' Moslem mission ' started there many years ago by a 
Mr. W. H. Quilliam, a solicitor, was repudiated by the leaders of 
Indian Mohammedanism, and has since practically disappeared. The 
only movement which might lend colour to the newspaper stories is 
connected with a mosque at Woking, built by the great Sanskrit 
scholar, the late Dr. Leitner, of Lahore, with the object of providing a 
place of worship for Moslems studying in England. Moslem students, 
however, were not attracted to Woking, and the mosque has stood 
almost unused until recently, when a member of the newly formed 
Ahm.adiya sect of Moslems started a mission there. This sect occupies 
a mediatory position. It repudiates the use of force in the service of 
religion, but defends polygamy. The leader of the English mission is a 
former student of a missionary college, and pays his Christian teachers 
the tribute of imitation in many respects." 

A Moslem Plea for the Emancipation of Womanhood. 

The Comrade (Delhi) has been giving a series of strong editorials 
on the Indian Moslems' Tasks. One of them speaks of the decline of 
the position of woman in Moslem society, and ends with a strong plea 
for her uplift, incidentally showing also that only Christian teachers 
can meet the need. 

" If the women of a community are ignorant, and thus cram_ped 
and dwarfed in their mentality, the new generations grow up in the 
same deadening atmosphere, and the loss of personality in the individual 
is the inevitable result. It is a terrible price to pay, and no community 
can bear the burden wathout self -stultification. 

" It would seem, therefore, that the most anxious and immediate 
concern of the Mussalmans ought to be to organise a thoroughly 
communal system of education for Moslem girls. The need is being 
felt, but not with such keenness as would lead to the birth of the 
preacher and the fanatic of reform. Mild resolutions in favour of 
women's education in annual conferences yet mark the stage at which 
Moslem enthusiasm has reached. An attempt was made some years 
ago to focus the stray desires of a few intelligent Mussalmans into an 
organised movement with its centre at Aligarh. What this movement 
has achieved is still a mystery. The gentleman who officially controls 
the movement is evidently so shy that he insists on keeping the results 
of his activities in strict purdah. Meetings of the Female Section of the 
Moslem Educational Conference are held every year, but the Secretary 
has not submitted his report for several years past. The force goes on, 
and a proportionately huge expenditure is being incurred for the 
maintenance of an elementary school, without method, without ideal, 
without even the initial energy required for an experiment. Amongst 
educated Mussalmans the desire to educate their daughters is springing 
up, but no efficient schools exist to which they could send the girls 


with confidence. Teachers are seldom available, still more seldom of a 
satisfactory tyipe. The public schools, or Christian missionary insti- 
tutions, even where they are found, are not fit places for the training 
of Moslem girls. The difficulties are great, and every year that they 
are left unsolved would add to the seriousness of the situation. Efforts 
should be made by earnest men by means of an independent organi- 
sation, if need be, to draw up a complete programme and start a 
vigorous campaign for bringing light and emancipation to Moslem 
women. The task is the noblest and yet the hardest that the Mussal- 
mans have got to face. Will not some valiant spirit sound the call and 
rally other brave hearts for the fight ? The hope is not extravagant, 
and Moslem courage and chivalry are not yet wholly defunct." 

Islam in Madras Presidency. 

An Indian correspondent sends us these statistics : — 
The Musalman population of Madras Presidency 2,764,467 

Mysore ... 314,494 

Total ... 3,078,961 
Of these the language divisions are : — 

(1) Hindustani ... 1.289,558 

(2) Malayalam ... 1,032,757 (= Mappillas). 

(3) Tamil 685,034 (= Labbais). 

(4) Telugu ... 71,612 (= Dudekulas). 

The rate of increase of the Musalmans has been 11 per cent, (amongst 
the Mappillas 14 per cent.) during the decade 1901-1911 A.D., while 
that of Indian Christians has been 17 per cent., and of Hindus 8 per cent. 

Musalmans are to be found in all the large towns, but especially in 
Madras City (59,169), and Bangalore (33,373). 

The Mappillas and Dudekulas belong to the Shafai Sect, this proving 
Arabic descent through their fathers, while these original Arabic settlers 
married Indian women. I also think some sections of the Labbais are 
Shafai, while the rest, and all Musalmans of Afghan, etc., descent, are 
Hanafis. Mappillas and Labbais use Arabic character in their 
Malayalam and Tamil books. 

Islam in Japan. 

Items have appeared from time to time in missionary magazines 
concerning the alleged progress of Islam in Japan. The letters that 
follow from a missionary in Oita, and the reply from Tokyo, show that 
Uttle advance is being made. 


December 13th, 1913. 

Dear Sir, — 

Although I have not the honour of a personal acquaintance, 
I venture to write to you asking for information. Sometime ago a 
friend residing abroad requested me to secure rehable information 
with regard to the two periodicals — The Islamic Fraternity in Enghsh, 
and Gunjin (The Soldier) in Japanese, of which he had seen notices in a 
German magazine. 

Upon inquiry I learn that you are intimately connected with these 
pubUcations, and hence I beg to ask whether it would be too much 
trouble for you to inform me whether these two papers are published 
still, by whom, and at what address. In case one or both has been 
discontinued, from what time to what time were they issued ? 


May I inquire also whether there is any organisation of Moham- 
medans in this country corresponding to a Christian Church, and, 
if so, how large the membership is, and where such a congregation or 
congregations are located ? My friend is so much interested in the 
question of Islam in all of its relations, that he will be very thankful 
for all such information. ji^ 

Hoping that I do not intrude too much upon your time, and 
enclosing addressed and stamped envelope for reply, 
I remain, 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Albertus Pieters. 
P.S. — Would it be too much to ask for a copy of each paper ? 
To Mohammed Barakatullah, Esq., 

No. 40 Daimachi, Azabu, Tokyo. 

40 Daimachi, Akasaka, 

December IQth, 1913. 
Dear Sir, — 

Your favour of the 13th inst. to hand. The Islamic Fraternity 
was started in April, 1910, and discontinued July, 1912. It was a 
monthly religious organ edited by me. The Gunjin also was a monthly 
pubhcation, edited by Mr. Hasan U. Hotano. It was also discontinued 
sometime in 1912. 

We have our small assembly which meets every Friday at the above 
address. We have no place as yet that would correspond to a Christian 
Church. I send you two copies of the Islamic Fraternity and two of 
Gunjin. 1 remain. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) M. Barakatuliah. 

Birds of a Feather. 

The following plan for a world congress of theists is proposed in the 
November number of the Review of Religions. 

" A representation of not less than three speakers of ability and 
standing should be appointed by each of the religions or denominations 
interested in this matter ; that together they undertake a journey 
around the world, holding meetings and giving testimony in behalf of 
the Theistic principle in its various aspects and consequences. For 
instance, starting from New York about November, 1914, this inter- 
national committee, with from three to five leading rabbis or doctors 
of your religion, three or four Unitarian Christians, Universalists, 
liberal Quakers, Theosophists, Bahaists, etc., etc., would journey 
together to England, where in London they would be met by the 
representatives of the 1,700 young Hindus who are now studjdng in 
the various universities and schools of England, and who are almost 
without exception of Theistic faith, and who, together with the 
Unitarians and representative Jews hke Mr. Montefiore, would extend 
a warm welcome to us, and arrange a large meeting which might 
extend over more than one day if thought wisest. The next stop, it 
seems to me, should be at Jerusalem, although we might pass through 
Constantinople and pay our respects to the Sheik-ul-Islam. In 
Jerusalem the Mohammedan Mufti and large-minded Jews whom I 
met there would doubtless arrange for a meeting, which I have no 
doubt would be well attended ; at all events, it would be most impres- 
sive to hold a convention in this ancient city, the world centre of the 


monotheistic faith. Continuing, we should sail to Bombay, where the 
Brahmo Somaj, the Parsees (whose representative here in Boston 
promises me a warm welcome and some financial help) and Moham- 
medans would arrange for another meeting. The party would then 
proceed to Delhi, the new capital of India, in the centre of the Moham- 
medan world. Here we should be reinforced by the Hindu Theists, 
the Sikhs (whose representative in this country promises me the warm 
co-operation of that body of 4,000,000 Theists), the Theosophists and 
by other religious bodies. In Calcutta, under the auspices of the All 
India Theistic Conference, we should have a very promising meeting. 
I am also assured of a warm welcome in Colombo, where the new 
Buddhists connected with Central College, which until lately had a 
Unitarian minister for its head, would give us every opportunity to be 
heard. Their representative in England, my friend Professor Jayati- 
laka, assures me of a warm reception there. We ought to be listened 
to with some interest in some Chinese port, in connection with the 
new movement for spiritual as well as political freedom. Proceeding 
to Japan, we should find in that country an enthusiastic following. 
The Unitarian, Universalist and liberal German Missions, would furnish 
a sufficient constituency, and besides these there would be scores of 
native preachers and of new Buddhists and public men of influence 
who would be glad to welcome us in that country. We should continue 
across the Pacific, reaching San Francisco in time for a meeting in 
connection with the Panama Canal World's Fair. The Unitarian 
and other liberal Churches on the coast would unite with the Jewish 
brethren in being our hosts. Thence we should return, as suited our 
convenience, to our own homes on the Atlantic Coast. 

Moslems Agree that Islam is Anti-Christian. 

Whatever Broad School theologians may say, and however much 
we try to succeed by comparing things that radically differ, and making 
them seem ahke, Truth admits of no compromise. It is good to see 
this issue clearly put in the Moslem Review of Religions. 

" Here and there attempts are being made in India to show that 
the Holy Koran supports the alleged claims of Jesus of Nazareth to 
Oodhood, and chapters and verses are quoted from the Moslem books 
by some of the misguided and ignorant Christian missionaries to show 
that Islam represents Jesus as the highest embodiment of human 
excellence. Some of them even go the length of declaring that the 
Holy Koran lends itself to the deifying of Jesue. We are glad to see 
that this feeling is not shared by S. M. Zwemer of The Moslem 
World, who is candid enough to admit that Islam and Christianity 
lie at the parting of the ways, Islam being the very antithesis of 
Ohristianity ; and that according to a Cliristian Missionary of long 
experience in Persia, there is ' not a single important fact in the life, 
person and work of Jesus that is not ignored, perverted or denied by 
Islam.' This is all the more important, since the Christian missionaries 
have been misled by the Mohammedan reverence for Jesus into the 
notion that Islam represents Jesus as a being superior to the rest of 
mankind. It is true that they have been regarding him as one of the 
prophets of God who come at times to regenerate the world, and who 
in that capacity deserve our utmost reverence. But to expect from 
the Moslems anything more than this would be to ignore their feelings 
and sentiments — in fact, all that they cherish very fondly in the 
matter of faith." 


A Christian Preacher in Afghanistan. 

We take from Mercy and Truth this interesting account of Dr. 
Nasir Allah, house surgeon of the C.M.S. Hospital at Peshawar. 

" Some thirty years ago, when eight years old, he was carried off 
by a cattle raiding party from a valley in Kafiristan. He was taken 
from one district to another in order to escape the parties sent out by 
his father to recover him, and was finally taken to Peshawar. Seven 
years ago he was appointed house surgeon. Early in 1913 a group of 
patients from Kafiristan, who proved to belong to Nazir Ullah's own 
valley, were admitted to the hospital. The operations were successful, 
and the party returned through the Khyber Pass. About a month 
later another party reached the hospital and with them Nazir Ullah's 
brother. When the time came for this second party to return, they 
were most anxious that their newty found fellow-countryman should 
accompany them. Accordingly he left Peshawar in April last. It 
was a perilous undertaking, but for the first time for very many years 
it was proved possible for a Christian to travel in Afghanistan, openly 
witnessing for Christ on every opportunity, and yet to escape any 
actual violence. He returned to Peshawar in August after five months*^ 

The Only Hope of Armenia. 

All competent authorities seem to be agreed that it is futile to expect 
real reform in Armenia from the Turks without direct and absolute 
foreign supervision. The Egyptian Gazette, in a recent editorial, 
expresses the judgment not only of all the friends of Armenia, but of 
all real friends of the Turks : — 

" The European Powers that really wish to preserve the Turkish 
Empire must save the Turks from themselves by insisting that when- 
ever a European Governor or Inspector-General is appointed in 
Armenia or in any other Turkish province, he shall have enough 
independent authority to make sure that his orders will be carried out. 
There is also another obstacle to the success of anj^ merely Turkish 
reforms. Even the best and most modern Turks cannot yet bring 
themselves to look upon a Christian fellow-subject as an equal, or as 
having a right to the same sort of justice as a Musulman. It will be 
long before this spirit disappears. In the meantime it is necessary 
that the government of the Christian races of Turkey should be con- 
trolled, in the interests of the Turks themselves, by Europeans, whose 
work it would be to see that justice were done to Musulmans and 
Christians alike." 

The Koran in Turkish. 

According to Le Jeune Turc, " The translation of the Koran into 
Turkish has been begun simultaneously at different points. This fact 
has roused not a little stir in Moslem circles. The undertaking is 
warmly opposed. We do not here range ourselves on the side of 
either party, but rather examine the fact itself. As an intellectual 
and social phenomenon it is highly interesting, and will have important 
results . . . 

" It is especially the disasters of the late war which have opened 
people's eyes ; it was astounding to find that the ancient faith had lost 
its force, and that the appeals of the religious leaders no longer gripped 
the hearts of the crowd. In examining the causes of this the}^ reached 
the conclusion, long ago reached by the enemies of Islam, that true 


Islam was strangled by the accretions of centuries which were absolutely 
foreign to the spirit of true religion ; that thanks to these foreign 
accretions the religion had taken on forms inconsistent with its morals 
and its dogmas, that the spirit of Islam, choked by the additions, was 
not reaching the common people, nor enlightening it, vivifying it, or 
entering its consciousness ; in a word, that religion had ceased to be 
an active element in moral education, but had been changed into mere 
dry formulas that could not reach the heart or soul of the believer, 
and which expressed themselves simply in daily mechanical practises 
with no grip on the heart of the performer. 

"It is this thought that has led to the translation of the Koran 
into Turkish ; and the remarkable thing, and that which shows how 
ripe the time is for this enterprise, is that the translation has been 
begun in quarters utterly at variance with each other in their tenden- 
cies. An entirely new religious era is opening in Turkey. We can 
already foresee that it will be big with beneficent results for the country; 
and the country is so ready for such work that the protests against the 
translation have been remarkably feeble and have not even attracted 
general attention." 

But we regret to learn from The Orient that the Government has 
seen best to stop this enterprise, and has ordered all copies of the parts 
so far issued to be confiscated and destroyed. 

Good Advice to Egyptian Nationalists. 

Writing in The Near East (January 23rd, 1914) on the British 
Control of Egjrpt, and in reply to a letter by ^Ir. AM Fehmy Mohammed, 
Sir Harry H. Johnston gives some good advice to those who think 
Egypt's national salvation is hindered by the British occupation. 

" The decrease of non-Egyptian ofificials, especially in all the lower 
grades of employment, is a matter which depends largely on the pro- 
gress of real, practical twentieth century education in Egypt, the 
education which will impart a sound knowledge of history, geography, 
zoology (especially entomology), botany, engineering, chemistry, and 
sanitation. This, together with the drastic reform of the Al Azhar 
University and the rescue of the funds of religious foundations from 
greedy misappropriation by fanatics or corrupt functionaries, is a 
direction in which the Egyptian Nationalists might bestir themselves, 
to the great advantage of the country they profess to love. When a 
Mohammedan Egyptian is found showing an intelligent appreciation of 
the beauties and the history of Saracenic art, or becomes an apt pupil 
in Egyptology of Flinders Petrie or Maspero, or initiates or prosecutes 
some additional great discovery in palaeontology, or finds a seam of 
coal or a well of petroleum or vein of emeralds, it will be time to talk 
of fining the great educational and industrial posts in Egypt with 
natives of that country. I write without a sneer and with some hope, 
for I know that in medical science Turks and Kurds have risen high 
in the Egyptian service, and have received full recognition of their 
attainments and abilities at the hands of the British Government. 
But amid all their clamour in the Press and on the platform, what 
Mohammedan Egyptian has ever referred with legitimate pride to 
the results of British and German discoveries by which Egypt has been 
shown to have had a wondrous past as a creative centre, to have been 
the theatre in which not only the whales and the elephants, the hippo- 
potamus and the manati, the old and new world monkeys and antlu'o- 
poid apes, but possibly even man himself have been evolved ? No 


' Nationalist ' Egyptian I have ever met has once referred to the 
amazing developments of human genius which took place in Egypt 
between 10000 B.C. and 100 B.C., or has in any way identified himself 
with the glories of his country prior to the destructive invasion of the 
Arabs in the seventh century A.C. 

" If the Mohammedan Egyptians prefer to regard the Koran and 
the mediaeval elaboration of the Koran as the last word, the dominant 
and ultimate authority in law, science, sanitation, morals, and social 
economy, so long will Mohammedan teaching institutions be utterly 
futile in coping Avith the requirements of the twentieth century, and 
so long will Mohammedan peoples be unfitted to govern themselves, 
and still less to govern more intelHgent fellow-citizens of more 
enhghtened faiths." 

The Psychology of Mohammed's Call to Prophetship. 

To the first volume of the Noldeke Festschrift, Professor De Goeje, 
of Leiden, contributed an interesting article on Mohammed's caU to 
prophetship. He sets forth the history of the call as given in the 
Koran (Surah 74 ; 81. 15, and 53. If), and in Tabari 1. 1153, and then 
suggests a new explanation of the vision which came to Mohammed, 
hazarding the opinion that he saw nothing else than a hazy shadow of 
himself similar to the phantom seen on the " Brocken." The article 
by Professor De Goeje now appears in Enghsh translation by our 
Moslem friend, Mr. S. Khuda Buldish, in the Modern Review (February, 
1914). We give Noldeke's concluding paragraphs : — 

" In the description of the hazy figure in the Koran we find the 
nearest approach to the phenomenon just described. Probably this 
phenomenon is of extremely rare occurrence at Hira. It may also have 
taken place in the morning, which would better fit in with the story, 
according to which Mohammed saw it while wandering about in the 
hills after a dream that had frightened him overnight. 

" Mohammed could have had no idea of such optical illusion. For 
him what he saw was a divine phenomenon which announced to him 
what he had already in his heart : he was the messenger of God to his 
people. In great excitement he returned home. Wrap me up ! 
Wrap me up ! he called out to Khadija, and then he had one of those 
overpowering nervous fits with which he was henceforward attacked 
each time that he was supposed to have heard the voice of God in his 
heart. Unconscious, in this condition, he never was. The fits were 
the outward manifestations of inward, mental struggle, antecedent to 
spiritual revelation. No sooner was the struggle over than he recov- 
ered himself and uttered the revelation. The first revelation, in all 
probabihty, is Sura 74 : thou enwrapped in thy mantle ! Arise and 
Warn ! And thy Lord — magnify him ! And thy raiment — purify it ! 
And the Abomination — flee it ! And bestow not favours that thou 
mayest* receive again with increase ; and for thy Lord wait thou 

" We find in him that sober understanding which distinguished his 
fellow-tribesmen : dignity, tact, and equiUbrium ; quahties which are 
seldom found in people of morbid constitution : self-control in no small 
degree. Circumstances changed him from a Prophet to a Legislator 
and a Ruler, but for himself he sought nothing beyond the acknow- 
ledgment that he was Allah's Apostle, since this acknowledgment 
includes the whole of Islam. He was excitable, hke every true Arab, 
and in the spiritual struggle which preceded his call this quaUty was 


stimulated to an extent that alarmed even himself ; but that does 
not make him a ^dsionary. He defends himself, by the most solemn 
asseveration, against the charge that what he had seen was an illusion 
of the senses. Why should we not beUeve him ? " 

Russian Immigration to Persia. 

A correspondent writing from Odessa to The Near East speaks of 
the increasing influence of Russia in Northern Persia, and tells of " a 
veritable exodus " for months past of Russian peasants and farmers 
from Turkestan and from European Russia into Northern Persia. 

" The migration is steadily increasing in volume. They are 
acquiring fertile tracts of lands formerly held by the Persian khans 
at amazingly cheap prices. General La\ToJff recommends the imme- 
diate appointment of Russian commissioners to organise and regulate 
this settlement of Russians in Northern Persia. During the last three 
months some seven hundred extensive holdings of considerable extent 
have been acquired by Russians in the fertile valleys of the Gurgen 
and the Atrek. The gubernatorial administration at Tashkent is 
materially assisting this emigration into Persia, which, it is believed^ 
will be increased by 100,000 souls in the course of the current year. 

" This stream of emigration from Turkestan and European Russia 
into Northern Persia has undoubtedly an important political signifi- 
cance ; it is a corollary of the Russian military occupation of Azerbaijan. 
It may be recalled to those conversant with modern political history, 
that when Prussia first formed the design of annexing Schleswig- 
Holstein, Bismarck sent into the Duchy a crowd of State-aided Prussian 
settlers, artisans, farmers, and peasants, to support Prussia's 
aggressive claim. Bismarck was then in a position to declare his 
wilhngness to abide by a plebiscite of the population of the Duchy, 
knowing, of course, that he was assured of a majority. The parallel 
may not exactly fit this sudden and wholesale Russian emigration inta 
Northern Persia, but the resemblance between the two cases is suffi- 
ciently noteworthy. Military occupation was the first step, and the 
actual Russification of Northern Persia by the ' peaceful penetration ' 
of an overwhelming number of Russian settlers will, apparently, prove 
to be the penultimate stage towards the final and formal incorporation 
of Azerbaijan as a Russian province. That consummation is merely a 
question of time, and of a comparatively brief period." 

Educational Conference at Baalbek. 

An event worthy of comment as concerning the progress of missions 
in Sjnria and Palestine was the annual Conference of the Missionary 
Educational Union, held this year at Baalbek. This Union, estab- 
Hshed three years ago, has as its aim co-operation among Christian 
educational workers, the improving of the status of teachers, and the 
increase of the efficiency of the present forces at work. Baalbek was 
chosen with a view to encouraging closer association than is possible 
in cities like Beyrout and Jerusalem (where previous gatherings were 
held), and accommodation was arranged for at Arbeed's Hotel. Over 
fifty regular delegates and visitors hved there together for three days, 
and greatly enjoyed the many opportunities for fellowship, and getting 
to know each other this " family life " afforded. Sixteen different 
missionary organizations were represented at the Conference, four 
of them from Palestine. 


The chief feature of the gathering was the report of a deputation* 
which had visited, at the request of the Union, all the Boys' Secondary 
Schools in Syria and Palestine — sixteen in number, and representing 
thirteen different denominations. This was a painstaking and thor- 
ough survey of the conditions and problems connected with Religious 
Education, Teaching Force, Curricula, Physical Life of Students, 
Household Administration, and Business Relationships. Attention 
was called to the fact that of over one thousand students em'oUed in 
these secondary schools, about one-fourth were non-Christians, and 
of these some two hundred were Moslems. 

In view of the general findings of the deputation, the Union 
appointed committees to carry out the recommendations embodied in 
the report. These committees cover the question of religious work ; 
automatic saving systems for teachers ; preparation, in co-operation 
with the American Press of Beyrout, of much-needed text -books ; Union 
examinations for Boys' Secondary Schools ; and a continuation com- 
mittee to gather useful information from Girls' Schools. 

A Men's Sitting, at the Conference, was devoted to the discussion 
of the " Moral Tone in our Boarding Schools, and how to raise it," 
and other problems of student discipline. The outgrowth of this was 
the appointment of a sub-committee, which looked into the organiza- 
tion of the Boy Scout Movement, and recommended its adoption by 
schools belonging to the Educational Union. At a parallel Women's 
Sitting the discussion centered on the preparation of girls for domestic 
and social life and service. Here the need of some organization among 
younger girls to play the part in Syria that the Girl Guides, Camp 
Fire Girls, and like organizations, fill in other lands. It was also felt 
that there was great need of strengthening such domestic science 
courses as were already conducted in some schools, and estabhshing 
such courses in others. 

Of especial interest to the Conference was the visit of Miss Gage, 
the newly appointed Secretary of the Y.W.C.A. for Turkey, w^ho gave 
a stimulating address on the value of the Y.W.C.A. as a factor in solving 
certain problems in Turkey. The Y.M.C.A. also was discussed as one 
of the means of securing permanence for the religious work in our 

The whole trend of the Conference was toward practical results, 
proving the Union to be " a living, active, effective organization." 
At the same time there was in all the sittings an undercurrent of deep 
religious feehng. Baalbek Conference has meant for many of those 
present new and deepened friendships and the liberty of the spirit in 
prayers offered an additional mental and spiritual stimulus for the 
work which lies ahead. 

Commercial Matrimony. 
We learn from one of our Indian correspondents that The Mussul- 
man of Calcutta has published a vigorous protest against what it calls 
'* the commercial matrimony," which finds favour with some Moham- 
medan young men. It would appear that a number of Mussalman 
youths and their parents try their best to enrich themselves by un- 
Bcrupulous methods at the expense of the parents of girls who, in their 
eagerness to arrange for their daughters' marriage, are often obliged 

* Printed copies of the Report of the Deputation to Bojb' Secondary Schools 
and also a report of the Conference may be had by applying to the Secretary of the 
Union, Mrs. C. A Dana, c/o American Press, Beyroat, Syria. 1*50 frs. should be 
sent to cover cost and postage. 


to borrow money at ruinous rates of interest and thus place themselves 
in the hands of usurious money lenders. Our contemporary says that 
a Mohammedan graduate or undergraduate, when the time for his 
marriage comes, is generally sold to the highest bidder, while his father 
or guardian proves a veritable Shy lock. The tactics resorted to are of 
the familiar kind, known only too well to parents of Brahman graduates 
living on the banks of the holy Cauvery. The young man plays his 
part very cunningly ; at the outset he affects to display a decided 
disinclination to marry — of course, in the presence of the bride's 
parents — a disinclination which gradually vanishes into the thin air 
when the amount he expects from the parents of his would-be wife has 
been promised. If things are as depicted by our Calcutta contem- 
porary, we can scarcely congratulate our Mohammedan friends. It is 
not creditable to their intelligence and education that in the case of so 
many young men of their community the sanctity of marriage is 
overlooked, with the result that matrimony is made to degenerate into 
a " matter of money." 

Campaign for Moslem Childhood. 

Preceding the World's Seventh Sunday School Convention, which, 
was held in Zurich, Switzerland, last July, a Commission, under the 
direction of Bishop J. C. Hartzell and Dr. S. M. Zwemer, made an 
extensive investigation of the Sunday School conditions, needs and 
opportunities in Moslem lands. 

The Commission addressed five hundred letters to missionary 
Boards having representatives in Mohammedan lands and to mission- 
aries working in those fields. This letter contained an extensive 
questionnaire, asking for information as to the condition of Moslem 
childhood and its relation to missionary work, including the organized 
Sunday School and kindred methods of Christian teaching. Sugges- 
tions were sought as to how the World's Sunday School Association 
might aid in promoting Sunday School organization and efficiency. 

The investigation revealed the fact that there are more than 
80,000,000 Mohammedan children, practically all of whom are living 
in demoralising environments. There is a lamentable lack of children's 
literature, and a startling percentage of illiteracy, ignorance and 

Considering, therefore, the prevalent conditions and crying needs of 
these helpless children in Moslem lands, and finding that the way 
would be clear to present this inform.ation first-hand in America to 
even a greater number of people than heard it in Zurich, a tour of 
twelve cities was arranged under the auspices of the World's Sunday 
School Association. Among the men who participated were Bishop 
Hartzell, Dr. Zwemer, Dr. Charles Telford Erickson, Rev. Stephen 
van R. Trowbridge, and Mr. Marion Lawrance. The following cities 
were covered by the tour party in ten days : Grand Rapids, Detroit, 
Steubenville, Toledo, Wheehng, Columbus, Pittsburgh, Harrisburgh, 
Philadelphia, Brooklyn, New York, and Poughkeepsie ; and a total 
of nearly $50,000 was pledged for the work. 

With the men and the money now at hand, the World's Sunday 
School Association will begin at once to carry out the recommendations 
as approved at the Zurich Convention. " In closest co-operation with 
existing missionary agencies now operating in those fields, the World's 
Executive Committee, through its foreign representatives and their 
native helpers, will begin the preparation of long-needed Uterature, 


the holding of conferences, institutes and special meetings, the training 
of future leaders, and the uplift and strengthening generally of the 
Sunday School forces now at work in Moslem lands." 

The Mass Movement in Southern Nigeria. 

•' Our hearts have been strengthened and encouraged by recent 
accounts of the great movement of the depressed classes in the Punjab 
and South India. Our purpose in this article is to draw attention to a 
somewhat similar movement in Southern Nigeria, particularly that 
section of it which is worked by the Yoruba Mission. On a recent tour 
in one of the inland districts, the government officer in charge remarked 
that before long the whole district would be Christian. Statistics bear 
out this statement. The Yoruba people are estimated at about two 
millions in number. The Christian adherents were returned last year 
at about 38,000, the adult baptisms for the year at about 2,500, a large 
increase on the year before. Further we may note that nearly 60,000 
reading primers were sold, indicating something like that number of 
persons learning to read. It is palpable the PoHtical Of&cer was not 
far wrong, unless Mohammedanism robs Christ of His rightful inheri- 
tance. There is much danger of this, but on the whole it would seem 
Christianity is making the faster progress. For instance, in 1906 when 
I visited Ondo there was only one church in the town, which was more 
than filled by the congregation of 400 which gathered on that occasion. 
Last year in visiting the same place, I found three large churches well 
filled with congregations amounting in the aggregate to 2,000. Buring 
the interval the Mohammedan section had had immense difficulty in 
completing the one mosque they had attempted to build. Here, 
however, we had a fairly strong staff, a native pastor, schoolmaster and 
Scripture reader to a population of 20,000. In other places where we 
have no teachers Islam takes the lead. 

" Certain It is that heathenism is doomed. In many villages the 
church, in others the mosque, is taking the place of the idol groves. In 
the next decade or two the question will be settled whether the Cross 
or the Crescent, Christ or Mohammed, is to be in possession of this 
country. If the Christian Church is only sufficiently alive she will win 
the spoils for her Master." — CM. 8. Review. 

The Wolofs of Senegal. 

In The Gospel Message (Kansas City, Missouri) we find this telling 
account of present-day conditions among one of the great tribes of the 
French Sudan, from the pen of Mr. George C. Reed : — 

" The Wolofs are an intelligent people numbering about 460,000, 
whose home is in the Senegal district. They are great traders, and 
their language has become the commercial idiom of Senegambia. They 
have been more and longer in contact with the French than any other 
Soudanese race, and not a few of them have been educated in French 
schools. They are to be found in various positions — clerks, telegraph- 
ers, mercantile agents, locomotive and steamboat engineers, and 
mechanics, but the most of them till the soil for a scanty living. As 
a rule they are Mohammedans, but not of a fanatical tj^pe. 

*' In mingUng with the Wolofs one is struck with the number, 
size and variety of charms and amulets they wear. These are simply 
p>ieces of paper upon which some rnirabout, or learned man, has written 
Arabic words supposed to have magic power, or to insure the special 


protection of some Moslem saint. So prized are these charms that 
elaborate covers of leather or metal, sometimes ornamented with silver 
or gold, are made for them, and it is not uncommon to see a woman 
with a girdle supporting fifteen or twenty such- charms of all kinds 
and sizes. When questioned as to why they follow Mohammed, many 
of the Wolofs have no reply save that their fathers taught them so, 
and while they observe Mohammedan rites and prayers, they are not 
fanatical. Others are more zealous and can read the Arabic characters 
in a purely mechanical way, and it is feared that they mumble over 
the words they do not understand with more dihgence than many 
persons called Christians read their Bibles. But even a very thin 
veneering of Islam is a great barrier to the Gospel, for it makes them 
complacent and proud, and in their own estimation quite beyond the 
need of anything else in the way of religion. In reality they are still 
fetishists, for even in Morocco the Mohammedans frequently 'employ 
Soudanese slaves or freedmen to go through their incantations and 
devil-dances to secure rehef from the influence of evil spirits." 



To those who have learned the secret, ever}^ number of this 
quarterly is first and most of all a call to united, earnest, definite 
and prevailing prayer. This number, for example, will fail in its mis- 
sion and fall short of its highest purpose unless it leads us to inter- 
cession : (1) For all lonely and discouraged workers in situations 
where hope deferred makes the heart sick ; that God may give them 
the blessings that come even in discouragement. (2) For Moslem 
womanhood, especially the women of Egypt ; that during this trans- 
ition period the new civilisation of the West may not prove to them 
a stumbling block, but a stepping stone to higher and purer home life ; 
and for the Missionaries and Bible-women who must interpret to them 
these new movements for the emancipation of womanhood. (3) For 
Moslem converts, inquirers and backsliders. The difficulties of the 
problem are laid before our readers, and we must bear each others' 
burdens and so fulfil the law of Christ. (4) For the Bahais of Persia 
and throughout the world, that they may not rest satisfied until they 
find a true haven in Jesus Christ. (5) For the unoccupied fields of the 
Southern Sudan. (6) For Missionaries among Moslems, that they 
may learn the secret of conciliation without compromise, of winning 
hearts without surrendering principles, of self -sacrificial love for others 
and yet fearlessness to the point of dying for the truth. Such are 
some of the prayer topics suggested by the contents of this number. 




La Condition de la Femme dans la tradition et revolution de 
rislamisme. Par Mansour Fahmy. Librairie Felix Alcan, 
Paris. 4/r. 50. Pp. 166. 1913. 

Since the celebrated work of Perron, " Femmes arabes avant et 
depuis rislamisme," nothing has appeared on the condition of women, 
according to Moslem law and tradition, equal to this interesting essay. 
The author is a Moslem of the new school, received his doctorate from 
the University of Paris, is an ardent admirer of the late Kasim Amin, 
the advocate of women's rights in Egypt, and is thoroughly acquainted 
with Moslem literature and thought. 

In his preface he states that the object of his study is to give the 
reasons for the present degraded condition of women in Moslem lands, 
tracing the history of her position from the earliest Moslem period to 
the present day. He leaves no doubt that in many respects the 
condition of women in Arabia before Islam was superior to what it is 
now, and that her position under Islam gradually deteriorated until 
the recent revival of Moslem thought and the efforts for the elevation 
of womanhood. He follows the course of later Mohammedan literature, 
and quotes authorities who cannot be doubted to prove his position : 

" La Htterature islamique, dans son developpement historique, 
degrada de plus en plus la femme en s'avihssant elle-meme. C'est 
ce qui eclate aux yeux si Ton suit dans son cours revolution de la 
poesie arabe. A I'epoque paienne, les guerriers se groupaient le soir 
aupres de la tente, parmi les sables du desert, sous la clarte de la lune ; 
entoiur's d'un cercle de jeunes filles et de femmes, ils chantaient 
Fardeur des batailles, et recitaient leurs vers tout pleins de leur bon 
sens naturel et de leur humeur claire et gaie." And further on, after 
speaking of Ghazali and his position toward women's place in society, 
he quotes other writers and makes clear that their view of womanhood 
is so degraded that it cannot even be presented to polite readers : — 

" Siouti, un auteur egyptien qui vecut un peu plus tard, au 
neuvieme siecle, dont la plume pratiqua tons les domaines de la 
litterature, estima, lui aussi, que le sujet avait ete insuffisamment 
traite (malgre les nombreux livres qui en furent ecrits) et composa 
un ouvrage qu'on ne pent lire sans rougir, et ou il envisage uniquement 
les formes et I'anatomie de la femme dans ses rapports avec la satis- 
faction des desirs sexuels. 

"On se bouche les oreilles et les yeux a cette litterature odieuse 
qui atteste plus que tout autre chose la femme avihe et asservie par 
I'homme, et Ton retourne a la femme \'ivante et belle de I'Arabie 
paienne. Les femmes de I'Arabie preislamique, qui parcouraient le 
desert, qui enchantaient les jeunes gens au retour de la victoire, qui 
chantaient en leur honneur les hymnes de la guerre, qui piquaient 
les laches de leur ironie, qui vivaient et qui aimaient : ces femmes-la, 
qui furent de vraies femmes, perdirent par I'lslamisme tout ce qu'elles 
avaient de beau et d'actif." 



In his first chapter the author deals with Mohammed, the Prophet, 
his marriages and his home life, and his opinion concerning women. 
Sometimes his sarcastic references to what the God of Mohammed 
allowed in the Prophet's harem leave one to wonder whether he is a 
good Moslem. The second chapter gives the history of the veil and 
the seclusion of women as practised in Islam. The veil, in its present 
form and usage, did not exist before the time of the Prophet. The very- 
terms used to-day are not found in early Arabic literature. The 
successive steps in what the author calls the degradation of the condi- 
tion of womanhood are traced in the history of the Caliphs and later 
djmasties. The third chapter deals with the fact of concubinage and 
slavery in the position of womanhood, while the fourth chapter gives 
an excellent summary of the position of women, the Moslem law, the 
question of divorce and of dowry. 

The author states that although in theory the position of the wife 
was ameliorated, yet practically it was debased under Islam (p. 120). 
Her incapacity in Moslem law is emphasized by the fact that both as a 
witness and in the inheritance of property, her sex is counted against 
her. I believe that statistics gathered in Egypt and other Moslem 
lands will not bear out the statement of the author (p. 135) that modern 
writers have exaggerated the looseness of the marriage bond among 
Moslems. It is true, however, as he states, that polygamy is decreasing 
and divorce becoming more difficult, at least among educated Moslems. 

In his conclusions the author holds out the hope that in spite of 
the past, woman under Islam can look forward to a happier future, 
that she will emancipate herself and possess the rights and privileges 
so long denied her. The question remains whether the emancipation 
of Moslem womanhood will not be an indictment of the history of 
Islam and of the life of the Prophet himself as well as of his book. 


The Early Development of Mohammedanism. By D. S. 
Margoliouth, D.Litt. Wilhams and Norgate, London. Qs. net. 
This volume contains the Hibbert Lectures which the author 
delivered in the University of London last year. As in his previous 
writings on Isla-m, Professor Margoliouth has consulted the most 
important Arabic authorities, making special use of the recently 
pubHshed works of Shafii, MaUk, Jahiz, Tabari, etc. This book is of 
special interest and importance just now, because in it may be found — 
given quite incidentally, however — a complete answer to Professor 
Arnold's theory that Islam spread through preaching and not through 
violence and compulsion. The Lecturer shews that " Islam has to be 
preached with the sword, for without going into the water one cannot 
learn to swim, and there is no probationary dip " (p. 3). That is 
because men are forbidden to study the Koran until after pubhcly 
recognising the truth of Islam. " But such recognition can only be 
extorted by force, if the right to examine is denied. And if methods 
are to be judged by their results, no one with Mohammed's experience 
would have regarded argument as an expedient for conversion com- 
parable with the sword. He argued for thirteen years and made 
converts by the unit or the decade ; he drew the sword and won them 
by the hundred and the thousand. Twenty years of fighting effected 
more than a thousand years of pleading and arguing would effect '* 
(p. 4). Attention is called to the want of care with which during 
Mohammed's lifetime his " revelations " were preserved, and yet the 
internal evidence for the genuineness of the Koranic text is well 


brought out. It is interesting to find the suggestion that the reason 
why the usual invocation is omitted at the beginning of Surah ix. is 
because it was " a state paper ... a copy of an actual document sent 
to Meccah " (p. 33). Dr. Margoliouth points out that " there appears 
to be no mode known to Mohammedan law whereby an oath can be 
made legally binding " (p. 48) . The effect of this, in Persia for instance, 
is well known : earlier instances are given in pp. 60, 61. " The 
shedding of blood," too, " became a passion " (p. 59). Having shewn 
that, though the Koran is the basis of Islam, yet it could not by itself 
serve as a code of laws, the author proceeds to trace the growth of 
Islamic legislation, which he thinks owes little to outside sources. 
Dealing with " the tolerated cults," he shews that the conversion of a 
Moslem to any other faith ipso facto condemned him to death, and that 
" the fact of an independent Christian state existing . . . is a sufficient 
ground for an attack " (p. 105). The Ordinance of 'Umar condemning 
Jews and Christians to wear a distinctive dress, to have " the mark of 
the devil placed on the lintel of their doors," forbidding them to build 
new buildings for worship, or even to repair the old ones (p. 119, and 
cf. pp. 121, 122), is in itseK enough to confute the asserted " tolerance 
of the- Moslems." 

In writing on " the early development of Mohammedan Ethics," 
the Professor gives reason to believe that " Christian influence or the 
survival of Christian ideals," lies at the base of the earlier Sufi move- 
ment (p. 143). Thus " the Sufi precepts on the subject of Almsgiving 
agree almost verbally with those of the Sermon on the Mount " (p. 161). 
Yet many elements have been borrowed from other sources. For 
instance, " it is hard to separate " their practice of using some female 
name in poetry to represent the Deity " from the old worship of god- 
desses " (p. 177). Speculations upon the Divine Unity led to Pan- 
theism, to the belief " that God, nature and man are identical." 
Hence came Hallaj's " Ana'l Hagg." Dr. Margoliouth shews in what 
inextricable confusion Moslems found themselves when in historical 
matters they consulted the Bible (ostensibly confirmed by the Koran), 
and there found — e.g., that Haman was not Pharaoh's wazir but lived 
about a thousand years later in another countr}^ (p. 232). He gives 
some choice extracts to illustrate the wonderful tales about the testi- 
mony to Mohammed alleged to have been borne by Jinns, the Mugaugis, 
Jews and others. " An idol at Samaya, a village of Oman, found 
voice one day at a sacrifice and bade the sacrificers follow the religion 
of Ahmad, who had just appeared " (p. 245). The miracles ascribed 
to the Prophet, in spite of the Koran, are treated in an interesting 
way. All students of Islam will thank Dr. Margoliouth for a work 
which, though not containing anything that is exactly new, confirms 
what all authorities on the subject have for years taught, and may 
convince the thoughtless, who are ready to take a favourable view of 
Islam, not to trust the leaders of the Neo-Islamic movement too rashly. 

W. St. Clair Tisdall. 

Actes du IVe Congres International d'Histoire des Religions. 
By E. J. Brill, Leiden. 1913. Pp. 171. 

Section 5 of this report deals with Islam, but covers only a few 
pages (pp. 118 to 125). There is a note on Islam in China by Hart- 
mann, one by Becker on the History of the Moslem Cult, and one by 
Nicholson on the Goal of Mohammedan Mysticism. A curious error 
is m.ade by Nielsen who, on page 115, credits Mohammed with adopting 
the crescent as the symbol of Islam ! Z. 


Essai sur rAdministration de la Perse. Par G. Demorgny, 
Professeur a I'lnstitut poly technique de Teheran. Paris : 
Ernest Leroux. {-frs. 
This work consists for the main part of lectures given to the Imperial 
Class and to the School of Political Sciences at Teheran in the year 
1912-1913. M. Demorgny has aheady written at some length not only 
on Persian affairs but on various important political and economic 
questions connected with other countries. He is " Jurisconsulte du 
Gouvernement persan," and has evidently made himself acquainted 
with the economic condition of that country and the methods which 
should be adopted in order to ameliorate its present wretched state. 
The young Shah, who has not yet been crowned, the heir to the crown, 
and a number of young Persian nobles of the highest rank, were the 
students to whom his lectures were delivered. His views on Persian 
affairs are founded on personal experience, and are, therefore, of 
<}onsiderable value. In his lectures, knowing the pride of the Persian 
Mohammedan character, he strives to prove that all the necessary 
principles of good government are to be found in certain Persian and 
Arabic works, of which the most important are : the Khalifah Alls' 
Instructions to Malik, governor general of Egypt {Dastur i Hukumat), 
and Shah 'Abbas 's Dasturul 'Afnal^' With these he couples Nasirud 
Din Shah's regulations concerning the provincial administration 
Councils, Haji Mirza Hasan Fasa's Fars Ndmeh, and, for the constitu- 
tion period so recently begun, the Law of the fourth of Zi'l Qadeh, 
A.H. 1325 (which may be styled the Persian Constitution), and some 
later edicts. His experience exactly talhes with our own in this 
respect that, whereas Persian poetry and books of Ethics contain many 
excellent precepts enjoining justice and mercy, which are justly 
admired by all classes, yet Persians in general regard the very idea of 
earrjdng them out in practice as quite Utopian and almost crazy. 
These lectures, however unintentionally, fully prove this fact. Islam 
contains no moral motive power to enable its votaries to do, or even to 
wish to do, what they know to be right. Nor does M. Demorgny 
venture to suggest the existence of one, for true religion finds no place 
in his scheme for the amelioration of the state of Persia. " In Persia 
there is no lack of laws and regulations. What is lacking is the desire 
to use them " (p. 77). 

Admitting that from ancient times the Kings of Persia have been 
absolute monarchs, the lecturer urges that formerly the assemblies 
styled the King's Court, the Feudal Council, and the Council of State," 
really took part in the exercise of governmental power " (p. 18). Hence 
he points out the present need of a Persian Council of State, not copied 
too closely from European ones. Unfortunately " in Persia each 
minister is independent of the others, and often in opposition to them 
. . . The Council of State might in part remedy this deplorable 
condition of things" (p. 28). It should arrange measures for the 
education of the people (p. 35). He points out that the constitutional 
regime now attempting to establish itself should possess " a Majlis, 
a Senate, a Regent present at his post, a Council of Ministers and a 
Council of State. To transfer the autocracy of an absolute monarch 
to a single chamber, without restraint, guide, and control, is as danger- 
ous to Persia as the blunders of the old system " (p. 41). Persians 
themselves express doubt as to whether upright men can be found in 

* Largely derived from Taimur-i ; Lang's Tuzuk-i Taimuri. 


the country to compose these bodies (p. 42), and with reason. The 
differences which exist between various parts of the country, their 
varied populations — some nomad, some settled, some Arabs, some 
Turks, some only partially civilised — the large extent of the Empire 
and the difficulty of communication, the absence of a feehng of national 
unity — all these things render the task of the Constitutional Govern- 
ment far from easy. " One might even say that there is no longer any 
administration, and that, when once outside the gates of Teheran, 
the governor general or the governor returning to his post immediately 
ignores the Central Government " (p. 59). He fears that, for many 
years to come, the administration of the country will continue to be 
what it has been in the past, " a mercantile transaction between the 
so-called central power and the much less disputed authority of a 
certain number of highly-placed personages " (p. 69), and he quotes 
with approval in condemnation of the evil results of this, the Persian 
saying : " Corruption establishes itself throughout the land and 
uprightness is turned out of doors. Police magistrates are corrupted 
by bribes. Lawyers are gaping jaws from which neither good nor 
profit is received. All these people are waited for in hell to be dealt 
with there according to their deserts " (p. 83). 

" In Persia," as Mr. Shuster says, " the bread question is the 
stumbling-block for administrations and ministers." Wealthy landed 
proprietors, royal princes, leading muj tabids, and merchants, all over 
the country form " corners " in wheat and in other kinds of grain 
(p. 109). Famines are " voluntarily and knowingly organised " to 
enrich these people. A manifesto, pubUshed at Teheran in 1912, 
states that " those who are able to obtain bread for themselves get 
nothing but a hateful mixture of bran, sawdust and sand. Yet, 
starved as they are, they eat this disgusting mess, in which it would 
be hard to find the smallest grain of corn " (p. 102). Prices were 
forced up to four times what they should be and had been, until strong 
measures were taken and corn brought in from Russia to break the 
" trusts." 

The picture which M. Demorgny draws is a saddening one, but the 
very fact that he says all this pubHcly, not in Europe but in the Court 
of Persia itself, shews that he has exaggerated nothing. The question 
is : What can regenerate a nation whose whole head is sick and whose 
whole heart is faint ? We know of no remedy but one — conversion to 
Him, who is " the Way, the Truth, and the Life." 

W. St. Clair Tisdall. 

Winning a Primitive People : Sixteen years work among the 
Warlike tribe of Ngoni and the Senga and Tumbuka peoples. 
By Donald Eraser. Pp. 315. E. P. Dutton and Co., New 
York. 1914. 

This interesting volume offers a vivid illustration of the conquest 
of the Cross in Africa, describing sixteen years' work among the warlike 
tribes in Central Africa. 

Twenty years ago there were no native Christians in these lands ; 
to-day there are 20,000 followers of the Cross, and of these more than 
7,000 have been baptized as adults, and there are more than 250 places 
of worship. Such a Mission is an effective barrier against the entrance 
and progress of Islam throughout the whole region. 

The author says in his preface that once " the Arabs were pressing 
down from three or four different points, and the whole of the Lake 
regions were in danger of becoming a great Mohammedan slaving 


empire, threatening disaster to the defenceless tribes, and menacing 
the progress of civihzation. By the timely occupation of strategic 
points, and the final intervention of the British Government with 
armed forces, these perils were overcome, and to-day the tribes living 
to the west of the Lake Nyasa live in prosperous security, advancing 
at a great pace towards an industrial and progressive civilization." 
" To-day," he says, " Mohammedanism is scarcely a recognisable 
quantity in any of the tribes among which the Livingstonia Mission 
is stationed, while Christianity is rapidly becoming the nominal 
religion, at least, of the people. A large educational system has been 
developed, and, although we have only eight European stations, 
there are 787 schools, and 52,000 pupils under our supervision. Thou- 
sands of the people are able to read and write. A large institute at 
Livingstonia, under Dr. Laws, is training skilled native artizans, 
teachers, preachers, and these people, who, a generation ago, were 
utterly barbarous, to-day send forth scores of builders, carpenters, 
printers, clerks, and intelligent helpers to the Europeans who are 
rapidly raising these lands into commercial prosperity." Z. 

Forty-four Turkish Fairy Tales. Collected and translated by 
Dr. Ignacz Kunos, with illustrations by Willy Bogany. 
Harrap and Co., London. lOs. 6d. net. 
Fairy Tales belong to a corner of the Moslem world rarely visited 
by this Journal ; and a reviewer has little to say about the volume, 
presented by Messrs. Harrap and Co., except to express admiration for 
the beauty of its execution. The volume is as dainty as could be 
desired. The matter of the tales appears to vary but little from 
that which is familiar to the European nursery, and which the late 
Mr. Andrew Lang edited and re-edited in a series of volumes. It is 
difficult to assent to the assertion of the collector that they " are 
by no means identical with, nor do they even resemble, those others 
that have been assimilated by the European consciousness from 
Indian sources and the Arabian Nights " ; they may not be identical, 
but they are decidedly similar, at least in the machinery which they 
employ. The tales pubhshed by the late Dr. Spitta in the vernacular 
" Arabic of Egypt " resemble them still more closely. The author 
and illustrator have provided a charming gift-book, which deserves to 
be a commercial success. D. S. Margoliouth. 

La Turquie Que I'On Voit. By L. de Launay. 16mo. ; pp. 262. 
Paris : Hachette and Company. 1913. 
One of a series of books of travel, well-illustrated and with a map, 
adapted as a guide book to points of interest in European Turkey, 
especially the capital. As the author states, there is a Turkey open 
to travellers,, well-known and often visited, and a Turkey in Asia, 
largely closed to the tourist. He deals only with the former, and 
follows well-trodden highways. The strategic situation of Constanti- 
nople, its antiquities and museum, present day Stamboul, and Broussa, 
are treated in five chapters, and a final chapter takes us to Troy and 
Smyrna. M. de Launay knows the Orient well, and is a careful 
observer. The historic setting of the scenes described, and the bib- 
liographies accompanying each chapter, add to the value of the book. 
In the chapter on Stamboul there is a vivid description of the whirling 
dervishes, and their dance is set to music. (Page 155). Z. 


A Danish Traveller in Arabia : Gennem Wahhabiternes Land 
Paa Kamelryg — Beretning om den af det Kongelige Danske 
Geografiske Selskab planlagte og bekostede forsknigsreje i 
ost-og Central Arabien. By Barclay Raunkiaer. Copen- 
hagen. 1913. 
No more important book of travel in Arabia has appeared since 
Doughty's Arabia Deserta than this interesting volume which tells of 
the jom-ney taken by an adventurous Dane into the land of the Waha- 
bis, south from Kuweit and west from Bahrein on the Persian Gulf. 
Barclay Raunkiaer is a worthy successor of Carsten Niebuhr — the 
Christopher Columbus of Yemen — who went out also under the 
Danish Royal Geographical Society, in the middle of the eighteenth 
century. In eight chapters and in three hundred pages of text, 
beautifully illustrated from photographs and maps of his route, we 
can follow his journey from Kuweit inland. In company with a 
trading caravan of one hundred camels, bound for Nejd, a start was 
made on February 24th, 1912. The Emir of Hail was at the time 
engaged in a war with the tribes of the Ha jar a desert, and, as it was 
thought unsafe to take the route along Wadi Rummah, Mr. Raunkiaer 
chose the way by the well Safah to Zilfi. He had with him six camels 
and three men. Nineteen days' march across belts of clayey steppe, 
bare sandstone plateau, and drift-sand, brought the party to Zilfi, 
and two more to Bereidah. A plot against Mr. Raunkiaer 's life was 
here detected, and the Emir himself, Fahad ibn Ma'amr, proved 
churlish, and vetoed a continuance of the journey to Aneizah. It 
was, therefore, necessary to follow Palgrave's route to Riadh via 
Zilfi and Mejma'a. From Ghat the way led for the most part over 
low sandstone plateaux, to which the name Tuweik is given. The 
journey to Riadh was made independently of any caravan, but with one 
extra man who had been sent by the Imam of Riadh. This ruler, 
Abder Rahman ibn Sa'ud, received the traveller courteously, and 
after a short stay at Riadh the latter started again in company with 
a caravan, the bulk of which consisted of 150 pearl-fishers bound for 
Bahrein. After ten days' mai*ch by a route between those of Palgrave 
and Pelly, Hofuf was reached on April 8th, the traveller meeting with 
a cordial welcome from the Turldsh authorities. He stayed there but 
a short time, the state of his health making him anxious to hurry on 
to the coast. With an escort of fifty Turkish soldiers he reached 
Ajer, and there took an Arab sailing vessel to Bahrein, where he was 
received by the British political agent. Captain D. L. R. Lorimer. 

It is unfortunate that so interesting a story of intrepid adventure 
and careful observation is not accessible to English readers, but even 
one who has only a slight knowledge of Danish through the Dutch, can 
get the gist of the book and write a word of appreciation. Mr. 
Raunkiaer shows how Kuweit commands the caravan routes inland 
and draws trade from a larger circle of tribes than even Busrah. He 
pays a warm tribute to the work of the missionaries at Busrah, and 
especially that of Dr. Paul W. Harrison at Kuweit, and even pauses 
in his narrative to mention the faithful native Arab in charge of the 
Arabian Mission Bible Shop with his taal-modighed even toward fanatic 
Wahabi Arabs (pp. 77, 78). In the index there are several references 
to the American Mission and its growing influence throughout Eastern 
Arabia. In spite of considerable difficulty, both because of climate 
and fanaticism, he brought back a large collection of good photographs, 
and in these one has a panorama of desert life and the oasis city life 


of Eastern Arabia better than we have ever had. Palgrave was a word 
painter, but photography was impossible in his day, and when I visited 
Hofuf the Turks would have promptly seized cameras as they did 
books and newspapers. Since Raunkiaer's visit the Arabs have 
expelled the Turkish officers and garrison, and Hassa may now offer 
an open door into the interior at no distant date. The map given 
in the cover pocket is the best route map I have seen for that part of 
the neglected peninsula. S. M. Zwemer. 

The Faith of the Crescent. By John Takle, Missionary, Bengal, 

Honorary Secretary " Missionaries to Muslims League." (The 

Association Press, Pubhcation Department of the National 

Council of the Young Men's Christian Association of India and 

Ceylon, 86 College Street, Calcutta, 1913). Pages 188. 

A well-written handbook for mission study classes among students 

in India, which first appeared as a series of articles in " The Young 

Men of India." The author is well-known and one of the leaders of 

evangelistic enterprise among Moslems of Eastern Bengal, where for 

seventeen years he has done effective work. 

In the ten chapters he deals with the extent of Islam, the character 
of its founder, its origin, belief, and practice, with a special chapter on 
the Koran, and the sects of Islam. The two concluding chapters deal 
with the points of contact and points of conflict between Islam and 
Christianity, and the future of Islam. 

The author leaves no doubt concerning his own position, and 
writes from practical experience rather than theory, although his 
bibliography shows that he is fully acquainted with works of reference 
on the subject. He has the fullest faith in the possibility of Christian 
conquest in Moslem lands, and, relying on the promise of a God who 
keeps covenant, says vidth Shelley, 

" The moon of Muhammad 
Arose, and it shall set : 

While, blazoned as on Heaven's immortal noon, 
The Cross leads generations on." Z. 

Einfiihrung in die Hohere Geisteskultur des Islam. 
Gemeinverstandhch dargestellt von Max Horten. Pp. 112. 
Friedrich Cohen, Bonn. 1914. 

The author is well-known from his earlier works, especially " Die 
philosophischen Systeme der spekulativen Theologen im Islam," 
and " Die spekulative und positive Theologie des Islam," the former 
published in Bonn, 1910, and the latter at Leipzig in 1913. This 
handbook is based on these earlier and more scientific studies, and is 
intended to give a summary for the general reader, and an introduction 
to the philosophy and speculative theology of Islam, although it deals 
only with the period between 750 A.D. and 1640. The subject is not 
treated chronologically but topically, which has its disadvantages, as 
the reader cannot always grasp what is the exact teaching of Moslem 
theologians at any particular period. Macdonald's work on Muslim 
Theology, or even De Boer's sketch of the history of philosophy in 
Islam, are in this respect more useful. 

The author takes up the subject under two main divisions, General 
Metaphysics and Special Subjects ; under the latter we have Moslem 
teaching and speculation concerning God, the world of spirits, the soul, 
the material universe, the eternity of matter, etc. A final chapter 
deals with the etliical teaching of Moslem philosophy. Professor 


Horten holds that Moslem speculative philosophy, and especially its 
later mystical teaching, is not Hellenistic altogether, but owes much to 
Persia and India. The book is not easy reading, and the otherwise 
clear style suffers from the condensation of a wealth of material. 

S. M. Z. 

The Mystics of Islam. By R. A. Nicholson, M.A., LL.D. George 
Bell and Sons. London. 1914. 2s. 6d. net. 
Moslem mysticism has a special interest for the supporters of 
missions to Mohammedans, because it has been freely asserted in 
certain quarters that Moslem mysticism may prove a bridge to 
Christianity. Although this book is not concerned with the missionary 
problem, its clear and suggestive treatment of the subject of mysticism 
will explain the grounds for that assertion. For Moslem mysticism is 
so far distinguished from orthodox Islam that at least in theory it is 
tolerant towards Christianity. This fact may awaken hope in the 
heart of the missionary to the Sufi, and yet this tolerance on the part of 
the true Sufi is only the outcome of complete indifference to every 
form of rehgion. He is above all that. Moreover, although " love '* 
may occupy the central place in mysticism, it is something quite 
different in Moslem mysticism from what it is in the New Testament : 
it is a kind of ecstasy, a method of becoming one with God by mystical 
exercises. Certainly, at least in theory, the love of man is inculcated 
on the ground of the love of God, because God is present in all men. 
On the same grounds, however, the love of God ultimately leads to the 
love of self, because my soul within me is actually God. Equally 
marked is the distinction between Moslem mysticism, with its strong 
monistic tendency, and the Christian behef in God : the Moslem 
mystic seeks God within himself and finds Him everywhere, and 
thereby God ceases to be a personality. Deeper still is the gulf 
between Moslem Mysticism and Christianity in the domain of ethics. 
For the Moslem mystic is above all ritual observance and ceremony, 
and also above every law, and the distinction between good and evil. 
Nicholson's presentation of all this is masterly, and interspersed with 
telling quotations from the Moslem mystics. The difficult mystical 
terminology, which is often purposely used to disguise pecuhar mystical 
ideas, is made comprehensible even to the beginner by well-chosen 
explanations. ^ G. Simon. 





Mohammedanism conquering Hinduism. Rev. N. L. Rockey. 
Men and Missions, New York. April, 1914. Experiences in the 
Oudh district of the Methodist Episcopal Mission, showing the 
advance of Islam both among Hindu and Christian communities, 
especially when the latter have an inadequate European staff of 

Hoe te prediken voor Heiden en Mohammedaan. Dr. A. M. 
Brouwer. Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandschzendeling- 
genootschaf. No. 4. 1914. A scientific discussion of the grounds 
for missionary preaching. 

The Problem of Mohammedan Evangelisation. Rev, G. A. 
Lefroy, D.D. Church Missionary Review, London. June, 1914. 
An address in the Royal Albert Hall, London, in connection with 
the 115th Anniversary of the C.M.S., May 5th, 1914. An appeal 
for advance in evangelising the Mohammedans, especially of India. 

Kaufmanskii Sbornik. R. Majerczak. Revue du Monde Mussulman. 
Mars, 1914. Summary of the contents of a volume of sixteen 
essays, published in Russian on the 25th anniversary of the death 
of General Kaufman, the first Governor-General of Turkestan, and 
bearing upon various aspects of the country, its historj^ and 

La Politique orientale de la Russie. Revue du Monde Mussulman. 
Paris. Mars, 1914. Summary of " Russlands Orientpolitik in 
den letzten zwei Jahrhunderten," by Hans Uebersberger. Vol. i., 

1913. A discussion from the Austrian standpoint of the relations 
between Russia and the Balkan peoples and the Moslem territories 
on the shores of the Black Sea, during the 17th and 18th centuries. 

En Anatolie. Azeri. Revue du Monde Mussulman. Paris. Mars, 

1914. Summary (translated) of an enquiry instituted by the 
" Tanin " and carried out hy Ahmed Cherif. Similar to the 
enquiry about Mesopotamia, carried out by Hakki Bey for the 
"Tanin," and published in 1911 as " De Stamboul a Baghdad, 
notes d'un homme d'etat." 

The Indian Press Act and its Interference with our Religious 
Liberties. Islamic Review, Woking. April, 1914. An open 
letter to the Secretary of State for India from K. Kamal-ud-Din, 
concerning the notice served by the Punjab Government upon the 
Badar Press of Qadian and the Able Hadees Press of Amratsar, 
to deposit respectively 3,000 and 2,000 rupees for pubUshing 
certain articles on religious polemics. 


European Promotion of Alcoholism and Vice in Islamic and 
Eastern Nations. Islamic Review, Woking. May, 1914. 
A speech by the O'Donnell of O'Donnell to the Anglo -Ottoman 
Society, London, of April 2nd, 1914, concerning the abuses of 
civilisation in Islamic countries, especially alcohoUsm in Morocco 
and the White Slave Traffic in India. 


Mohammed's Call to Prophetship. Professor de Goeje. The 
Modern Review, Calcutta. February, 1914. Discussion of 
Mohammed's vision, suggesting some sort of parallel to the 
" Brockengespenst." 

Aberglaubische Vorstellungen und Brauche der alten Araber nach 
Hamza al-Isbahani. Eugen Mittwoch. Mitteilungen des 
Seminars filr Orientalische Sprachen, Berlin. Vol. xvi. 1913. 

Keraclius the Roman Emperor and the Prophet of Islam. Islamic 
Review, Woking. April, 1914. Account of the interview be- 
tween Heraclius and Dehya, one of Mohammed's companions, 
who was sent by the prophet to the Court of Rome to invite the 
Emperor to the faith of Islam. 


Le Chevalier d'Arvieux (1635- 1702) D'apres ses Memoirs. 
L. Bouvat. Revue du Monde Mussulman, Paris. Mars, 1914. 
A study (pp. 83) of the Memoirs of the Chevaher d'Arvieux, 
Consul d' Alger et d'Alep, pubhshed in six vols, in 1735, by P. 
J.-B. Labat. " La meilleure source d 'informations qu'il soit 
possible d 'avoir sur les rapports de la France avec le Levant, 
et la vie qu'y menaient ses nationaux au 17me siecle." 

Ursprung und Geschichte der Mormonen mit Exkursen iiber 
die Anfange des Islam und des Christentums. Johannes 
Pedersen. Der Islam. Strassburg. 1914. P. 110. A careful 
discussion of Edward Meyer's treatment of the subject. 

The Mutual Relationship between Islam and Christianity. 
W. A.Lloyd. Islamic Review, Woking. March, 1914. Account 
of a lecture on this subject by F. Mohamed Sayal, at the Mosque, 
Woking, on February 8th, and showing the success of the lecture 
to be a " clarion call to the faithful everywhere to be up and 

Das hochste Gericht : zwei jungtiirkische Traumgesichten. Th. 
Menzel. Der Islam, Sir a,ssbuTg. 1914. P. 1. A vivid description 
from the early days of the Revolution of the hatred of the 
Young Turks for Abdul Hamid, who is placed in judgment before 
the Prophet and utterly condemned by every important Sultan, 
and finally the Prophet himself for his deeds. 

Die missionslose Gebiete in Togo und Kamerun. Strtimpfel. 
Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift. 1914. Pp. 8-115. 


Zur Mohammedlegende. Jos. Horowitz. Der Islam, Strassburg. 
1914. P. 41. An enquiry as to how far back the doctrine of 
Mohammed's miraculous powers may be traced, a doctrine which 
is contrary to the Koran. Ibn Ischag already attests them, and 
the proverb about " the mountain and the prophet " may possibly 
be traced to him. 


Der Beweis fiir die Auferstehung im Koran. Edv. Lehmann 
and Johannes Pedersen. Der Islam, Strassburg. 1914. P. 54. 
There being evidence of the resurrection in the Old Testament 
as well as in Rabbinical writers and the Fathers, including those 
of the Eastern Church, it seems certain that Mohammed drew his 
apparently original description from Christianity and Judaism. 

Die Entstehung der moslemischen Reinheitsgesetzgebung. 
Wensink. Der Islam, Strassburg. 1914. P. 62. A detailed 
discussion of the influence of Judaism upon Moslem law. Devia- 
tions from the Jewish law of purification are pointed out. 

Contribution a I'etude d'Ibn Khaldoun de Tunis (1332-1406 A.D.). 
Stefano Colosio. Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris. Mars, 1914. 
Sections IV. and V. treat in some detail of " Le concept de la 
propriete pour Ibn Khaldoun et la division des Biens " and " Le 
Role social du travail." 

Some Traditions from Muslim. Prof. Homersham Cox. The 
Modern Review, Calcutta. May, 1914. A selection of Traditions 
translated from " Mushm," a collection of the third century 
(A.H.), of which a new edition has recently been pubhshed by 
Maulvi Mohi-ud-din, of Lahore, with an Urdu translation and 
valuable notes. 

Blicke in islamisches Denken und Leben. L. Oehler. Evangel- 

isches Missions- 31 agazin. Basel, 1914. P. 164. Based on 

Macdonald's " Aspects of Islam." 
Panislamisme in Nederl. -Indie. U. Bakker. De Macedonier. Vol. 

xviii. P. 1. 
Essai sur les Demembrements de la Propriete fonciere en droit 

musulman. E. Arin. Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris. 

Mars., 1914. (Pp. 277-317). 
Steuer, Pacht und Lehenswesen : eine historische Studie iiber 

die Entstehung des islamischen Lehenswesens. C. H. Bekker. 

Der Islam. Strassburg. 1914. P. 81. 
Die Entstehung einer Mohammedanischen Sekte. Dr. H. Christ- 

Sozin. Evangelisches Missions- Magazin. 1914. P. 159. Account 

of the sect of the Murides of Amadu Bamba in French West 

Africa, based upon an article by E. Marty in the Revue du 

Monde Mussulman, December, 1913. 
Das Vordringen des Islams in Afrika. D. Westermann. Jahrbuch 

der Vereinigten Deutschen Missions Gonferenzen. 1914. 
Aegyptens Stellung in der Geschichte, besonders der Religions- 

geschichte. Dr. D. Hoppe. Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische 

Kirchenzeitung , 1914. Nos. 9-16. A series of articles, including 

news of Egyptian Missions. 
Statistique des Publications Musulmanes de Russie en 19 12. 

Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris. Mars, 1914. A reprint of 

statistics furnished by Kerim Said Efendi, of St. Petersburg, to 

the " Kouyach." Six hundred and thirty-one publications are 

reported from ten cities (249 at Kasan), which appeared in twelve 

languages. The total number of copies was 2,812,130, and their 

sale realised 681,729 roubles. 
Prieres des musulmans du Yun-nan pour obtenir la pluie. 

G. Cordier. Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris. Mars, 1914. 

Text of prayers and description of ceremonies in time of drought 

among the Moslems of Yunnan. 


Notes sur la Perse, par H. L. Rabino. (1) Les Anciens Sports au 
Guilan. A description (illustrated) of the bull-fight and 
boxing match which take place annually at the spring equinox, 
" Koul^koule-tchaharchanbe," also some notes on the hunting 
of former times and games of polo previous to 1164 A.D. 

(2) Coins of the Shahs of Persia. Tables of Persian coins 
from 907-955 A.H. ; 955-1212 A.H. ; 1212-1329 A.H. ; and notes 
on the various names of Persian coins together with those used on 
special occasions : " monnaies de largesses, de pelerinage et 

(3) Tanzimat-i-hasaneh. Account of an abortive reform 
movement at Recht, in 1875. 

(4) A travers le Mazenderan. Account of a journey from 
Recht to Sari (translated from The Geographical Journal, London, 
November, 1913), 

Mosleni Women in the University. The Orient, Constantinople. 
February 11th, 1914. Outline of the plans at the University 
of Stamboul for lectures to women. 

How the Turkish Woman is advancing. Indian Magazine. March 
1914. Constable, M. 

The Women and Girls of Tiberias. Mrs. S. H. Semple. U. F. 
Missionary Record, Edinburgh. April, 1914. Account of their 
home life and how they earn a livelihood. 

Het Mohammedanisene en het Mohammedaansche Kind. Med- 
edeelingen van het Zendingsveld. (Java Committee). 



The Fulness of Time in the Moslem World. Rev. S. M. Zwemer, 

D.D. Missionary Review of the World, New York. March, 1914. 

An address delivered at the Student Volunteer Convention, 

Kansas City, December, 1913. 
Die Bedeutung des christlichen Balkankrieges fiir die Mission. 

Stange. Jahrbuch der sdchsischen Missionskonferenz. 1914. 

P. 96. 
Die Nationale Bewegung im nord-afrikanischen Islam. Dr. 

Christ-Sozin. Evangelisches Missions- Magazin. 1914. P. 121. 

Description of the Nationalist awakening in North Africa, based 

on Andre Servier's " Le peril de I'avenir a Constantine." 1913. 


Scheich Abdallah el Huseing. Straub. Evangelisches Missions- 
Magazin. 1914. P. 61. 

Tabora im Jahre 19 13. Missionsblatt der Brildergemeinde. 1914. 
No. 4. Short account of the recently-founded Mission to Moham- 
medans in Tabora, German East Africa. 

Christentum und Islam im Wettbewerb um die afrikanischen 
Negervolker. Dr. Paul. Jahrbuch der sdchsischen Missions- 
konferenz, 1914. S. 52. A good survey of the advance of Islam, 
especially in the German colonies. 

Opening by the Sudan United Mission among the Dinkas. The 
Light Bearer, London. March, 1914. 

The Western Soudan. Geo. C. Reed. The Gospel Message, Kansas 
City. February-March, 1914. (2) The Language and the 
Climatb. a brief account, especiail}'- of the Mendi language and 


the Bambara dialect, (3) The Country and its Government. 
Short account of the French colonies of Senegal, Guinea, Ivory 
Coast, Dahomey and Upper Senegal, their products and admin- 
istration, with a special reference to the attitude of the Govern- 
ment towards Islam and Christian Missions. " There is no legal 
obstacle to Missionary work in the French Soudan, and the 
Government does not seem disposed to favour or cherish Islam." 
Among the eleven millions of the interior of the French Soudan 
there is not a single witness for Christ. 

A Voice from the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony. 
Rev. H. G. Martin. The Foreign Field, London. June, 1914. 
Brief account of the Dagomba, Mamprusi, Grunshi and Dagarti 

Look on the Fields : Algeria. By E. H. G. North Africa, London. 
April, 1914. Description of Algeria as a mission field with 
reference to the various national elements in the population. 

The Making of a Nation. Rev. C. T. Erickson. Missionary Review 
of the World, New York. March, 1914. An account of the rise 
of Albania and the present opportunity for missionary effort. 

The Situation in Albania. H. Chas. Woods. The Fortnightly 
Review, London. March, 1914. A discussion of the actual 
conditions prevailing in Albania. Supports the view that only 
a Protestant prince could have been elected to the throne. " No 
Moslem with whom I talked, and I discussed the question with 
war-like chiefs in the north and with prince-landowners in the 
south, expressed to me any desire to be ruled by a professor of 

The Case of Epirus. C. P. Casanges. The Fortnightly Review, 
London. March, 1914. Account of the present political situa- 
tion in Epirus with special reference to the Moslem Epirotes of 
Albanian speech. 

Aus der Zeit des Balkankrieges. J. Awetaranian. Der Christliche 
Orient. 1914. P. 8. A reply to Lord Headley. 

Nationale Bestrebungen und evangelische Missionsarbeit in 
Armenien. Ernest Lohmann. Evangelisches Missions- Magazin. 
1914. P. 83. Report of the opinion of the Armenian press upon 
Protestant Missions, which are only recognised in so far as they 
respect the national independence of the Armenians. 

Missionsrundschau. G. Simon. Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift. 
1914. Pp. 32, 87, 128. Survey of Asia Minor, the Balkan States, 
Persia, Sjnria, Palestine and Arabia. 

In Kurdistan : Fortgesetzte Reiseberichte. Ernest Lohmann. 
Der Weg. 1914. 

The Demand of the North-West Frontier of India. Rev. H. J. 
Hoare. Church Missionary Review, London. June, 1914. A 
plea for the tribes on the North-West frontier of India, where there 
is " the Moslem faith in all its primitive simphcity, untouched by 
the influences of Western thought, held by a hill-people of remark- 
able virility." 

Die Mission in den Malaiien Landern. Dr. E. Luring. Evangelisches 
Missions- Magazin. 1914. P. 137. Account of missions on the 
peninsula of Malacca and in British North Borneo. 

Verslag over het jaar 1913. Orgaander Nederl. Zendingsvereeinging. 
April, 1914. Report for 1913 of the work of this Rotterdam 
Society in West Java. 


Wat de oorzaak is van den huidigen toestand der zending of 
Westjava ? L. Tiemersina. De Macedonier, XVIII. 4. An 
enquiry into the reasons for the present state of missions in West 
Java, which has been answered in detail by M. Lindenborn's 
" De Zending of Westjava " in the supplement of De Macedonier, 
XVIII. 5. 

Einige Probleme der mohammedanischen Mission von Stiibler. 
Evangelisches Missions- Magazin. 1913. X., 459-463. 

Missionsarztliche Aufgaben an der Mohammedanerwelt. Missions- 
inspektor Fr. Wtirz und Dr. H. S. Frohlich, Assuan i.Aegypten. 
Address at the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Deutsches 
Institut flir arztliche Mission at Stuttgart, 1913. 

Der Missionskursus in Kairo. D. von Oertzen, Darau. Der Sudan- 
Pionier. 1914. No. 1. 


Civilisation : Islam and Christianity. Islamic Review, Woking. 
March, 1914. First section of discussion on : " Can the 
principle of CiviHsation be traced to Christianity ? " " In a way 
the Christian Church has always been a stumbling block in the 
way of progress. Every kind of reform in the West found the 
Church amongst its foremost enemies." 

Seyyid Abdul Kadir Jelani and Jesus. Islamic Review, Wok- 
ing. April, 1914. A reply to " The Dying Forces of Islam," 
by the Rev. S. M. Zwemer, D.D., in The Moslem World, 
January, 1914. 

The Liverpool Muslim Movement. Yehya-en-Nasr Parkinson. 
Islamic Review, Woking. May, 1914. A reply to the article : 
" A Moslem Mission to England," by Rev. H. U. Weitbrecht, D.D., 
in The Moslem World, April, 1914. Gives details of the activi- 
ties of the Movement subsequent to 1893 and of the Mosque at 

A Twice-born Turk. (VI., VII., VIII.). Missionary Review of the 
World. New York. March-May, 1914. Further reminiscences 
of a converted Moslem Sheikh, translated by A. T. Upson. 

Der Mahdi, der Antichrist und Jesu Wiederkunft. J. Aweter- 
anian. Der Christliche Orient. 1914. P. 62. A translation of 
a Turkish Arabic tract by Mustapha Abdul Izmet un Nagnhibondi. 

The Moslem World 

Vol. IV OCTOBER, 1914 No. 4 



What we had dreaded has come upon us. The night- 
mare of a generation is now a fearful reahty. Ten 
nations, representing the last word in human culture, 
are in deadly conflict, using the most potent forces of 
material civilisation to destroy its agents and its achieve- 
ments till one or the other is beaten to its knees. And 
at the time of writing we cannot tell whether they may 
not be joined by an eleventh that represents Islam. 
What does this mean ? To the world at large, destruc- 
tion of wealth, economic waste, incalculable impoverish- 
ment. To its inhabitants, death and suffering, the 
bereavement of myriads and millions. To the nations, 
a harvest for generations of undying hatred. To the 
Churches of Christendom, darkening of their religious 
witness which may be felt. 

But there is more than this. " When the Son of 
Man cometh, shall He find faith upon the earth ? " The 
seer of the Apocalypse beholds " the Lamb in the midst 
of the throne," opening the seals of the Divine counsels, 
and hears the prayer of the whole creation, " Come " ; 
and the first answer is seen in judgments on the kingdoms 
of the earth which have made brute force their deity. 
What happened to the empire of Rome has happened 
once and again in history ; and nations sunk in selfish- 
ness, or swollen with pride, have been purged and 
chastened, while the Church's world-wide witness has 
shone out more clearly, as it did a century ago when the 
great missionary societies of the Reformed Churches 
were founded amid the throes of European war. 



What, then, of the message of Western Christianity, 
especially to the Moslem World ? All through we have 
aimed to present it so as to disentangle Christianity from 
Christendom, and the need for this is made clearer than 
ever. The whole human race begins at the same starting 
point, born with the same tendency to selfishness and 
sin, the only salvation for each is the new birth from 
above. That birth, attained through the incarnate 
Word of God and His Gospel, is needed by the unre- 
generate who bear His Name no less than by those who 
do not. This foundation of God is shaken b}'^ no up- 
heavals of the political world ; its necessity and immut- 
ability is made more clear than ever. If only we are 
" steadfast, immovable," we shall see that out of this, 
the greatest convulsion of history, will emerge a new 
revelation of God's Kingdom among the nations, trans- 
cending any that has gone before. 

H. U. Weitbrecht. 


We are apt to under-estimate the spiritual forces of 
Christianity that, although perhaps dormant, still remain 
vital throughout all the Moslem lands of the East in the 
Oriental Churches. The whole story of the early spread 
of Islam in Persia, Syria, Egypt and North Africa, is at 
once tragic and heroic. Tragic, because of the light it 
throws on the sad condition of Christianity during that 
period ; heroic, because of the fact that, in spite of 
apostacies, corruptions and warring factions, many of 
the churches withstood the storm and remain to this 
day. Viscount Bryce gave a strong testimony to one 
of these churches of the martyrs when he recently wrote : 
" Among all the peoples in Western Asia the Armenians 
are unquestionably the strongest ; I believe them to be 
in point of industry, intellect and energy, the equals of 
any of the European races. The fullest proof of their 
constancy and courage was given when, in the massacres 
of 1895 and 1896, thousands died as martj^rs rather than 
save their lives by accepting Islam." 

In a wall-map recently published, we may clearly see 
the present day distribution and surprising strength of 


Christianity in the Ottoman Empire — alas, also, of its 
sad divisions. It was prepared by Major R. Huber, chief 
engineer in the Lebanon Province, and shows on a large 
scale the number and location of the various Patriarch- 
ates, Bishoprics, convents, cathedrals, churches, schools, 
hospitals, and mission stations, each kind of work and 
division of the Christian forces being represented by a 
different sign and colour. The time has come for securing 
a united front. Competition or rivalry are fatal over 
against Islam. 

Nor must we forget in this connection the debt we 
owe the past. Students of Church history are beginning 
to recognise that there was missionary work among 
Moslems long before the days of Henry Martyn and 
before the Protestant Reformation. The apology of El 
Kindy, written about 800 A.D., has just been reprinted, 
and those who think Lull was the only pioneer may 
learn from the Danish scholar. Dr. Christian H. Kalkar, 
of many other apostles to Islam before the fall of 
Constantinople. (" Kirken Virksomhed blandt Muham- 
medanerne indtil Constantinoples Erobering," Copen- 
hagen, 1884). And did not the mantle of Raymund 
Lull fall on the " White Fathers " as well as on Ian 
Keith Falconer and Thomas Valpy French ? 

We can surely emphasise our unity in the words of 
the Apostle : " One Lord, one faith, one baptism, one 
God and Father of all. Who is over all and through all 
and in all." " With all lowliness and meekness, with 
long suffering, forbearing one another in love, giving 
diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of 
peace " over against the Moslem world. In union will 
be our strength ; none of us can do it alone, nor can any 
one Society in any one field. S. M. Zwemer. 



The first appearance of Islam in Kashmir is by some 
believed to have been on the occasion of the abortive 
invasion of Tartar Khan Dalcha in 1128 A.D. It was 
not, however, until two centuries later that Syed 'Abd-ur 
Rahman, the celebrated " Bulbul Shah," arriving from 
Turkestan with 1,000 fugitives, succeeded in permanently 
establishing the Mohammedan religion in Kashmir, after 
four thousand years of Hindu rule. This he achieved 
primarily by converting to Islam the Thibetan Buddhist 
prince, Rainchan Shah, called Sadr-ud-Din, who had 
married the daughter of the last Hindu Rajah. The 
Brahman s would not admit this usurper from Tibet 
into their caste, and it is said that he thereupon deter- 
mined, after sincere prayer, to adopt the religion of the 
first person whom he should chance to see on a certain 
morning. Looking out of the palace window he beheld 
the celebrated " faqir " above-mentioned, saying his 
prayers by the river-side ; and thereupon Rainchan Shah 
became a convert to Islam and proceeded vigorously to 
assist Bulbul Shah in the conversion of the Brahmans, 
who had treated him so inhospitably. Following the 
conversion of the royal family and the nobles, the common 
people swarmed into the Mohammedan fold by tens of 
thousands. After Rainchan Shah the next prominent 
figure in Kashmiri history was Sikander, the Iconoclast, 
the sixth Mohammedan king, whose reign was marked 
and marred by the destruction of many of the great 
Hindu temples, as well as by the slaughter of thousands 
of Hindus who persisted in clinging to their ancient 
faith. His reign was also distinguished by the activities 
of the celebrated saint, Mir Syed 'Ali Hamadani, to whom 


later reference will be made. In happy contrast to 
Sikander, mention should be made of the half-century- 
long reign of Zain-ul-ab-ul-Din, who, unlike most of the 
Mohammedan rulers preceding and following him, was 
most tolerant, philanthropic al and virtuous, a builder of 
bridges and canals, and a patron of manufactures and of 
the arts and sciences. Under Shaikh Nur-ud-Din, at a 
little later period, great numbers of converts were made, 
and Islam spread to the frontier provinces of Gilgit and 

It was not until the establishment of the Moghul 
dynasty in 1586 that a long period of peace and prosperity 
succeeded to treachery and chaos. This continued until 
the coming, in 1750, of the Afghans, whose rule was 
characterised by brutal tyranny, unrelieved by good 
Avorks, chivalry or honour. Forcible conversions to 
Islam again became the order of the day, and large 
numbers of Hindus fled from the country. Early in the 
nineteenth century Mohammedan rule in Kashmir came 
to an end with the Sikh invasion, under Ranjit Singh. 
Conditions under the Sikh regime were far from satis- 
factory either for Mohammedans or Hindus, for the Sikh 
rulers were cruel, avaricious and incompetent ; and 
earthquake, famine and pestilence, added to the ex- 
orbitant taxes, made the conditions of the inhabitants 
almost unbearable. Finally came the British conquerors, 
from over the seas, to whom Kashmir was ceded by the 
Sikhs in 1846 ; and they in turn made it over, for certain 
considerations, to Maharajah Gulab Singh, the Dogra 
ruler of Jammu. In the hands of that enlightened 
family, under informal British supervision, the state of 
Kashmir has since remained, and has slowly advanced 
in education and economic prosperity, after so many 
centuries of misgovernment and confusion. 

It is not surprising that, under their Hindu rulers, 
the Mohammedans of Kashmir should have made 
comparatively little progress in education, for practically 
all of the posts to which men of higher qualifications 
might aspire are now uniformly filled with Hindus, so 
that the Mohammedans have turned rather to commercial 
pursuits. The figures in the last census (1911) show 


graphically the contrast in education between Moham- 
medan and Hindu in Kashmir. Of every 1,000 adults^ 
61 Hindus and 8 Mohammedans are literate. Of every 
100 boys of school-going age, 14 Hindus and 2 Moham- 
medans attend school. As yet no Kashmiri-born Moham- 
medan, so far as I could learn, has secured the B.A. 
degree, and only some ten or eleven have been successful 
in obtaining the F.A. degree. The education of women 
is still in its infancy, although four mission schools for 
girls and women are now established, with Hindus and 
Mohammedans attending in about equal numbers. The 
Government has also been roused to activity in this 
regard since the visit of Mrs. Besant to Kashmir a few 
years ago, and is appropriating large sums annually for 
female education. 

With regard to strictly Mohammedan education, there 
are not a dozen men in Kashmir who know Arabic 
thoroughly. The mullahs know only the Koran, which 
they recite like parrots, without understanding the 
meaning or knowing the interpretations of the com- 
mentators. There are large numbers of mullas who make 
a business of teaching the Koran to boys from four 3^ears 
old upward, receiving eight annas (equivalent to eight 
English pennies) for imparting a knowledge of each of the 
thirty portions into which the Koran is divided for this 
purpose. Very few Kashmiri Moslems, comparatively, 
have made the pilgrimage to Mecca. 

With ignorance goes its twin sister, superstition ; 
and likewise crafty priests, battening upon the super- 
stitious fears of the people. The pirs and mullahs, and, 
in Ladakh, the lamas, wield vast power over their flocks, 
who are naturally religious-minded and given to steadfast 
beliefs and to intense conservatism. The Kashmiris, 
both men and women, are covered with charms of every 
description and for every conceivable end, sold to them 
by the industrious mullahs, whose chief business it is to 
deal in them. I used to watch one of them going on his 
weekly rounds among the boatmen of m}^ own and 
neighbouring boats, always finding the trade good, and 
appearing to be quite the most prosperous personage on 
the horizon. Like most religiously-disposed peoples, not 


yet out of the swaddling clothes of superstition, the 
Kashmiri Mohammedan's religion is rather negative than 
positive, a matter of securing divine aid to ward off 
evil, rather than to advance the cause of righteousness 
in his own and other lives. He goes to the mosque, if 
at all, only on special occasions, and is very remiss in his 
prayers, and he probably does not honestly observe the 
fast of Ramadan. Nevertheless, he has immense belief 
in, and fear of. Jinn, and hence his reliance on charms 
to fend from himself and his family the influence of their 
blighting powers, which bring madness, disease, and 
countless other ills. His fear seems to be not so much 
of the orthodox Jinn (some of whom we are told in the 
Koran accepted Islam) as of renegade Shi 'ah, and even 
Hindu Jinn. A legend known and repeated in every 
Kashmiri home is to the effect that, many centuries ago, 
all the residents of Kashmir were accustomed to repair 
to the Punjab during the winter season, while the Jinn 
inhabited Kashmir in their stead. One winter, however, 
an old man unwilling or unfit to leave, remained behind 
alone, despairing of his life. Soon the Jinn appeared, 
threatening to devour him. The old man prostrated 
himself in supplication, and his life was spared on con- 
dition that, when the people returned at the commence- 
ment of summer, he should tell them that they might 
remain in Kashmir throughout the year if they would 
feed the birds in snow time, never go out after nightfall, 
and feed their priests on the coldest, darkest night of the 
year. On that night there are to-day appropriate cere- 
monies, which the Hindus share ; and many reports come 
into circulation each year of Jinn having appeared to 
various individuals at that time. Some of the days of 
the week are believed to be especially favourable for 
business ventures, journeyings, etc., and Tuesday is 
considered most unfavourable for all purposes, sharing 
the odium attaching to Friday in the west. A boy is 
not sent to a new school except on Monday or Wednesday. 

One of the most general forms in which this universal 
superstition manifests itself is in the prevalence of saint 
worship. The tombs of pirs are ubiquitous. 

Below are given a few which are probably the most 


important and universally known, together with the 
particular features associated with each. 

1. Shah'i-Hamadan' s shrine near Srinagar, Mir Syed 
'Ali of Hamadan, the greatest of all Kashmiri pirs, who 
died in 1408 A.D., is locally known as " Hazrat Amir." 
The story of his coming to Kashmir is thus narrated by 
ignorant mullahs, especially to the crowds who throng his 
shrine. In former days the saint was hving at the court 
of Timur (Tamerlane), at a time when there were in the 
place great numbers of false Syeds or descendants of the 
Prophet. Tradition has it that the Prophet had said that 
true Syeds would be impervious to the fire of Hell here- 
after, and that their geimineness could be tested on earth 
by subjecting them to a test of fire. The true Syeds 
would prove to be unharmed by the flames. Timur 
thought it was time that they should be thus tested, and 
great numbers were by this means burned to death. 
Syed Ali Hamadani was required to mount on an iron 
horse, within which was a raging fire. He mounted the 
animal, after having observed the morning prayer at 
Delhi, and was whisked away to Srinagar, where he 
arrived in time for the evening prayer. There he at once 
became engaged in controversy with the greatest of 
living Hindu sadhus, and they agreed upon a test which 
should determine which of them possessed the true 
religion. To the spot on which the shrine now stands a 
cow was brought, which was about to give birth to her 
young. Each one was enjoined to tell what the colour 
of the calf would be. The Moslem said that it would be 
black with a white tail ; the sadhu, that it would be black 
with a white forehead. When the calf appeared it was 
black with a white tail growing out of its forehead, 
which accounted for the natural mistake of the sadhu. 
Immediately, the sadhu was carried away to Heaven. 
The pir sent a disciple to bring him back, but the disciple 
decided that it was not worth while to go himself, so sent 
his shoe instead, and by the shoe the sadhu was brought 
back to earth and forthwith converted to Islam.* Once 
a year a great fair is held at this shrine, to which the 

* For a variant of this legend, as I heard it, see " Travels in 
Kashmir " (1844). By G. T. Vigne. Vol. II., p. 82. 


whole city resorts, more interested in the boat races 
then taking place than in praying at the shrine. At 
this shrine the most binding oaths are taken by Kashmiris. 

2. Mahhdum Sahib's shrine at Hariparhat. To this 
shrine pilgrims repair on Mondays and Thursdays ; and 
on the twenty-fourth of the month " Safar," there is a 
large " mela " (fair) which all Mohammedans attend who 
can possibly do so, when all are relieved of their small 
coin by the keepers of the shrine, who thus gain their 
livelihood. On that day the tank near the shrine (into 
which no canal flows) is laboriously filled by the exertions 
of the faithful, who carry all the water in small jars on 
their shoulders from every section of the city. The one 
who transports the most water accumulates the most merit. 

3. Shaikh Nur-ud-Din's shrine at Tsrar, twenty miles 

from Srinagar. This is patronised more than others by 

the ignorant village folk, whose national saint he is. 

It is believed that at the Qiamat (Resurrection), he will 

be the 'alam-dari Kashmiri, or the one who will carry 

the standards of Islam before the hosts of the faithful 

from Kashmir. Regarding this shrine, and the character 

of pilgrimages thither, a recent writer has given us the 

following vivid narrative : — 

" After the Hazrat Bal Ziarat the shrine at Tsrar ranks as the 
most sacred. Indeed, a pilgrimage thither is supposed to obviate any 
special necessity for going to Mecca. In case of famine, earthquake, 
or cholera, thousands of people resort to Tsrar, most of them bringing 
offerings with them — rice, walnuts, money, a fat capon, or even a ram. 
Twice or thrice a year, under ordinary conditions, large fairs are held 
at the more important of the shrines. Thousands gather together ; 
the roads are lined with temporary booths with a great display of 
sweetmeats and cakes, painted clay figures, fruit and ornaments, such 
as ear-ririgs, glass bangles, metal bracelets, bright -coloured skull-caps 
and waistcoats. Large numbers of women attend. For them it is 
the equivalent of a Bank Holiday. Here, too, may be seen the 
Kashmiri minstrels. These have long clarionet -like, pipes and drums, 
and produce most weird music, often in the minor key. Sometimes 
they are reinforced by fiddles — curious instruments, with a barbaric 
twang. Such companies of strolling musicians often have with them 
dancing boys with long hair, dressed up as women. As a general rule 
these people are Mussulmans. They are in special request at weddings 
and harvest feasts. Some of them are said to be good actors, and to 
have valuable dresses and stage properties." — Beyond the Pir Panjal, 
by E. F. Neve. P. 31. 

4. 'Abdul Qadir al-Jilani's shrine, called Hazrat Bah 
^t Khanyar. Here is preserved a hair of the beard of 


this widely celebrated saint, which was brought to 
Kashmir by Syed 'Abdullah in A.D. 1111, and sold to a 
merchant for 100,000 Rupees. On the anniversary of the 
Saint's death, when the hair is on exhibition, this shrine is 
visited by a huge crowd from Srinagar and the surrounding 
towns, and the priest bearing the sacred relic actually 
walks on the heads of the sobbing, hysterical populace. 

5. Tomb of Yus-Asaf, an obscure saint, believed to 
have been forty yards in height, who died in the fifteenth 
centurj^ This tomb is small and unpretentious, with 
the customary rags tied in huge clusters to the iron bars 
of the inner gateway, indicating the prayers of those of 
the faithful who have sought (and paid for) the inter- 
cession of this particular saint to help them in trouble 
or to ward off threatened evil. It is only worthy of 
mention because it was declared to be the tomb of Christ 
by Mirza Ghulam Amad, founder of the Ahmadiya sect 
of Moslems, with headquarters at Qadian, in the Punjab^ 
who asserted that Christ neither died on the cross nor 
was miraculously transported to Heaven, in accordance 
with orthodox Moslem belief, but escaped from Jerusalem 
and wandered to India, teaching and preaching and 
finally dying in Kashmir. Save in the frontier districts 
there are few " Qadianis " in Kashmir. 

In this connection one is reminded of another curious 
tradition, in this case local and not foisted on Kashmir 
from without — namely, that after Moses died his body 
was transported to Bahrar in Kashmir, where it was 
buried, after the entire population of the village had been 
permanently frightened away by the miraculous visitation. 

Another interesting local tradition is to the effect 
that in a certain well at Martand, the seat of the famous 
Hindu temple ruins, are imprisoned the disobedient 
angels — Harut and Marut — who were caused to descend 
from Heaven to earth, were tempted and fell, and 
revealed to mortal ears a heavenl}^ secret. Orthodox 
tradition outside of Kashmir has fixed the place of their 
eternal punishment in a rocky pit at Babel, where they 
are suspended by the feet.* 

* See the Koran, Sura II., verse 96. Also Tisdall, "The 
Sources of the Qur'an," p. 93. 


Of mad saints there are many in Kashmir to-day. 
They are held in great respect by both Hindus and 
Mohammedans, who beheve them to be in possession of 
the secrets of God, and hence invaluable as fortune 
tellers. In the villages some of them go about entirely 
naked, and their language is unspeakably vile. During 
my own residence in Kashmir for the space of five months 
I saw only one, who was surrounded by a band of followers 
and leering upon the passers-by out of eyes the most 
evil I have ever seen. It is clear from some of the popular 
proverbs of the people that respect for saints is tempered 
with appreciation of their defects, as is shown, for 
example, by the following : — " The pir is not great. It 
is credulity which is great." " Do as the priest says, but 
not as he does."* 

One curious tradition current among the women, and 
having to do with the relation of women to the after life, 
is to the effect that, whereas one out of every thousand 
men will go to Hell, only one out of every thousand 
women will ultimately be found in Paradise. These 
elect will be determined upon a basis of their behaviour 
to their husbands in this life. Women share with the 
men the hardest labours on the water and on the land. 
Except for the working classes, pardah is strictly observed 
and early marriages are the general rule. 

In regard to the statistics of population in Kashmir, 
the following facts are of interest : " Although ruled by 
Hindus, Kashmir is now really a Mohammedan country, 
for 93 per cent, of the people are Mussulmans. There 
are a few Hindu cultivators, but in the villages there are 
many shopkeepers and subordinate revenue and forest 
officers of this religion. More than half of the Hindu 
population, however, lives in Srinagar."f The Moham- 
medan increase between 1901 and 1911 was 11.3 per cent, 
to the Hindu 0.2 per cent. The difference is largely 
accounted for by the prevalence of widow re-marriages 
among the Moslems in contrast to the Hindu prohibition 
which is generally observed. 

These comprise the following main sub-divisions : — 

Sunnis 2,194,503 

Shi'ahs 203,817 

Maulais 24,910 

*"BeyondthePirPanja],"byE.F.Neve. P.35,36. '\m<^- ^34. 


The Sunnis and Shi'ahs are, as a rule, bitterly opposed 
to each other, and seldom are found uniting in common 
worship. The word " Sunni " and " Mussalman " are 
practically synonymous in Kashmir. 

The Shi 'ah is looked upon as beyond the pale. The 
Shi 'ah sect was introduced into Kashmir in 1486 by a 
missionary named Mir Shams 'Araqi, who was instru- 
mental in converting many Sunnis to his belief. At 
first the Sunnis did not allow the Shi'ahs to celebrate 
the Muharrum. The Shi'ahs are more progressive and 
more friendly to Christianity than the Sunnis, and very 
much less disposed to friendly intercourse with Hindus. 

The Maulais are followers of His Highness the Aga 
Khan, and are mostly located in the frontier districts. 
They are a branch of the Isma'ilia sect, claiming descent 
from Hazrat Isma'il. They, like the Shi'ahs, drink 
intoxicants more freely than the Sunni Moslems, and are 
extremely lax in religious observances. In the question 
of the Khalifate they are Shi'ahs, but in matters of 
prayer and fasting, their customs agree with the Sunnis. 

In Ladakh there are many Wahhabis, who follow the 
text of the Koran and the Hadith only. 

A few years ago a serious division occurred in the 
ranks of Sunni Moslems in Srinagar, over the question of 
saint worship. The Shah Hamadani party maintain that 
Moammur-i-Habashi, one of the alleged Ashab, or 
original companions of Mohammed, saw the Prophet in 
a dream after his death. They also advocate prayer to 
'Abdul Qadir al-Jilani, as well as to the lesser saints. 

The other party, followers of Mir Wa'iz, deny the 
above-mentioned incident, call the gentleman in question 
a liar, and deprecate all prayer to saints. This disagree- 
ment came to a head during the annual water-carrying 
mela at Hari Parbat shrine, a few years ago, when a 
terrific fight took place, which was finally quelled by the 
police. Since then, the two parties have found it expe- 
dient to worship in separate mosques, and no exchange 
of preachers between them is allowed. The Jama 
Masjid in Srinagar is reserved entirely for the Mir Wa'iz 

The influence of Hinduism on Islam is very evident 


everywhere. In very few Mohammedan centres, I sup- 
pose, has the faith of the Prophet been so greatly modified 
by environment and the tenets of the rehgion which 
preceded it, as in Kashmir. 

Sunni Mohammedans and Hindu pundits Hve on the 
friendhest terms, and many of the Hindu sacred places 
have passed over into Mohammedan hands with a 
scarcely perceptible change of traditional significance. 
Mohammedan women, especially, frequent Hindu shrines 
to solemnise oaths and offer sacrifices having to do with 
the recovery from illness of children or relatives. Some- 
times patients are taken successively to Muslim mullahs 
and Hindu priests in order to their healing. Dr. E. F. Neve 
writes : " Often one tank will have a Hindu ' Astan ' on 
one side, and Mohammedan ' Ziarat ' on the other."* 

Similarly, Sir M. A. Stein writes, in the Geographical 
Memoir attached to his translation of Kalbana's Raja- 
tarangini : — 

" On all Kashmir passes, however rarely visited, stone heaps are 
found marking the supposed graves of imaginary ' Pirs,' and every 
pious Muhammadan on passing adds his stone to them. Yet these 
little cairns existed there in all probability long before Islam reached 
the country. Exactly the same custom is observed — e.g., by the 
Hindu pilgrims to Amaranatha on crossing the Vaejan Pass above the 
lake of Susravonaga, to please the Devas, as the Mahatmya says. 
We can show that all famous Ziarats in Kashmir, whether of real or 
imaginary Muhammadan Saints, occupy sites which were sacred in 
earlier times to one or the other Hindu divinity. We can scarcely go 
far wrong in concluding by their analogy that the ' Pirs ' of the Muham- 
madan wa^^arers have only taken the places of the older Hindu 
' Devas.' " 

The influence of Hinduism is seen in the prevalent 
use of the money vowed to some saint " in the path of 
God," in providing a dinner to which all the mullas of 
the neighbourhood are invited, instead of a proper 
distribution of it among the poor. Sometimes, the mul- 
lahs divide the money itself instead of spending it in food. 

The outstanding evidence of Hindu influence is, as 
we should expect, in the presence of caste distinctions 
in Islam, which have survived out of the Hindu past. 
Curiously enougli, the descendants of the early converts 
from Hinduism, called Shaikhs, are held in highest 
esteem and considered the holiest of all. Three other 

* " Beyond the Pir Panjal," by E. F. Neve. P. 125. 


distinguished castes are the Bach (Singers), Bande 
(jesters), and Gene (prostitutes), the latter caste having 
had its origin in the Hindu custom of devoting damsels 
to the temple service, and being held in specially high 
regard by the Hindus. There are also the Mohammedan 
Pundits and many lesser castes. The upper castes, at 
the top of the scale, and the menials, at the bottom, as a 
rule, intermarry only among themselves. Otherwise, 
custom imposes no restrictions in respect of marriage. 
The Hindus themselves are much less strict in the matter 
of caste regulations than are their brothers in Hindustan, 
and will not object to eating food cooked on a Moham- 
medan boat, or to drinking water which Mohammedan 
hands have fetched. One traveller reports even finding 
Hindu idols in Mohammedan homes.* 

There is a local tradition to the effect that Adam had 
two sons, and at their death one was buried, the other 
cremated. From the first have descended the Moham- 
medans, from the second the Hindus. The two religions 
are thus held to be akin. 

Mission work is being carried on in the entire Kashmir 
Province, by the Church of England, Church of Scotland, 
Roman Catholic Church, American Presbyterians, and 
Moravian Mission — the entire number of missionaries at 
the time of the 1911 census being 209, and the native 
Christian population 709, mostly confined to Jammu 
State, and consisting of converts from the Hindu " un- 
touchable " class. 

Of converts from Islam in Kashmir there have been 
very few. Among these few, however, have been three 
remarkable men who, although born in Kashmir, have 
spent most of their lives in Hindustan, and are not 
generally thought of as Kashmiris, namely : — 

(1) Qadar Baksh, deceased, who was baptized in Ludhiana and 
afterward became a catechist. In his old age he went to Kashmir and 
preached the gospel to his own people, in whose midst he died. 

(2) Rev. Ahmad Shah of Jagraon, and his first wife, originally 
Kashmiris, who were converts from Islam and became devoted workers 
in the Christian Church. Rev. Ahmad Shah is now a pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

(3) Rev. Ahmad Shad, of the S.P.G. Mission, Hamirpur, who was 
born in Srinagar and came to Hindustan mth his father. He confessed 

* Drew, " The Northern Barrier of India." P. 31. 


his faith in Christ when a mere boy and was baptized, as was his father. 
He presented a paper at the Lucknow Conference of 1911 on "A 
Course of Study for Missionaries in the Field." 

In Amritsar, Ludhiana and elsewhere in the Punjab, 
there are substantial colonies of Kashmiri Moslems, a 
few of whom have been converted. 

To return to the work of missionaries in Kashmir 
to-day, although converts have been few, great, never- 
theless, has been the influence exerted by Christian 
missionary institutions like the Mission High School, 
conducted by the Rev. C. E. Tj^^ndale-Biscoe, and the 
Mission Hospital of the brothers Neve, renowned as 
explorers and authors as well as missionaries, in Srinagar ; 
and by self-sacrificing, courageous, isolated missionaries 
in the frontier provinces, who have toiled on, year after 
year, despite loneliness, discouragement and disease. 

The missionary situation is well summed up by Dr. 
E. F. Neve in writing of the results of the work in his 
Mission Hospital : — 

" Kashmir is essentially a Muhammadan country. But Islam is 
not a regenerating force. The condition of Muhammadan lands is 
well-known ; and they have all a family likeness. For the defects of 
the system are more easily assimilated than its elements of loftiness. 
Modern Islam in India is at present engaged in putting new patches 
on an old garment. But the old garment will not last. Indeed, 
Muhammadanism in India shows curious traces of its prolonged 
contact with Hinduism. And at the present time it is being profoundly 
influenced by its Christian surroundings. Many of the patients in the 
Mission Hospital come a good deal under the influence of Christian 
teaching. But when they return to their homes, too often the weight 
of pubhc opinion is brought to bear against the teaching which they 
have heard. We are doing perhaps more than we can guess, even in 
our sanguine moments, towards leavening and modifying that public 
opinion. Although nominally assenting to much of Christian doctrine, 
the general feeling of the Muhammadan Community is naturally very 
strongly against a change of religion. The Hindus, on the other hand, 
have, of course, still less in common with Christianity, and their whole 
religious thought seems to be on quite a different plane. In the 
abstract, the Hindu is more tolerant than the Muhammadan, but in 
reality he is not one whit more so, if any member of his Community 
should show the desire of becoming a Christian. ... 

. . . "It seems, and is, a bold enterprise for a mere 
handful of Christians, brought up in a distant country 
and of an alien race, with different manners, customs, 
sentiments and habits, to try to bring the people of a 
country like Kashmir to believe in Christ, with all that 
this belief (taken in the Christian sense) implies. The 


difficulty is not diminished by the fact that the hves of 
many Christians, with whom the people come inta 
contact, carry with them very little Christian influence. 
It is increased by the want of religious freedom and 
toleration in Kashmir. Hindus and Muhammadans are 
seldom backward in applauding the impartiality exhibited 
by the Government of India in all matters of religion, 
but they do not imitate it. The convert to Christianity 
in Kashmir has to endure a storm of persecution. He 
becomes an outcast from his family and an object of 
contempt and hatred to his former co-religionists. He 
usually loses his means of livelihood, and is ostracised by 
his friends and neighbours. Yet these very difficulties 
accentuate the importance of the work. The evangeli- 
sation of the world has from the earliest days had to 
encounter persecution, hatred, intolerance and scorn. 
Time after time it has triumphed, and by the grace of 
God it will do so in Kashmir, but we must have patience."* 

Of the remarkable work Avhich Mr. Tyndale-Biscoe's 
school is doing, with its pregnant motto, " In all things 
be men," to build into the structure of the life and 
thought of Kashmiri manhood the Christian ideals of 
uprightness, honour and self-sacrifice, no adequate men- 
tion can be made in this article. I may, however, refer 
to a convert from Islam, formerly a pupil of this school, 
who is now studying in Lahore and preparing to return 
to Kashmir to work among his own people. 

Howard Arnold Walter. 

Lahore, India. 

* " Beyond the Pir Panjal," by E. F. Neve.f Pp. 311, 288. 




[There have appeared in these pages akeady on two or three occasions 
brief reviews of the monumental work of Prince Leone Caetani, 
" Annah dell' Islam." It is a critical reconstruction of the early 
history of Islam based on a compilation of all the existing evidence. 
It is, of course, not to be expected that a work of such magnitude should 
ever be translated into other languages, nor indeed can the bulk of it 
appeal to more than a limited number of specialising students. There 
are, however, a number of lengthy essays reviewing certain periods 
which are of great value to all and sundry, as summing up the main 
results arrived at. The author has most kindly given full permission 
to the editor of The Moslem World to make such use of the work as 
he wishes. I have, therefore, selected one of the essays for translation 
dealing with the development of Mohammed's self-consciousness as a 
prophet as shown in the Koran. The first part of the Essay is much 
abbreviated, but the latter part is given in full. The translation is, 
however, literal throughout, the abbreviation being accomplished by 
selection, not by condensation. — R. F. McNeile.J 

The traditions about Mohammed have passed through 
so many hands before reaching us, they have been to 
such an extent manipulated and adjusted in conformity 
with the tastes and prejudices of successive generations, 
that we can place very little reliance on them, and must 
beware of a too hasty deduction of easy conclusions 
from them. Those to whom we owe our notices of him 
have taken care to present the Prophet as they imagined 
him to be, or, at least, as they wished us to picture him. 
We see, therefore, the figure of Mohammed through a 
close veil which distorts all his most essential traits, and 
we find it adorned by many elements extraneous to his 
true nature, added arbitrarily as they were at later 
periods. We have, in other words, the last edition 
revised and restored from beginning to end of a work to 
which the unwearying labours of many generations have 


The traditional Mohammed is thus the final result 
of such work, while the primitive authentic Mohammed, 
such as he was at the outset of his mission, has disap- 
peared from history ; but tradition has carried over into 
the first beginnings the Mohammed of later times, revised 
and corrected, and thus wholly distorted from the true. 
This fictitious Mohammed is put by tradition at the 
beginning of the mission, a grave anachronism being so 
committed, and the most erroneous impression produced 
on the reader of the traditions. In place of a crystallised 
man who passes through life without suffering the least 
modification, Mohammed, as we conclude from the 
Koran, passed through innumerable metamorphoses, 
developing almost from day to day in view of the stern 
exigencies of the struggle for existence and the unforseen 
incidents of a highly agitated life. Mohammed passed 
through great moral transformations, and died, after a 
tempestuous career of more than a quarter of a century, 
a man profoundly different from the one who set out on 
the grand struggle ; he reacted, it is true, on the events 
of the entire world, but the smallest events of private 
life reacted powerfully on himself. The traces of such 
an evolution have remained deeply marked in the Koran, 
our foremost and safest document ; though they may 
also be traced in the biographical traditions of the 
Prophet, if one knows how to interpret them aright. 

The most striking illustration is found from a study 
of the manner in which the conception developed in 
Mohammed's mind that he was a true and peculiar 
apostle of God. Such an idea was not a starting-point 
for him, but the final result of a long moral evolution. 
Moslem tradition, however, traversing and distorting 
every evidence, and on occasion even inventing what 
had never happened, anticipated the idea of a divine 
mission, and affirmed that its beginning was contem- 
poraneous with that of religious activity. 

Taking then the Suras of the Koran arranged in 
chronological order, we start from Noldeke's threefold 
division of the Meccan revelations into groups corres- 
ponding to three different periods of Mohammed's 
religious activity. We may not agree with him in the 


precise distribution of all the Suras, but for our present 
purpose his arrangement will suffice, as our observations 
will be concerned with the separate periods each in its 
entirety, rather than with the individual verses in their 
exact chronological position. The only modification 
which we will introduce will be to divide the first period 
into two sections, for it will thus be more possible to 
classify the ideas on which we specially wish to insist. 

The oldest Suras of the Koran, gathered by Noldeke 
into his first period, and specially the first twenty-two of 
the group, leave a quite unique impression, showing a 
subjective character marked by soliloquy, with tenden- 
cies to rhapsody, with particular and singular features 
which recall the rhymed predictions and semi-poetical 
pronouncement of the pagan bards {hdhin), from whom 
Mohammed at the outset could scarcely distinguish 
himself, seeing that as yet there existed no prose literature 
in Arabia, every artistic manifestation having to take 
poetic form. When he was accused of being, or perhaps 
more correctly when he was taken to be a poet or an 
aspirant to the career of a soothsayer, and so came to be 
designated b}^ these names, of necessity he deviated 
more and more from the styles of the poet and sooth- 
sayer, tr3dng to show that between them and him there 
existed no similarity and no relationship. The Suras 
which do not yet reflect this polemic influence are 
declamatory invocations, which aim apparently at pro- 
ducing a rhetorical effect on his hearers and impressing 
on them a sense either of the marvellous and mysterious 
or of terror (see e.(/., the beginning of Suras 91, 92, 93, 
94, 95, etc.), but there lurks in them also a true and 
deep religious sense, full of fear for the supreme majesty 
of God and of horror at the thought of the pains which 
await sinners in hell ; some fragments are genuine pas- 
sages of beautiful lyrical poetry and reveal (e,g,, Sura 93) 
an affecting faith in God who rescued him when an orphan, 
and saved him from hunger, misery and error. The exhor- 
tations to search for the Supreme Truth, the description 
of the power of God and of the pains inflicted on sinners 
in the life beyond the grave, are living and graphic, and 
<ian only have sprung from a mind sincerely affected 


and deeply sensible of the horrors with which the imagi- 
nation wraps the mysterious destinies of man. Yet 
through all this there is not a trace of any claim to a 
divine mission, the idea of it is not so much as ventilated, 
for Mohammed shoAvs only a passion to put himself into 
direct relationship with God, with Allah, Whom he under- 
stands must be the true — the only, the unique God, the 
One worshipped by Christians and Hebrews, and also 
confusedly hidden behind the pagan cult of the Ka'bab. 

Summing up then, we see that Mohammed was not 
so much seeking one faith through the others, as aspiring 
to the knowledge through himself alone of the supreme 
verity, calling upon those who listened to him to follow 
him so as not to fall into eternal and inexorable perdition. 
To these burning passions for the search of religious truth 
was added a sense of supreme sorrow over the errors of 
his contemporaries and the greed of gain and religious 
indifference of the Quraysh. " Woe to him who amasseth 
wealth and storeth it against the future, He thinketh 
surely that his wiealth will be with him for ever. Nay, 
for verily he shall be flung into the crushing fire ! " (104). 
" By the declining day I swear, verily man's lot is cast 
amid destruction, save those who believe and do the 
things which be right, and enjoin truth and stedfastness^ 
on each other " (103). The ideas are simple expressions 
of a mind seeking an outlet for internal commotion, but 
without as yet any thought of founding a new faith. 
They are expressions of personal convictions, accompanied 
by no system, no obligation to special rites or cults, and 
Mohammed while reciting these quasi-verses was able to 
continue his life in the same manner as the rest of the 
pagans without offending any of the idolatrous Quraysh. 

A statistical examination of the Suras provides us, 
in a form which though perhaps arid and crude is yet 
convincing, with a proof of this special attitude of the 
future Prophet, and allows us better perhaps than by 
long quotations to outline the evolution of the personality 
of Mohammed. Examining then the first section of the 
first Meccan period in the chronological division of the 
Suras, made by Noldeke, we find a group of twenty-two 
Suras, including 344 verses, in no one of which is there 




the least mention of a prophetic mission, not only of 
Mohammed but even of other prophets. In this section 
we miss according^ all the terms for describing divine 
missions : prophets, apostles, words like rasid, nabi, 
mursalun, etc. But this particular characteristic begins 
quickly to change when we pass to the examination of 
the second section of the first period, composed of twenty- 
six Suras and including 849 verses. Already the person- 
ality of Mohammed has begun to develop in a new 
direction. We have already a first claim to a mission, 
but in a vague and almost timid form. The word rasul 
or apostle is used twice only (83, ver. 15 ; 69, ver. 40) 
to denote Mohammed, for the idea of an apostle has not 
yet taken exact form in his mind and he still attaches 
but little importance to it. He refers to it also twice 
only under the term mundhir or monitor (79, ver. 45 ; 
51, ver. 50) ; and makes one solitary mention of a 
mission of prophets in general (51, ver. 38), while in one 
passage he alludes with the name of rasul to the super- 
natural agent from, which he believed that he received 
his inspirations (81, ver. 19). We can thus affirm that 
Mohammed was still vacillating on many essential points 
of Islamic doctrine, and that this was still far from 
assuming the final form of the last Medinese times. 

Passing now to the Suras, which Noldeke has grouped 
in the second Meccan period, we find at once a great 
transformation, and feel ourselves in a new atmosphere 
widely different from what has gone before. Mohammed 
is always diverging further and further from his primitive 
position of a religious dilettant, and approximating to 
the conception of the necessity of a reforming mission, 
seeing that simple theological exhortations have failed 
to produce the effect which he had flattered himself that 
they would produce, and his expressions of faith in God 
had only increased the unbelief of the pagan Quraysh. 
Touched to the quick by the scorn of those who accused 
him of magic and called him a mad, possessed poet 
(shd'ir magnun, 37, ver. 35), he ever insisted on the 
profound distinction which marked off the true believer 
from the unbeliever, described in gloomy colours the 
horrible pains of hell which were reserved for the un- 


believers, and confronted them with the fair recompense 
which awaited the good behever in Paradise. i>ut when 
the Quraysh gave no credence even to these warnings and 
ridiculed a threatening God and a hell, in the existence 
of which the}^ did not believe, Mohammed anticipated 
the date of the penalty and threatened them in precise 
terms with an imminent universal catastrophe, the 
advent of the final judgment and the extermination of 
the unbelievers. To confirm these threats Mohammed 
never tired of adducing examples from ancient peoples 
who had perished miserably, because they failed to 
respond to the admonitions of the prophets, whom God 
sent to men who were sinners and idolaters. Insisting 
on this argument with special warmth, he insinuated to 
his hearers the idea that he, Mohammed, was merely a 
prophet, a warner, speaking a great truth in the name 
of God ; he did not as yet venture to put his own person 
too much in the foreground, preferring to throw the 
examples of the ancient prophets into the front rank. 
In this period accordingly we find frequent mention of 
the conception of prophethood, and that with a variety 
of new expressions which are wholly lacking in the 
preceding period. 

The group is formed of twenty-one Suras, including 
1902 verses, and containing the following statistical data : 
prophets are described under various names ; we find 
them twice denoted by the non- Arabic word nabi (37, 
ver. 12 ; 17, ver. 57) ; twice they have the name mundhir 
or monitor (37, ver. 40 ; 26, ver. 208) ; twice again they 
are called " apostle of God," rasul Allah (20, ver. 49 ; 

26, ver. 15) ; eight times simply " apostle," mursalun 
(37, vers. 36, 123, 133, 139, 181 ; 25, ver. 22 ; 18, vers. 
34, 54) ; six times " monitor," nadhir (71, ver. 2 ; 26, 
ver. 15 ; 43, ver. 22 ; 67, ver. 8 ; 25, ver. 53 ; 17, ver. 
106) ; and nine times rasul or " apostle " (44, vers. 16, 
17 ; 26, vers. 107, 125, 143, 162, 178 ; 19, vers. 52, 55) ; 
finally the mission of prophets in general is mentioned 
eleven times (37, vers. 70, 147 ; 71, ver. 1 ; 44, ver. 4 ; 
15, ver. 10 ; 43, ver. 5 ; 23, vers. 23, 33, 47 ; 17, ver. 61 ; 

27, ver. 46). Adding all these passages together we find 
that they form a total of forty references to prophets. 


while if we count the mentions made of Mohammed 
himself we find that the number mounts only to thirteen 
allusions ; to be exact, as mursalun once (36, ver. 2) ; 
as hashir nadhir once (25, ver. 58) ; as mundhir three 
times (50, ver. 2 ; 38, vers. 3, 65) ; as nadhir four times 
(15, ver. 89 ; 38, ver. 70 ; 67, ver. 26 ; 25, ver. 1) ; as 
rasul twice (44, ver. 12 ; 43, ver. 28) ; and finally as 
rasul Allah twice only (43, ver. 45 ; 72, ver. 24). From 
these statistics we see at once how the mention of his 
being a true apostle of Allah put forward twice only 
in a timid manner as compared with eleven other references 
to himself, in the greater number of which he represents 
himself as a simple warner of judgments to come. 

The third Meccan period marks a new step on 
Mohammed's part towards the last definitive phase 
which we find openly displayed in the Medinese period. 
We must remember that this period was perhaps the 
gloomiest of all. In it Mohammed had to suffer deeply 
not only from the unheeding and humiliating opposition 
of the Quraysh, but also from family feuds, from the 
defection of protectors, from the loss of fortune, and from 
burning failures both within Meccah and without. His 
spirit compressed by so many misfortunes did not dare 
to reveal itself entirely, and was not willing to betray 
what was happening within itself, but persisted with 
wonderful tenacity in the set purpose of not turning 
back and persevered in anti-idolatrous propaganda. 
Consequently he insisted more than ever on the divine 
tenour (as opposed to the demoniacal tenour of seers and 
poets) of the Koran, lingered more and more on descrip- 
tions of the power of God in its numberless manifestations. 
Sin, the true faith, the resurrection. Paradise, hell, con- 
tinued to be the favourite themes of his Koranic pro- 
ductions, while he took comfort in recalling the stories 
of other peoples and other times when the sacrilegious 
opposition of unbelievers to Prophets sent by God and 
to their monitors threw whole peoples into eternal 
perdition and even into catastrophic disasters in this life. 

Throughout this period accordingly Mohammed put 
his own person but little forward, even insisting on his 
doctrine as a divine emanation and as the one means of 


salvation, while he brandished before them like an awful 
bogey the sad lot of the sinners of old. The phase is thus 
entirely one of preparation, of concentration, and of 
continual justification. In the meantime, however, the 
conception of the divine mission has taken in his mind 
an even more concrete form ; but not daring or not 
being able to apply it to his own person in view of the 
special circumstances in which he found himself, he 
sought to portray the conception in all its clearness in 
the acts of the ancient prophets narrated after his own 
manner. We find accordingly that in the whole group 
of Suras and verses (21 Suras and 1655 verses), though 
it is more voluminous than the preceding group, as the 
verses continually increase in length, he mentions himself 
once only as rasul Allah or special apostle of God (7, ver. 
158), once as plain rasul (7, ver. 156), and twice in a 
neutral sense as nabi (7, vers. 156, 158). It will be noticed 
that these four expressions occur within the compass of 
two verses, which seem almost lost in the great number 
of other verses of the period. We observe on the other 
hand that the expressions he chose to designate himself 
are the more modest ones of a simple and inoffensive 
monitor, thus excluding any open claims to a divine 
mission. These references to himself are found in eleven 
passages, (a) as hashir nadhir (11, ver. 2 ; 34, ver. 27 
35, ver. 22 ; 7, ver. 188), and (6) as nadhir (11, ver. 15 
29, ver. 49 ; 34, ver. 45 ; 35, vers. 21, 34 ; 7, ver. 183 
13, ver. 8). Greater boldness appears in the mention of 
the ancient prophets, as he speaks of them as Apostles 
of God, rasul Allah, three times (7, vers. 59, 65, 102) ; 
but it is noteworthy that all these are found in the same 
Sura in which he refers to himself under the same name 
and displays almost involuntarily what he was hiding in 
his mind, namely, the desire to trample on all obstacles 
and overcome his foes. This feeling is reflected also in 
the numerous allusions to the missions of prophets 
(16, ver. 38 ; 30, ver. 46 ; 11, vers. 27, 52, 64,^85 ; 40, 
ver. 24 ; 28, ver. 59 ; 29, vers. 13, 35 ; 10, vers. 75, 76 ; 
7, 57, 63, 71, 83, 92, 101) whom he twice names mursalun 
(6, vers. 34, 48), and six times nadhir (22, ver. 2 ; 11, ver. 
27 ; 28, ver. 46 ; 24, vers. 33, 43 ; 35, vers. 22, 40). 





Passing now to the examination of the Medinese 
period (which for purposes of space we gather up in a 
single group comprising twent3^-four Suras and 1,467 
verses), we find suddenly the most complete trans- 
formation, which lays bare to us all that was lurking in 
Mohammed's mind while chafing under the crushing 
weight of the Qurayshite opposition and the prolonged 
contrariness of fortune. First of all the prophets of past 
times disappear from the scenes ; there disappears also 
the modest and timid tone of the early days, and there 
springs into the front line the person of Mohammed with 
an almost shameless prominence. Mohammed feels him- 
self henceforward secure of himself and of the triumph 
of his ideas, and has the consciousness that the final 
and complete triumph will be the fruit not so much 
of his ideas as of his personality, inspired by a character 
and genius vastly superior to those of all his contem- 
poraries. Emboldened by this inebriating conviction, 
he throws to the winds all restraint and eagerly displays 
himself in the light of the sun, without shame or fear, 
conscious of his overwhelming superiority. The purely 
religious idea is relegated to the second rank, while in the 
first appear new elements unknown before, details of 
ritual, legislative dispositions, social, military and poli- 
tical enactments, all these elements being the product 
not only of new needs and new environment, but also 
of the new moral conditions of Mohammed's mind. The 
supreme determining element is the political military 
struggle against the Quraysh from the outside and against 
the Hebrews and the " hypocrites " from within. He 
a;Cts now, invested with absolute and indisputable 
authority, over a nucleus of followers increasing daily 
in number, whom he rules with an iron discipline, which 
had regard to all the principal occupations of daily life 
from the domestic hearth to the temple and field of 
battle. The question is not so much now whether or not 
men are to worship pagan idols, as who is to be absolute 
master in Arabia, whether victory is to rest with the 
commercial community of the Quraysh or with the exiled 
apostle of Allah. It is thus the person of Mohammed 
that stands out above all in the front rank, till to God is 


given a secondary position in His capacity as the auxiliary 
of the Prophet. He is no longer the Supreme Being, for 
whose service everything should be sacrificed, but rather 
the all-powerful Being, who aids the Prophet in his 
political mission, who facilitates his victories, consoles 
him in defeat, assists him in unravelling all the mundane 
and wordly complications of a great Empire over men, 
and helps him to smooth over the difficulties which rise 
up every day as he works out these new phases of his 
prophetic and political career. This deus ex machina 
becomes supreme^ useful to him in a society of rude, 
violent, sanguinary men, quickly angered, immoveable 
in hatred and their passion for revenge, indifferent to- 
wards human blood, greedy of plunder, changeable as 
the wind in their sympathies, ignorant and intolerant of 
any discipline in public or private life. In the midst of 
these swirling intrigues of tendencies, passions and inter- 
ests, there stands out thus the figure of the Prophet as 
the commanding author of the whole immense Arab 
revolution, dominating and towering over all. On him 
are fixed the eyes of the faithful ; it is he whom heads of 
tribes come to see from the furthest corners of Arabia, 
It is from his mouth and not from God that they await 
replies to questions, the verdict which is to decide their 
destinies, and for the most part it is no longer God that 
counts but only the Prophet. Mohammed is a fact more 
visible and tangible every day ; God becomes ever more 
a useful theory, a supreme principle, who from above the 
heavens follows with affectionate solicitude the capricious 
movements and the neither few nor small weaknesses of 
his favourite prophet, assisting him with legions of 
angels in brigand expeditions, meeting with revealed 
verses every troublesome question, smoothing over errors^ 
legalising faults, encouraging fierce instincts with all the 
immoral brutality of the tyrannical God of the Semites. 

The statistical examination of this period of activity, 
religious in name, but political in fact, reveals facts of no 
small interest for enabling us to measure the vastness of 
the moral metamorphosis of Mohammed. 

In the group of twenty-four Suras, comprising 1,467 
verses, we find only twelve mentions of other prophets^ 


(rasul 2, vers. 123, 146 ; 62, ver. 2 ; 3, vers. 43, 46, 158) ; 
7iabi 3, ver. 34 ; 4, ver. 161 ; rasul Allah 61, vers. 5, 6 ; 
hashir nadhir 5, ver. 22) ; but, on the other hand, Moham- 
med mentions himself 146 times, once as mursalun, six 
times as hashir nadhir or inubashshir or mundhir, twenty- 
eight times as nabi, forty-four times as rasul, and lastly 
under the full and solemn title of Apostle of Allah, rasul 
Allah, sixty-eight times. [The references are too numer- 
ous to give at length.] 

It is not possible here to prolong this line of research ; 
but I venture to hope that I have at least been able to 
indicate what a fruitful field for study is provided by the 
Koran, and how the materials there offered amply suffice 
to demonstrate the fundamental fact from which we set 
out, namely, that the beginning of the Moslem propa- 
ganda was the free, honest and sincere expansion of a 
religious mind moved by a profound conviction of the 
Supreme Truth, and by a sincere desire on the Prophet's 
part to raise first himself, then his most intimate friends 
and relations, finally all his fellow Arabs from the barbaric 
error of idolatry in which they lay supine. The strong 
grasp of this measure of truth is of supreme human 
interest ; it explains the force shown by the doctrine in 
resisting allurements and attacks ; and also the final 
triumph when other elements less noble and aspirations 
less pure began to germinate in the complex mind of the 
Prophet of Arabia. If Mohammed deviated from the 
paths of his early years, that should cause no surprise ; 
he was a man as much as, and in like manner as, his 
contemporaries, he was a member of a still half-savage 
society, deprived of any true culture, and guided solely 
by instincts and natural gifts which were decked out by 
badly understood and half-digested religious doctrines of 
Judaism and Christianity. Mohammed became thus the 
more easily corruptible when fortune in the end smiled 
upon him, and when the results he obtained were at long last 
greater and more marvellous than he had ever dreamed 
in his early years, when he confided to his wife Khadijah 
his first doubts in respect to the worship of stones and 
trees. We may accept with relative certainty that 
Mohammed's sincerity was complete tlxrough almost the 


whole Meccan period, seeing that the beHefs that he 
maintained brought him nothing but indescribable 
bitterness and sorrows, from which he could derive no 
V { profit. But when he was transferred into the atmos- 
^ ^ phere of Medinah, he offered very little resistance to the 
^ 5 corrupting action of the new social position, more parti- 
S cularly in view of the fact that the first steps were 
^ j^ accompanied by bewildering triumphs and by the fatal 
^^ ^ sweetness of practically unlimited political power, and 
^ "S that he felt that these great results were the exclusive 
] fruit of his own determination, perseverance, and vast 
\, moral superiority over all, friends and foes alike. To 
V these corrupting elements must be added the last and 
5^ most fatal of all, the intoxication generated by admiration 

almost amounting to worship from his followers. 
^ The deterioration of his moral character was a 

phenomenon supremely human, of which history provides 
i not one but a thousand examples. It is easier to die 
holy on the cross or at the stake than on a throne after 
a titanic struggle against pitiless and obstinate enemies. 
The figure of Mohammed loses in beauty, but gains in 
power. This evolutionary process has a peculiar interest, 
because perhaps no man either before or after had a 
life like his. He entered on his career at the age of forty 
years as an honest and sincere preacher, fighting in the 
name of a great truth, not in his own material interest, 
but in the moral interest of the society in which he lived. 
He died at last the supreme and absolute head of a 
theocratic empire and founder of a militant religion 
which laid claim to the dominion of the world. Both 
these results were the exclusive products of his own 
moral and intellectual force. In the figure of Mohammed 
we have thus all the successive gradations from the 
honest enthusiast, poor, solitary, unknown, to the 
powerful oriental despot, who drew his last breath in 
the plenitude of his political and military triumphs, and 
surrounded by the beauties, with their greater or less 
charm, of a well -furnished hareem. With all this, the 
false worldly flash of the close cannot and should not shut 
out the honest sincerity of the beginning. 



OtTR Master said one day to two young men, when He 
called them from the very humble calling of fishermen 
on the Lake of Galilee to be disciples of His, " Come 
with me, and I will make you fishers of men." And they 
left the nets that had been their faithful servants, and 
followed Him, to learn a different sort of fishing. Ever 
since that day Christ's disciples have been trying to learn 
how to catch men. And this not for the sake of what 
they could make out of it, nor for the mere sport of it, 
nor as a means of getting a livelihood ; but rather from 
the joy of being co-workers with Him, and for the good 
of the men themselves. Strangely enough, the ordinar}^ 
run of men have no more idea of the benefit coming to 
them from being fished out of the particular puddle they 
are in than the fish have of any benefit to be derived 
from being caught. And so in this new business of 
fishing for men, these disciples have to learn from their 
Master another lesson, also put in enigmatic form, " Be 
ye wise as serpents, and harmless as doves." One of the 
first lessons they must commit to memory in this course 
is that the fish must not know you are fishing for them* 
However greati}^ it may benefit any man to be hauled 
out of the element he is in, he himself will not acknow- 
ledge that in advance, nor submit without a struggle to 
the process. For men after all are much like fish — living 
without much care save to have enough to eat, con- 
tinually devouring one another and even sometimes 
those of their own families, cold-blooded, and apt to go 
to great depths, as far away from the light of the sun 
as tlicy can. 


The fishers of men have also found out that some men, 
hke some fish, can be caught in nets, b}^ the shoal, and 
others bite in all sorts of weather, while still others yield 
to the seductive bait only when the weather is stormy. 
You may launch out into the deep and let down the net 
for a draught ; you may toil all night and catch nothing ; 
you may fish at a certain spot for hours, or even days, 
yea, toilsome, prayerful years, and catch nothing ; yet 
the next fisherman that comes along may haul in a rich 
harvest. How little were William Carey and Robert 
Morrison allowed to see of the fruits of their labours — 
or our own Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons. But we have 
exceedingly high assurance that the reward of the 
fisherman is not in proportion to the size of his catch 
but in proportion to his faithfulness. 

When it comes to trout, every fisherman knows how 
wary are these choice fish. The slightest disturbance, 
the least want of tact on the part of the fisherman, will 
drive them away, and make it far harder to catch them 
the next time. They are scary, they seem to suspect 
you from the start, quiet as you may be. Trout-fishers, 
therefore, do not stand in the open, nor go in companies ; 
and above all they avoid the ordinary means of net and 
sinker and usual forms of bait. They must have special 
and rather ethereal bait ; they must exercise infinite 
patience ; and they have to be satisfied with compara- 
tively slow progress. Your gamey trout well repays the 
tussle, but he fights hard before he is landed ; and it 
requires a cool head and a dexterous hand, and all the 
patience you possess, to bring him in. You must give 
him lots of line, and let him think he is leading jou for a 
while ; and when you bring him round, it must not be 
with too much pain or a sudden jerk, or he may fl}^ off 
the hook. And if you call your neighbours together, 
and make the slightest racket near the pool, or in any 
way let the trout know you are after him, you may cast 
and cast in vain, for he will shun the line like poison. 

There are men of this same sort. If you announce 
the fact that you are after them, they are nowhere to be 
found. The}^ have a sort of innate idea that you are 
their enemy ; and the ordinary methods of attracting 


them fail. They have an apparent preference for the 
subtler forms of argument and for fine metaphysical 
distinctions. But be patient and cautious, as wise as 
serpents and as harmless as doves, and the bait will 
finally attract them till you can pull them in. Often it 
is because they have somehow got a wrong idea as to 
what you have to offer them. Perhaps the Gospel of 
the Kingdom has been hidden from their view by a 
coating of formalism or ceremon^^ such that they will 
have nothing to do with it. But most often it is with 
them, as it is with our trout — they have not been ap- 
proached in the right way. For these persons the use of 
military forms of expression is apparently peculiarly 
unfortunate. In the slums of London and New York, 
the Salvation Army attracts large numbers of the low 
and the lost ; but when you are fishing for trout, you 
cannot afford to shoot off a gun. Nor does it pay to call 
a council of all the fishermen on the brook, to consider 
what means to use to attract the trout. That makes it 
all the more difficult to allure them. The consultation 
may be at the cabin in the evening, or wherever else you 
like ; but it is fatal to fishing prospects to have the 
fishermen gather in the sight of the trout. Publicity, 
whether of the Salvation Army type or any other, has 
very little beneficent effect on trout. 

Charles Trowbridge Riggs. 
Constantinople f Turkey, 
July 23rc?, 1914. 



The man without vision sees in the Bedouin an unkempt 
and dirty Arab, with a still dirtier robe, whose clothes 
and hair are liberally inhabited by undesirable citizens. 
He does not realise that the man before him is the hope 
of the Church of Christ in Arabia. The conquest of Islam 
depends upon the conquest of Arabia, and the conquest 
of Arabia depends on the winning of the Bedouin. 

The problem is not an easy one. The Bedouin tribes 
are roving nomads, living in the unattractive places of 
the earth, but let no one suppose that on that account, 
they have nothing to teach us. They have a great deal, 
but no one has learned it as yet, for no one has lived with 
them year after year, and become a Bedouin to the Bedouin, 
that he might gain the Bedouin, and formidable as it 
may appear, that is the price that will have to be paid. 
The fond imagination that the Bedouin can be adequately 
reached, by dispensary talks in Missionary Hospitals, 
located in the coast cities, is an idle dream. 

The Bedouin is an ignorant man, and in his ignorance 
there are many of the lies of civilisation that he has never 
learned. He is not aware that the possession of money 
carries any great honour with it, nor indeed that any of 
the various good things of this earth, makes its possessor 
superior to his fellows. The result is, that he is magnif- 
icently independent towards the world as a whole, and 
towards his own chief, even though he may scarcely own 
the clothes he wears. With no hesitation, and with no 
need for any intermediary, he appears before his sheikh 
to plead his case. As he becomes excited, he gesticulates 
with his staff, which indeed may appear to come danger- 
ously near the head of the addressed chief, but it does 
not occur to anyone that there is any impropriety in 
this. In the Mesjid the rich and poor pray together. 


with no plush pew for the one and footstool for the 
other. But all in the same row kneel on the same 
ground, and repeat in unison the same prayer. 

Bedouin society is not organised around the rights of 
private property, as is ours. In the sense, in which we 
understand the term, the Bedouin hardly recognises the 
right to hold private property. His constant raids on 
his neighbours have a good deal of the spirit of a game, 
in which the loser accepts his loss philosophically, pro- 
mising himself similar success a^gainst someone else, later. 
It would probably not be true to say that their con- 
sciences entirely approve of such exploits, but certainly 
their attitude is very different from our own. 

The Bedouin is a lazy but cheerful individual. His 
house is, perhaps, as near chaos as anything this earth 
affords, and everything in a condition of unwashedness 
quite past comprehension in civilised countries, but with 
it ail his good nature never seems to leave him. He hves 
in a hair cloth tent summer and winter. The only times 
that he has enough to eat are the general feasts given by 
some Sheikh or rich man. He has no fuel to keep himself 
warm with in winter, a.nd no shade except the tent to 
rest in in the summer, but, as he says, it is from God, so 
he accepts it as such. And let no one ridicule this as a 
matter of the lips and not of the heart. When the 
patriarch who has travelled patiently for twenty days 
perhaps to have the doctor of the Franks give him back 
his sight, or has perhaps brought his only son, evidently 
dying of tuberculosis ; and when the doctor after the 
examination tells him with all plainness that there is 
absolutely no hope, then the old man simply says, 
" Praise the Lord in any event," " Praise the Lord." 
In cheerful acceptance from God of the vicissitudes and 
misfortunes of life, the Bedouin has very much to teach 
us. He has built around himself no vast and wellnigh 
impenetrable wall of second causes that serves to separate 
the western mind such a far distance from God. Who 
will say that his view is not a truer one than ours ? 

The Gospel has not yet really reached the Bedouin, 
nor can it be expected to reach him until it is taken by 
word of mouth, for practically none of them can read. 


But as far as may be judged, the Bedouin constitutes a 
field exceptionally difficult of access, but of great promise 
when once reached. Difficult of access because of the 
habits of the wandering tribes, and what is very much 
more important, because of the enormous difference 
between their mental processes and ours. The obstacles 
to reaching him are, however, by no means insuperable. 
The principal, and, perhaps, indeed, the only human 
requirement, is men who will give themselves to this 
work. That much provided, time will supply the rest. 

But access, even complete access, is not accomplish- 
ment. What may we expect when once the Bedouin is 
adequately reached ? We can only speculate concerning 
that which has not been even attempted in any perman- 
ent way, but there is every reason for great hopes. The 
Bedouin with all his ignorance is not a religious fanatic. 
He is pitifully ignorant of his own religion and of his own 
book. I have yet to meet a rebuff from a Bedouin when 
presenting the Gospel to him. His knowledge of his own 
religion is so slight that he recognises no contradiction 
between what he hears and what he already knows, and 
this is true, practically, no matter what form of Christian 
truth is presented. Doubtless if Mohammed and the 
Koran were reviled, this would be resented, as indeed it 
should be. But the stock of pre-formed religious ideas 
is so small, and so loosely held, b}^ the Bedouin, that the 
Gospel's entrance into his heart can hardly be considered 
as seriously hindered by them. The Bedouin, too, is 
very easily led. The confidence that he reposes in the 
Doctor who has shown him some little kindness is a very 
moving thing, and often it seems that if only we could 
get close to them surely it would be possible to lead some 
of them into the Kingdom. 

But, after all, is he capable of making a good Chris- 
tian, separated from his companions, standing more or 
less alone ? Is he really worth working for ? Christ died 
for him, so we may be sure that he is worth any little 
that we can add to that sacrifice. The Spirit of God is 
capable of building out of the Bedouin His own Church, 
and, indeed, that is just what we know that He will do. 

Bahrein, Arabia, Paul W. Harrison, 




Within the memory of men now living, a very great 
change has taken place in the attitude of Moslems toward 
Christians and Christianity. It is of supreme importance 
for us to apprehend correctly the significance of this 

We need to go back more than fifty years to a time 
when, in all parts of the Moslem world, the attitude of 
the devotees of Islam towards Christians was that of 
conscious superiority coupled either with contemptuous 
indifference or with pronounced repugnance, according 
to the varying temperament or the inherited bias of men 
of different races and lands. 

A glance over the Moslem world to-day makes it 
evident : (I) that among intelligent Moslems the con- 
temptuous indifference has everywhere disappeared ; 
(2) that the repugnance has, in recent years, deepened 
into more bitter hatred among many whose goodwill 
we greatly desire to gain and to retain ; (3) this change 
is due to the conviction of intelligent Moslems, in the 
nearer East especially, that among the Christian nations 
of Europe the course pursued towards the weakening 
Moslem states has been one of injustice and disregard 
of solemn treaties with those states. (4) In the mean- 
time the logic of events in the march of human progress 
has raised serious questions in a multitude of thoughtful 
minds among Moslems — e.g., "Is it our ancestral faith 
that constitutes our handicap in the race of life ? " 
'' Is there in true Christianity, in contradistinction to the 
Christianity as heretofore exemplified in Christendom, 
that on which we can more confidently build in our efforts 
for the permanent welfare and uplift of our people ? " 
(5) The men who raise these questions are those who are 
more solicitous for the moral and spiritual uplift of 


their people than for their advance in respect of material 
good. With these men the conceit of superiority over 
Christians has been shattered. 

The Moslem world is certainly open, as never before, 
to Christian influence, .provided that influence is truly 
Christian. How is this opportunity to be met ? Every- 
thing depends on the right answer made to this question 
in practice. Our answer must be flrst of all in a con- 
ciliatory spirit, sympathetically and fraternally. The 
Moslem world welcomes certain things which are fruits 
of Christianity at our hands — e.g,, the Turk has always 
shown himself not only willing but eager to receive from 
Christian peoples material help of many kinds. He has 
known very well how to exploit in his interest the Chris- 
tian subjects of his government. The modern Moslem 
has learned also to appreciate the value of the education 
given in the higher schools conducted by Americans in 
his country. He has begun, in recent years, to send his 
children to these schools and to take them as models 
for his own schools. The American hospitals and dis- 
pensaries which, in recent years, have been established 
in Moslem lands, are eagerly welcomed and utilized by 
all races and classes of Moslems, and in this way they 
come into close touch with practical Christianity at its 
best. They also most gratefully appreciate relief sym- 
pathetically administered by Christian hands in times of 
distress from war, pestilence, and famine. Moslems, in 
increasing numbers, read the Christian Scriptures and 
distinctively Christian literature. Many are ready, as 
never before, to listen to the Gospel message, even while 
clinging to their ancestral faith, when that message is 
tactfully presented to them by those who have lived 
among them in close neighbourhood, and whose purer 
social life has been an object lesson which they have not 
failed to take note of. 

It is my conviction also that there are many things 
in Islam which the Christian can approve and accept. 
We can accept their theology as far as it goes, supple- 
menting it with the doctrine of the fatherhood of God, 
and of sin as guilt, sin not simply ignored by divine pity, 
but demanding an almight}^ and atoning Saviour. We 





can approve, and might well adopt, the Moslems rever- 
ential attitude and spirit in worship. The name of their 
religion, '' Islam," surrender, and " Moslem," one self- 
surrendered to God, appeals strongly to the thoughtful 
Christian. We can pray the prayer of the first sura 
with our Moslem brethren. It would hardl}^ be a loss to 
Christianity, it might be a gain, if our call to prayer, 
like theirs, were by the trained human voice from a high 
position, instead of by a bell. 

Conciliation, however, does not imply nor demand 
compromise. When your Moslem friend says, " Why, 
we are agreed. All that remains is for you to accept our 
faith with yours," we have to call a halt. Christianity 
and Islam are not at all identical. When we touch the 
life, the moral and spiritual life, they are not even 

The Moslem's apprehension of the moral attributes of 
God differs widely from that of the Christian. Paterna] 
love has no place in his view of God. According to Islam, 
mercy and justice have no relation one to the other. 
Sin is not guilt, but weakness, and is forgiven through 
pity to the formally penitent. Religion and the life are 
strangers, one to the other. " Yes, he is a liar, but very 
religious. To be sure, he is a murderer, but he prays 
five times a day. He is a thief, but he says, ' bismillah,' 
in God's name, when he goes on his robber's errand." 

Surely it avails little to point to good moral precepts 
in the Koran, if these precepts are inoperative in the life. 
We must face the fact that the total of ethical teaching 
in Islam, reinforced by the highest example, can be 
expressed thus. The will in man is not a regnant power, 
acting according to reason and the imperative of duty. 
It is the servant of desire. " Yes, it was wrong, but 
my soul desired it," that is, my sensuous nature demanded 
it. Look at Moslem history. When the era of successful 
fighting is past, moral decay sets in. Why is this ? 
Because Islam does not develop moral stamina. We 
have strong animal passions, not to yield to, but to 
subdue and then regulate. To wage this war successfully, 
to use our wills as regnant forces, to do the things we do 
not desire to do because those things are right, and not 


to allow ourselves to do what is wrong though we greatly 
desire to do it, this is what distinguishes man from the 
mere animal. 

The Moslem in time of peace developes a flabby 
moral nature. The beautiful word " rahat," rest or 
comfort, takes on a sinister meaning. It is opposed to 
strenuous exertion. It is then pronounced as though 
there were three a's in the second syllable, " rehaaat.'^ 
See illustrations in the adage " geeh olsoun, guch 
olmasoun," let it be late, let it not be difficult, and the 
salutation to one at work, " kolai gelsin," may it come 
easy, and " put it off till to-morrow ; to-morrow also is 
a blessed day." 

There is no possible compromise between the teaching 
of Christ, everywhere a spur to the laggard will, a check- 
rein on clamorous desire, and the drift, the laissez-faire 
of Moslem ethics. The problem for the Moslem, if he 
is not to be hopelessly distanced in the race of human 
progress on its highest plane, is to rouse the man and 
down the animal in his nature, to welcome difficulty 
because it trains the moral nature, stiffens the fibres of 
the will, girds the loins of the soul for manly struggle. 
To accomplish this the one resource, the indisputable 
condition for Moslem as for Christian, is to adopt and 
put in practice the precepts of the Great Teacher as 
contained — e,g,, in the sermon on the mount. 

" Counsels of perfection, impracticable of realization 
by us men," is the judgment passed by Moslems on these 
basic principles of moral and spiritual life. 

A straight gate, a narrow way ! Yes, but it is the 
only path that " leadeth into life," life that is worth 
Hving here or hereafter. Christianity is the sole religion 
which renders possible — it has sometimes rendered actual 
— that development of man's spiritual nature which 
establishes a real fellowship between the infinite and 
the finite spirit, between God and man. 

George F. Herrick. 




The need has often been felt for a regular scheme of 
readings for use in hospital wards, so that all the in- 
patients during their stay may hear a full, intelligible and 
well-balanced presentation of the Christian message. 
This desirable result cannot for several reasons be 
expected, if the choice of subjects rests with individual 
readers, however earnest and well-intentioned. And yet, 
if the hospital is to fulfil its work as an evangelistic agency, 
it is most important to use to the full the unique oppor- 
tunities afforded for bringing the truth in Jesus to those 
whose stay in hospital is reckoned by weeks or months. 
One never fails to find willing and interested hearers, 
and it is generally the case moreover that in every ward 
there will be at least one who is able to read, gtnd perhaps 
one who will be willing to read to the others. 

I would like to commend for consideration a syllabus 
just adopted in the Kerman Hospital. The hope is 
entertained that this syllabus may provide a useful 
course, longer or shorter, of representative passages of 
Scripture for reading with inquirers. 

Perhaps the first question that anyone would ask 
would be, why has thirty-one days been fixed as the 
cycle, whereas the average stay of in-patients in hospital 
is only about three weeks ? It might, therefore, natur- 
ally have been thought at first sight that the course 
should have been a twenty-one days' one. That would, 
however, have limited the range of subjects very much, 
and involve constant repetition in practice. 

A rough mean has thus been struck between the needs 
of those who remain in hospital for shorter or longer 
periods. A month's course with alternative subjects 
should provide reasonable security against monotony. 
And the subjects have been so chosen with a view to 


their distinctively Christian character, that even those 
who do not hear the whole course can hardly fail to be- 
come better acquainted than before with the truths 
taught by the Christians. The alternative subjects are 
not only intended to prevent the too frequent recurrence 
of similar or identical copies, but also to afford relief to 
ward-readers where they are few in number, and perhaps 
there are three or four wards to be visited by the same 
reader in a single afternoon. It may be mentioned here 
that it is not intended that the Avhole of the selected 
passage should necessarily be read ; some of them are 
certainly rather long. But where the whole of a long 
passage of God's Word is read, the reader will naturally 
feel that he may add fewer words of his own. It goes 
without saying that the daily subjects should be strictly 
adhered to, in order to make the scheme effective. It 
is disconcerting, for instance, to be told that the passage 
you are reading to-day has already been taken by the 
reader the day before. 

In the choice of subjects, the Moslem mind and heart 
have been kept steadily in view throughout. Anyone 
who uses the syllabus and is conversant with Moham- 
medan tenets and objections will have no difficulty as 
occasion arises in meeting them in anticipation and 
framing his presentation of the truth accordingly. 

Doctrinal subjects, it will be noticed, have small place 
in the syllabus. Not, however, because we do not put 
the highest value upon the dogmas and well-considered 
formulas of our Faith, but simply because they would be 
inappropriate in this connection. The hearer though 
sharp and shrewd enough, it may be in worldly matters, 
is, in most instances, a person of no education, while 
his views about Christianity, received through a distorted 
medium, if not positively erroneous, are based upon 
stories and traditions. Some of them are rather effective 
it is true ; others bear the impress of the skilful inventor 
rather than the hall-mark of truth, and all implicitly 
deny to the Lord Jesus any higher dignity than that of 
the greater prophets. Under such circumstances, noth- 
ing can exceed in value the simple Word of God. Let 
it then have free course under the Holy Spirit's influence to 


supplant error and correct imperfect knowledge. If true 
teaching is once grasped and appropriated, the acceptance 
of formal doctrine will follow later on as naturally as the 
fruit succeeds the blossom. This is one great advantage 
of an essentially Biblical religion. Controversy as such 
would be out of place in the wards of a hospital. Ques- 
tions, however, will be asked, and the reader should be 
ready to deal cogently with them, and clearl}^ and firmly 
vindicate the truth as opportunity serves. Failure to 
do so means not only the loss of most precious oppor- 
tunities, but inflicts real damage on the cause of Christ, 
and strengthens those who differ from us, in their errors. 
It may safety be said that many a patient, even if he does 
not openly avow it, is in his own mind contrasting his 
faith with yours. How earnest and prayerful should we 
be to secure that, so far as it depends upon us, the verdict 
shall be the right one. 


L The Fall (Gen. i.). 

2. Jesus' nature and work (John 

i. 1-18). 

3. Birth of Jesus, and His glori- 

ous Titles (Matt. i. 1, 18-25). 

4. Annunciation ; Birth of Jesus 

(Lukei. 26-38; ii. 1-14). 

5-7. Law of the Kingdom : — 

5. Children of the Kingdom 

(Matt, v., selections). 

6. Our Heavenly Father (Matt. 

vi., selections). 

7. The right attitude (Matt. vii.). 

8-9. Entrance into the Kingdom : 

8. John Baptist's Mission ; Re- 

pentance (Luke iii. 1-22 ; 
Comp. Mark i. 14, 15). 

9. The New Birth (John iii. 1-17, 

with vers. 14, 15, comp. 
Num. xxi. 4-9). 
10. The Sower (Matt. xiii. 1-23 ; 
perhaps omit vers. 10-15). 


Alternative subjects : 

The Flood (Gen. vi. 1-12 ; vii.). 
John Baptist's Message to 

Jesus, etc. (Matt, xi., or 

The Great Supper (Luke xiv., 

or selections). 
The Son ; His dignity and 

condescension (Heb. i. and 

ii. 1-9 : Phil. ii. 3-11). 

5. Love of God in Christ (1 John 

i., and ii. 1-16, or, 1 John i. 
and iv. 7-21). 

6. Love (1 Cor. xii. 28— «nd of 

chap. xiii.). 

7. Justification by works ; faith 

and works (Rom. iii. 9-31 ; 
comp. Jer. xxxi. 31-34 (Heb. 
viii. 8-12) ; the new Coven- 

8. The Lamb of God (John i. 19 

— 51, or selections). 

9. Saved through Grace (Eph. 

i. 15 — chap. ii. 10). 

10. The Lord of the Vineyard 
(Matt. xxi. 33-46). 



11. The Great Assize (Matt. xxv. 


12. Marriage of the King's Son 

(Matt. xxii. 1-14). 

13. Lost and found — coin, sheep, 

son (Luke xv.). 

14. The Good Shepherd (John x. 

16. Bread of Life (John vi., selec- 
tions— 1-14, 22-40, 58-71). 

16. Repentance, Barren Fig- 

Tree, Strait Gate, etc. (Luke 
xiii. 1-9, 18-30). 

17. Call of four Apostles ; various 

cures (Mark i. 14-34, or 45). 

18. Cure of paralytic (Mark ii. 


19. Raising of Lazarus (John xi. 

1-46, orto ver. 53). 

20. Woman of Samaria (John iv. 

1-42 ; omit vers. 31-38 if too 

21. Cure of man born blind 

(John ix.). 

22. Zacchaeus (Luke xix. 1-10) ; 

or, The Feast in Simon's 
house (Luke vii. 36-50). 

23. The Comforter promised 

(John xiv. 15-18, 26 ; xvi. 
6-13; Luke xxiv. 49; Acts i. 

24. The Comforter given (Acts ii. 

1-40 ; or extracts). 

25. The Trial of Jesus (John xviii. 

28— xix. 16), The Sinless 
One, why did He suffer ? 

26. The Crucifixion (Matt, xxvii.). 

27. The Risen Lord. The Great 

Commission (Matt, xxviii. ; 
Mark xvi. 19, 20). 

28. The Ascension. The Living 

Prophet. The Intercessor. 
(Luke xxiv. 50-53 ; Acts i. 
3-11 ; Heb. i. 1-5). 

29. The Second Coming (Acts i. 

9-11 ; John xiv. 1-3 ; and, 
if time. Matt. xxv. 1-13). 

30. Salvation through the blood 

shed (Ex. xii. 1-32). 

31. The Day of Atonement (Lev. 

xvi. 1-22). 


1 1 . Dives and Lazarus (Luke xvi. 


12. Pharisee and Pubhcan, etc. 

(Luke xviii. 9-43). 

13. Christ's High -priestly Prayer 

(John xvii.). 

14. The Power of the Cross (1 Cor. 

i. 18— chap. ii. 10). 

15. Riches of God in Christ (Rom. 

viii. 31-39, and vers. 18-30 
if time). 

16. Phihppian Jailor (Acts xvi. 

11-34), or, Ethiopian Eun- 
uch (Acts viii. 26 39). 

17. Lame man cured (Acts iii. 1 — 

chap. iv. 12, or selections). 

18. Miracle at Bethesda (John v., 

or selections). 

19. Gerasene demoniac (Luke viii. 


20. Paul before Agrippa (Acts 


21. Sacrifice of Isaac (Gen. xxii» 


22. The Faith of Abraham (Rom. 

iv., or Gal. iii. 1-22, or to 29). 

23. Practical Precepts (Rom. xii.). 

24. Flesh and spirit (Rom. viii. 

1-17 ; Gal. v. 16-24). 

25. The Sin-bearer (Is. liii.), or 

The Christian's Rest (Heb. 

26. The Crucifixion (Luke xxiii.). 

27. The Risen Lord ; the Great 

Commission (Luke xxiv. ; 
if too long, omit vers. 13-35). 

28. Our Great High Priest (Heb. 

vii. 21-28 ; iv. 14-16). 

29. Signs of the Second Coming 

(Matt. xxiv. 29-51). 

30. The New Jerusalem (John 

xiv. 1-6 ; Rev. xx. 11 — xxL 
8, 22-27). 

31. The innumerable company of 

the Redeemed (Rev. vii.) ; 
or, Faith without works 
(Jas. ii. 14— iii. 13). 

W. A. Rice. 



Bj^ Rev. John Takle. 


The majority of the Mohammedans of Bengal to-day are suffering from 
certain inherited tendencies derived from their forbears. They 
manifest to a degree the IsmaeHtish spirit of the Arab, the fanaticism 
of the Afghan, and the ignorance and superstition of a sixteenth 
century Pod or Namasudra. Could there be a more troublesome 
trinity to deal with than that ? Is it surprising that many a missionary 
and most of our Indian workers will not face it at all ? They give it a 
wide berth, but with an ever-increasing mass of Mohammedans around 
us, we cannot shirk our responsibihty thus, rather we should try to 
find out what the people believe and what is the right angle of approach. 

The rehgious condition of the Mohammedans of Bengal is deplor- 
able. For this, the blame is not wholly with Mohammed, but with 
those glossographers who, since the days of the Prophet, have made 
Islam what it is. Mohammed and his utterances in the Koran may be 
understood and dealt with in a comparative study of reUgions, but the 
wild interminable waste of explanations given in the traditional books 
and commentaries makes the mastery of present-day popular Islam 
well-nigh impossible. And in Bengal, I imagine, Moslem traditionahsm 
has reached its utmost limit, for here the people have not only the 
Koran and standard works of tradition, but also Musalmani-Bengah 
books of distorted traditions, mixed with superstitions derived from 
Hindu sources. These books or puthis, as they call them, are written 
in the very worst form of ungrammatical doggerel. 

Now where is one to begin ? As in an attempt to unravel a tangled 
skein, we look for an end which will give us a good start, so in the tangle 
of popular Islam we look for something that will help us out, and we 
conclude that we cannot do better than begin with Sin and a Remedy y^ 
for after all that is essential in our message. We might attempt the 
untying of certain knots, such as the Moslem objections to the Divine 
Trinity, the Divine Sonship and the Atoning Sacrifice of our Lord, 
for they all form a part of the tangle, but we will apply ourselves to 
something which may be found more practical. 

Amiel says, " The best measure of the profundity of any religious 
doctrine is given by its conception of sin, and of the cure of sin." Let 
us then follow this subject through and see where it will lead us. 

Sin : Thoughtful interpreters of Islam have at times expressed the 
idea of man having been created in the image of God, and there is a 
tradition based on such authoritative traditionists as Moslem and 
Bukhari, that Mohammed himself was heard to say, " Verily God 

* Paper read at the Australasian BaDtist Convention, M;»mensing, December, 
1913, and used by permission of The Indian Witness. 


created Adam in His own image."* There are passages in the Koran, 
too, which may be explained along the same line, but such an erect 
birthright is not admitted in popular Islam. Knowing man as he is, 
such an admission would force the conclusion that there has been a 
moral fall, which the average Mohammedan knows nothing about. 
Solomon says, " God made man upright " (Eccl. vii. 29). " No ! " says 
the ordinary Bengal maulvie, " God made man grovelling." 

That man has fallen from his original erectness, and, therefore, that 
sin is a subversion of our true being, is fundamental in our faith : it 
is not so with the Moslem. He believes man was created weak and 
prone to sin, and he finds endorsement in the Koran, where it says, 
*' Man is truly by creation hasty " (Ixx. 19), and " God desireth to 
make your burden light : for man hath been created weak " (iv. 32). 
Dr. St. Clair Tisdall interprets that word " weak " to mean " sensual. "t 
We also read in the Koran that God " breathed into it (the soul) its 
wickedness and its piety " (xci. 8). Surely teaching like this ranks 
with Pantheism in its tendency to weaken man's sense of moral 
responsibility, for if a man believes he was made a weak, hasty, grovel- 
ling creature, he can easily excuse himself if he remains weak. 

With such a conception of man's creation and character, we are not 
surprised that the fall of Adam is not regarded as a moral, but a 
physical fall. The emphasis in the story of Eden is placed on the idea 
of a fall from, not in Paradise. That beautiful garden is supposed to 
have been situated above in heaven, and Adam is said to have fallen 
to earth and landed on Adam's peak in Ceylon, while Eve alighted at 
a place near Jiddah, where her tomb is still shown, 173 yards long by 
twelve feet broad. Adam is said to have been distressed, not because 
he had lost communion with his Maker, but because he would hear no 
more the sweet singing of the angels. In all this there is no sign of 
repentance as we know repentance ; there is only regret. True, it is 
taught that Adam and Eve were the original parents of all men, and 
that they ate of the forbidden fruit, but that we all have derived from 
them a tendency to evil, Islam has no teaching. In fact, Adam's act 
of disobedience was a mere error and nothing more, although he is 
represented as having cried over his offence for tw^o hundred years. 

How very difficult it is, then, to make Mohammedans understand 
the vital need for a change of heart and mind, and eradication of that 
sinful nature which, we believe, has come down to us as an inherited 
tendency from our first parents. That this tendency has corrupted 
the centre point of man's moral activity, which we sum up in the one 
word ' heart,' is evident all through the Scriptures, and it is the ' new 
heart ' and the ' clean heart ' and the ' right spirit ' which sincere men 
in all ages have desired, for with the Apostle Paul they were conscious 
that in the *' flesh dwelleth no good thing " (Rom. vii. 18). 

Tile Ahmadiya sect of Qadian argue that man is born into the world 
sinless, and it is the evil contact with the world and the temptation of 
Satan that spoil the freshness of the innocent soul and give to it a 
sinful tendency, but popular Islam dwells on the weakness of man's 

Then what is sin according to the average Mohammedan ? It is 
transgression of the law of Islam. It is a breach of covenant, a non- 
observance or improper observance of the commands given in the 

* Mishkat-ul-Masabih. 

t Dr. St. Clair Tisdall : The Religion of the Crescent, p. 83. 


Koran. Often Mohammedans say that they do not know what sin is, 
because knowingly they never transgress against any command of the 
Prophet, yet those same men are adepts at lying and deception. 
Transgression with them is not considered from a moral standpoint. 
Conscience and character, as we know them, are excluded. The legal 
code is the Moslem's conscience, and character is shaped along stereo- 
tjrped lines by mechanical means. There is no need to examine the 
conscience as to whether a thing is right or wrong, the commands are 
clear, they must be followed blindly. The thought, word and attitude, 
also, are excluded. Everything goes well so long as the Moslem obeys 
to the letter the injunctions given. Ritual status is everything, 
character and intention or motive are nothing. 

Let me illustrate the evil tendency of this doctrine. In Bengal 
it is possible for all the men in some village to have deeply seditious 
ideas and inclinations, but Government is not actively concerned about 
what men think, therefore so long as they do not come under the law 
by committing some offence against it, they are clear of guilt. So Allah, 
according to popular Islam, is not actively concerned about the cor- 
rupted springs of our being ; his concern becomes manifest and real 
when men fail to keep the arbitrary laws which he has given. 

Educated Mohammedans will combat this position of ours by 
quoting the text of the Koran, which says, " They were on that day 
nearer to unbelief than they were to faith ; they spake with their 
mouths what was not in their hearts," and other passages which appear 
to show that " Obedience without that inner submission of the heart 
is not righteousness, but sinful hypocrisy ! " Undoubtedly, there is in 
the Koran a demand for a moral attitude of soul, but that does not affect 
in the least our contention that in popular Islam in Bengal ceremonial- 
ism is everything. 

On the supposition that man was created weak, we are not surprised 
that the Mohammedans believe that certain sins will surely be over- 
looked and condoned. Their theory is that sins are graded. With us 
some sins are more heinous than others, but with the Moslem the 
gradation is made in such a way as to impugn the holy character of 
God. We read in the Koran, "If ye avoid the great sins (Kabira) 
which ye are forbidden, we will blot out your faults (Saghira), and 
we Avill cause you to enter Paradise with honourable entry " (iv. 32). 
It is generally allowed that there are seven great sins, the first being 
idolatry, which includes the rejection of the Divine Unity ; then come 
murder, the false charge of adultery against virtuous women, wasting 
the substance of orphans, usury, desertion in time of religious war 
and disobedience to parents. So long as a Moslem avoids all these that 
" are forbidden," it is practically all right with him. Then we may 
well ask about all those things not covered by this list, as, for instance, 
lust, deception, lying, etc., and conclude that these belong to the 
smaller faults which God is said to " blot out." Such an idea is 
repulsive. It is blasphemy. It misrepresents God. It degrades His 
character as holiness. 

Sin with the Moslem, then, cannot be very deep. We have all heard 
of things being only skin-deep. With most Moslems sin does not go 
even that far. I think I am correct in saying that most Moslems view 
sin as an external pollution which may be removed by ablutions of 
water or sand. Mohammed himself was not free from this idea, for 
he said, " He sent down upon you water from heaven that He might 
thereby cleanse you and cause the pollution of Satan to pass from 


you " (viii. 11) ; and in talking with the ordinary Moslem in the bazaar, 
I have found him quite unable to disprove the statement that his idea 
of sin-cleansing is identical with that of the Hindu bathing in the 
Ganges. Study the ritual a Mohammedan has to repeat when per- 
forming Wadu (ablutions), and this opinion will be endorsed, for there 
it is clear that the body must be so cleansed in every part that when it 
arrives at the gates of Paradise, it will appear as though adorned with 

Our great work as missionaries to these people is, first of all, to 
awaken the conscience to see sin aright. While sin is transgression of 
law, it is the result of a perverted freedom of will and defiant attitude 
of mind. And this may be illustrated from the Koran, which makes 
it clear that sin in many cases was the result of a corrupt attitude of 
mind. Mohammed often denounced (a) the proud, (6) the disobedient, 
and (c) the hypocrite. 

Take the story of Eblis, alias Satan ; we have clear proof that his 
fall was the result of a defiant attitude of mind. He refused to obey 
God " and swelled with pride, and became one of the unbelievers " 
(ii. 32 ; xxxviii. 71-77). In like manner it may be shown that Adam 
was cast out of the. garden through disobedience. The Koran says, 
" Adam ! dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise, and eat ye whence ye 
will, but to this tree approach not lest ye become of the unjust doers ! " 
(Al Araf 18). But Adam and Eve " ate thereof, and Adam disobeyed 
his Lord and went astray " (Ta Ha 119). We read of others who went 
astray in the same way. " We sent Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and 
his nobles with signs ; but they acted proudly and were a wicked 
people " (x. 76). Again, " Pharaoh . . . committed sin and disobeyed 
the sent one of their Lord " (Ixix. 9, 10). The Koran says that hypo- 
crites are people with " diseased hearts " (xxxiii. 12), and they deceive 
themselves (ii. 8, 9). Now when pride, disobedience and hypocrisy are 
mentioned so often in the Koran as the great cause of sin and wicked- 
ness in certain individuals — and nearly every Moslem is acquainted with 
these stories — it is for us to bring home to them with all the power we 
can command, the fact that sin is not outward pollution, nor has it its 
origin in God, but in a perverted self which has shewn defiance to God. 

Remedy : After what has been said about the popular Moslem 
idea of sin, we may conclude that there is nothing very definite in Islam 
that corresponds with the Christian idea of Salvation. We may indeed 
ask, where is the need of Salvation, for if man was created weak, surely 
the Creator can make no demand for restitution, and He can do no 
other than " blot out " man's average sins. So far as we understand 
it, the idea of a remedy comes in only when a man fails in his duty to 
obey the commands, for if he has performed the religious duties 
scrupulously, and abstained from committing the forbidden sins, there 
is absolutely no need for the word " Salvation " to appear in his 
vocabulary at all. As a matter of fact, we have found the most 
appalling ignorance concerning the significance of the word " najat," 
which term is generally used to express our idea of Salvation from sin. 

I used to think that the five important duties of Islam were looked 
upon by Mohammedans as the means of deliverance. In a sense they 
are, but they should be ra^ther viewed, I think, as a kind of tax which 
the Creator demands of His creatures. As a Sultan demands of his 
subjects a tax for the right of living in his state, so God demands of 
man a tax for the right of living at all, and it is exacted to the very last 
farthing. And there is a hint of this in the Koran, where we read. 


" We {i.e., God) proposed the faith (of Islam) unto the heavens and the 
earth and the mountains, and they refused to undertake the same and 
were afraid thereof, but man undertook it ; verily he was unjust (to 
himself) and fooHsh " (xxiii. 22). Whether we view these duties as a 
tax or not, one thing is sure, they have become a stringent law, and, 
therefore, the New Testament arguments against the Jewish Law 
apply equally to the Moslem. 

The Apostle Paul has been found fault with by certain Christian 
theologians because he used arguments against the Jewish Law which 
have but very little use for the Christian Church to-day ; but, in our 
opinion, if those same theologians had to work amongst the Moslems 
that we have to do with, they would find that Paul's masterly argu- 
ments against the Law are far from obsolete. In fact, there is no 
wTiter in the New Testament whom Mohammedans object to more 
than the Apostle Paul. 

Paul attacks the whole legal system as inadequate to meet the needs 
of the soul. The heart of man craves love and fellowship with God, 
but law can give it only a harsh, unbending despotic bondage. The 
soul of man needs strength, but a system of commands and prohibitions 
fails in that it gives no power to act in accordance therewith. Further, 
man has a powerful tendency within, which prevents him from acting 
up to any given law, even when he has a wish so to do. In fact, the 
commandments and prohibitions excite to disobedience, so perverse is 
the nature within us. When this is the position of the Apostle, we can 
well imagine how Mohammedans do not favour his writings. They 
keenly resent his application of the teachings of Christ to the inadequacy 
of the Law to meet the needs of the soul. His conclusions are too 
conclusive. He shows that the system, even with the support of its 
rewards and punishments, proves no remedy for the distress of man. 
Further, man can get no proof from such a system that he has God's 
approving sentence as having attained righteousness. 

The law of Islam has brought instead of peace an awful dread of 
punishment, instead of love a terrible fear. 

It may be asked here, " Is there nothing in popular Islam corres- 
ponding to Faith in the Christian sense which involves the action of 
the mind, heart and will ? " That there is faith we must admit, but 
only in the sense of blind assent to certain ideas and doctrines, taught 
in the Koran and traditional books. Their word " Iman," as used in 
Bengal, is not the same as om: faith or trust. It rather covers dogged 
assent to such ideas as the Unity of God, the existence of angels, the 
coming of prophets with revelations, the resurrection of the body, 
heaven and hell, rewards and punishments. They give assent to these 
ideas in much the same way as they assent to the fact that Akbar was 
once Emperor of India. Of course, there are degrees of assent. I 
suppose their strongest faith is in such matters as the sin of eating 
pork, which, from our knowledge of popular practice, must be a far 
greater sin than those of stealing, lying and deception. Their ideas of 
all the doctrines and laws of Islam are so wrapped round in the wildest 
extravagances, as, for instance, the size of the angels, and the size of 
the trumpet that will be sounded on the resurrection morn, that it is 
impossible to compare their faith with the beautiful, rich, character- 
forming ideas in our conception of Faith. 

In this matter of faith, too, we cannot do better than follow the 
lead of the Apostle Paul. The key word of all his gospel to the 
Judaizers was this, " No man is justified by the Law in the sight of 


Grod ... for the just shall live by faith " (Gal. iii. 11 ; cf. Rom. i. 17), 
His favourite illustration was Abraham, who held communion with God 
not on a legal footing but on the ground of a graciously-accorded 
friendship. Mohammed claimed that Islam had its roots in the 
rehgion of Abraham whom he himself called Khalilvllah (the Friend of 
God), but it is evident that Islam is more alhed to the Mosaic period, 
which was but " a parenthesis " in the dealing of God with the children 
of Israel. 

Now it is evident that, so far, there is no remedy for sin — that is, 
as we understand a remedy. But press the matter back far enough 
and we will find a line of approach, for nearly all Moslems have found 
a remedy in a certain perverted idea of God's mercy and favour in that 
He is supposed to have given Mohammed the power to intercede at 
the last, for all who will be able to recite accurately the words, " There 
is no God but God, Mohammed is the Apostle of God." And I think 
we do well to emphasise the point that but for the favour of God, man's 
case is absolutely hopeless. Come to close grips wdth the Moslem and 
he must agree with us. He knows what a strenuous effort is required 
to keep faithfully all that is expected of him. He knows, too, what 
fearful punishment awaits him who fails in his religious duties. He 
beheves that for the neglect of but one of the five daily prayers, he 
will be punished for eighty hakbas in hell. It takes eighty years to 
cover the period of one hakba, then 6,400 years will be the punishment 
for the neglect of one prayer. Surely with such punishments awaiting 
him, the Moslem must conclude that the only hope can be in the favour 
of God. Test this, and I think you will find that most Mohammedans 
will agree, and in the intercession of the Prophet that grace is found. 
This gives them a measure of assurance of a glorious entry into the 
realms of the blest. They throw all their hope and care and all their 
future on Mohammed and what he can do for them on the judgment day. 
In the Koran it is evident that a man's eternal destiny depends on his 
own works of merit, but according to the majority of Moslems to-day 
the last hope of humanity is in the intercession of Mohammed. 

Now, it must be concluded that if Mohammed is regarded as the 
final Saviour of men, there must be something in him that, MusUms 
consider, entitles him to that exalted position. What is it ? We fail 
to find it in the Koran. There he is shown up as he really was — a poor, 
fickle, erring creature, who claimed no superhuman title or power. 
There he himself states that intercession would not avail for anyone, 
but tradition has so exalted the Prophet that no one can now recognise 
him as being the same person with his many miracles and mediating 

The thing about the traditional Mohammed, which, perhaps, 
impresses the average Moslem most, is the account of his supposed 
pre -existence, and they are never tired of talking of Nur-i-Muhammadi, 
in other words, " The Light of Muhammad." This Ught is said to have 
pre-existed almost in the same sense that the Logos pre-existed. It 
was light from the Eternal Light. It was created thousands of years 
before God created the heavens and the earth and all that is therein. 
God is supposed to have trained this light in holiness. Then from the 
breath (some say perspiration) 'of this light, which took on the nature 
of love, God created the spirits of the prophets and saints and martyrs, 
angels and believers. From portions of the light he also created the 
Tablet, on which the decrees of destiny are written, and the Pen which 
wrote them, and also the heavens and the earth. Last of all, from 


another portion carefully preserved for the purpose, came the Prophet 
himself. The traditions put in the mouth of Allah the words, " Had 
it not been for thee (Mohammed) I had not created the worlds." There- 
fore, it is the firm behef of the Mohammedans that the councils of 
eternity in the Divine Mind were on Mohammed . The Prophet, him- 
self, according to Tradition, is supposed to have said, " I was a Prophet 
when Adam was still between clay and water," that is, when Adam was 
not yet formed. Thus his Prophet-ship moved back before creation. 

In one of the native biographies we find the story of the Nur of 
Mohammed given as follows : — 

" The light of Mohammed is the origin of all existing things, and the 
essence of everything that hath a being ; because that when it pleased 
the great Creator to manifest His glory, He first of all created the fight 
of Mohammed from the light of His own Unity ; and from the light of 
Mohammed produced every existent being. Now this glorious 
personage was made the last of the prophets, solely on this account 
that, as the rising sun chaseth away the splendours of the moon and 
stars, so doth the glory of the rehgion of Mohammed supersede all other 
religions ; so that if that pre-existed light had displayed its briUiancy 
from the first, then would all other prophets have shrunk into 
obscurity, and been shorn of their apostoKc dignity."* 

This light is said to have beamed from the forehead of Adam and 
descended from generation to generation, through a favoured chain, 
until it shone at last in the parents of the Prophet. But higher 
criticism will ask how such an apostolic succession was possible in the 
Prophet's ancestors when he himself regarded them as pagans who had 
gone to hell. It might also be asked : If Mohammed was light of 
light, what of his moral character ? 

Where did the Mohammedans get this doctrine which is so much 
akin to the teaching of St. John's Prologue concerning '* the light which 
hghteth every man coming into the world ? " Professor Macdonald 
says, " One of the striking characteristics of Islam is its readiness to 
pick up odds and ends of doctrine from the outside, non-Moslem world. 
These are then adapted, made over more or less into Moslem form, yet 
still leaving it perfectly plain that they have been thus promiscuously 
gathered up." 

Now in regard to this light of Mohammed, scholars trace its origin 
to Zoroastrian and other sources, but it seems to me that St. John's 
Prologue played no small part in its being foisted upon the Moslem 
world, which was feeling the totally inadequate conception of Moham- 
med when compared with the New Testament facts concerning Christ. 
For centuries, traditions, real and spurious, were used in building 
up a superhuman conception of Mohammed, and nothing is more 
likely than this that such echoes of the Arian controversy as " Light 
of Light," and " Without Him was not anything made that was made," 
were still reverberating through the eastern churches and passed on to 
the outside world. With the Moslem it was but a step from the fight 
of the Logos to the light of the Divine Unity. 

But here notice, the Moslem conception is entirely Arian. The 
Moslems could never go so far as we do, and say that the fight was the 
eternal, uncreated Word of God, who was " with God and was God." 
It would appear that they took refuge in the explanations of Arianism, 
which were well-known in South Europe and adjacent countries for 

* Maulud Sharif (The ennobled Nativity) quoted by Sir W. Muir, iu 
** Mohammedan Controversy," p. 77. 


centuries after the Council of Nicea. " Arius propounded the bald 
doctrine that Christ is a created being — the first of creatures, to be 
sure, and the being by whom all other creaturely beings are made. 
He was not created in time since time began with creation ; yet " once 
he was not.' " Now that is exactly the position of the Mohammedans 
concerning the light of Mohammed. 

In meeting this teaching we must remember that Christ, the Word 
of God, was '* the first-born of every creature." This is Scriptural, but 
not in the Arian sense, and so the light of Mohammed and the light of 
the Logos are as far divided as are the finite from the infinite, for the 
one was created, while the other was the eternal, uncreated Son of God. 

I have dealt rather fully mth this popular conception of the 
Prophet, for I believe with Koelle when he says, " It is this unhistorical 
and mythical Mohammed who stays the hearts of the people and keeps 
them from recognizing in Christ, the true Saviour of men " ; and I feel 
that we all should welcome and even encourage any movement in Islam 
which preaches " away with traditionahsm and back to the Koran," 
for it is the Koran that must eventually reveal the real Mohammed and 
expose the false. 

But although Mohammed is supposed to have had such a glorious 
past and will take a pre-eminent place in the future, we find that most 
Mohammedans are silently hopeless and helpless concerning his present. 
It is a part of their creed that the Prophet is lying buried in a corner 
of the mosque of Medina, and will be the first to rise from the tomb 
when the trumpet is sounded, against which belief we can ever tell of a 
hving, ascended and glorified Christ, who is interceding for, and thus 
helping us now when we so much need help and strength. 

Not long ago some followers of the late Qadiana Madhi cum Messiah 
came to my station to preach the tenets of their new sect, and they 
maintained that the orthodox Moslems were fools in saying that Christ 
was alive and would come again. " Carry that idea out to its logical 
conclusion," said they, " then where is the need for Mohammed and 
Islam ? The prophet has to take a subordinate place, but prove that 
Christ is dead and buried and you can show his grave, and the Christian 
faith is doomed." But it is too late in the day to attempt such proof. 
Historical criticism has been satisfied on this score, and controversy 
has been silenced long ago, and, thank God, missionary testimony rings 
true to-day concerning the risen, ascended and glorified Intercessor, 
who is the Head and Life of the missionary crusade of the Church, 
which is His Body. 

If we look into the popular Mohammedan views of future events, 
our Lord Jesus Christ stands out as one of exceptional power. It is not 
Mohammed who is to come and kill Dajjal (the Anti -Christ) who is 
going to do such damage in the world, but Christ, and to-day there is an 
intense spirit of expectancy abroad amongst the Moslems of Bengal, 
probably increased by the recent embroilment of Turkey, for they, 
too, have the belief that " wars and rumours of wars " will be the sign 
of the Saviour's advent. For a verj^ long time now we have been 
hearing of the coming of the Imam Madhi, but many Moslems now 
think that Christ will be the embodiment of both the promised redeem- 
ers of Islam. 

It seems to me that the missionary approach to Moslems in the 
future will take more into consideration the fact that men are not 
satisfied, and so are trying to find satisfaction in different heresies, 
which heresies come nearer to Christian truth than Islam itself. Let 


me illustrate : In regard to Faith, which means more than mere assent, 
we have in Eastern Bengal a form of belief which involves the action 
of mind, heart and will in a crude form of Sufiism, or more correctly 
Faqirism, which system of belief is becoming more and more common 
amongst even the ordinary householders. 

A Moslem student of the Azhar University, Cairo, trained in Moslem 
jurisprudence, was asked why he had joined a Darwesh sect. He 
replied, " Because the Shari'ah is only a matter of formal duties 
and head knowledge, whereas in the teaching of the Sufis there is 
something to satisfy the heart." Ask the Roman Catholic mystics 
what turned their minds to mysticism, and they will reply that the 
heart cannot be satisfied with traditions and external ceremonies. To 
use the Sufi figure : it is a yearning for the soul's beloved ; it is a 
longing for heart to heart intercourse that we want. It is a loving 
relationship, an intimacy, an experience that we understand to be 
necessary for the soul's growth. And the bent of many a Moslem's 
mind to-day is in that direction, and for this reason thousands are now 
professing to follow the Pirs and Faqirs, who know something of this 

One of the most popular of the Musalmani-Bengali puthis is Dd 
Daoana, which deals with the union of the soul with God. It has 
many ideas drawn from the Hindu Yoga philosophy, and advocates 
certain Yoga practices. Here is a quotation, " Keeping the eyes with 
an intent upward gaze, and the whole soul concentrated upon the name 
of Allah, the mind gradually becomes insensible to things around, 
and all sense of the presence of the body is lost. Then the Spirit will 
<iome and meet with man because he now knows his soul and forgets 
himself. Even his hands, feet, mouth, and eyes will be as if they were 
not, for he will be so completely absorbed in the Spirit, and there will 
be no essential difference between his spirit and the Divine Spirit." 
It is this sense of union with God and experience of the Divine Love 
which send these people into ecstacies and the emotions out of bounds. 
Unfortunately, their illustrations of love and union are as improper 
as are the Hindu illustrations of Bhakti drawn from the story of 
Radha-Krishna, and their ecstacies are often brought on by the use of 
narcotics ; but this apart, there is no doubt that many are now 
influenced by this teaching because they feel that there is need for 
communion, fellowship and heart-faith. 

Some of the sentiments in their songs are well-worth repeating. 
Often they sing these words with tears streaming down their faces : 

" He who does not possess the Love of God 
May be virtuous, but he has not firm faith." 

And again : 

* ' Bring a knife and rend my heart 

That you may see, O God, the depth of love 

I have for Thee." 

Surely this mystical conception, which is growing apace, should give 
us a point of contact with those who would get at the heart of things. 
The mission. ory, above all people, sliould have entered into such a deep 
spiritual experience himself that he can speak definitely of a very real 
knowledge of union with Christ and His Father. With us all the 
likeness should be going on to that perfection which will enable us to 
say that the lover and the Beloved are one. It is sin that separates 
the lover from the Beloved, and thus prevents perfect union. 


I repeat, this mystical teaching means much to the lower class 
Moslems in Bengal to-day. As the Namasudras are fervently inchned 
to Bhakti, so the average low-class Moslem will turn to a mystical 
conception of intercourse with God. 

Summary : We have considered the Moslem's popular idea of sin, 
and conclude that it is altogether unreasonable, since it practically 
throws back all the blame on the Creator. But the human heart will 
at times come to itself in spite of wrong ideas, and admit that "it is 
deceitful above all things, and desperately sick " (Jer. xvii. 9) ; there- 
fore, the difficulty of finding an adequate remedy is felt. The law of 
commands and prohibitions does not bring satisfaction, and the 
transgressions of the law involve such terrible punishment that men 
are obhged to cast themselves upon either the hopeless doctrine of fate 
or the hopeful favour of a merciful God. The popular idea is, that 
Allah has shown such favour by allowing Mohammed to intercede for 
the Faithful on the Day of Doom. But this remedy will appear most 
unUkely to any thoughtful person since the idea of intercession is 
that of an earthly, judicial-like proceeding, where the pleader buys 
off his chent with legal words and phrases, or hke a favourite of the 
Sultan's court who can talk over his master on behalf of his friends. 
There is nothing of Divine Holiness or Justice in the idea. Further, 
the Moslem idea of intercession must appear impossible, since the most 
accurate record of Islam, the Koran, proves from Mohammed's own 
hps, that he was a mere warner, a sinner, and that no soul could become 
surety for another soul. 

It is for us to show, then, that the unmerited favour of God was 
revealed in the person of the sinless, wonder-working Intercessor, 
Christ, Who claimed to be the Eternal Son of God and Saviour of the 
world, and Who, to meet the demands of Divine Justice, died in our 
stead. To show that the idea of substitution is not altogether foreign 
to Islam, we can relate the well-known stories of Abraham offering 
up his son ; the death of Hossein at Karbala, which is to-day looked 
upon by millions of Moslems as having been an atonement for the sins 
of the Moslem world ; and of the domestic rite of Aqiqah, by which 
the life of an animal is offered in sacrifice for the hfe of a young child.. 
*' bone for bone, skin for skin, hfe for Ufa, blood for blood." 







Have you ever seen them ? They are a particularly 
lovely stalagmite, found in quantities in the desert sand. 
Very fascinating they are sometimes, especially the tiny 
ones of a pinkish fawn. But, beautiful as they are in 
form and colouring, it is needless to say they only give 
a blurred suggestion of a flower, and a world of difference 
lies between them and the dewy fragrance of a real rose. 

This morning we sat in the skiff a (vestibule) opposite 
two or three desert roses, but human ones this time. 

Such a blaze of colour they made against the white 
walls. It suggested a gorgeous flower-bed. 

One of them was a wee spoilt lady of four, wrapped 
in a length of dainty white stuff that was fastened on 
her shoulders by big silver ornaments. A handkerchief 
of cloth of gold with brilliant stripes covered the small 
shaved head and framed the rosy face. Heavy bracelets 
decorated the bare brown arms, and her huge ear-rings 
had to be supported by a scarlet cord passed over her 
head lest they should tear the tiny ears. Her brilliant 
red leather heelless slippers were edged with brightest 
green that matched her girdle and the veil her negro 
attendant held for her. And the little creature gleamed 
and sparkled more than ever a northern baby could. 
Beside her, a sharp contrast, sat a little negress, a relation 
of her black nurse, and very poor. But she made even 
a bigger splash of colour with her veil of crudest orange 
over indigo blue draperies. 

The gaunt old negress herself was a picture in the 
same dull blue with a touch of rich cloudy crimson on 
her head. 

Flowers of the desert clad in richest hues, bewitching 
to watch, but, alas ! very few minutes sufficed to reveal 


the emptiness of heart, the ugly glaring faults. No dewy 
freshness here of baby souls fresh from God, no ' trailing 
clouds of glory." One's heart ached to think of the 
upbringing these daughters of Islam get in their Christless 
homes. No strong yet loving Saviour for them, no 
prayer for pardon and cleansing after childish naughti- 
ness. Just day after day in an atmosphere that, at its 
best, is empty of all that makes life most worth living, 
and, at its worst, may not be described to European 
ears ! 

" And the desert shall blossom as the rose " is the 
promise, but roses need cultivating. May the Great 
Master Gardener reveal to each one of us what share He 
would have us take in this. 


The simoon was blowing hotly off the desert, bringing 
sand and grit everywhere, till mouth and eyes seemed full 
of it. Burning airlessness filled the court below. From 
the roof one saw sand-coloured houses silhouetted against 
a sky of lead. 

Suddenly a weird chant was heard, its beat marked by 
heavy thuds. Walking over whitewashed roofs I peered 
down into the neighbour's court from which the sounds 
came, for curiosity overbore my good manners, and I 
thought to see a new game. 

But below me, framed in the fawn-coloured walls, 
was a dull blue group of some twenty women and girls. 
Up and down the wild things jerked u